Turkish military intervention in Syria

Turkish military intervention in Syria (Euphrates Shield Operation)
Part of the Syrian Civil War, the military intervention against ISIL, the Turkey–ISIL conflict, the Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War and the Rojava conflict

Map of situation in Aleppo Governorate as of 25 November.
Date24 August 2016 – present
(3 months, 1 week and 5 days)
LocationSyria-Turkey border, northern Aleppo Governorate
ActionWith Turkish lead, Turkey-backed Syrian rebels to secure control of Turkey-Syria border and west of the Euphrates River


  • Clashes erupt between Turkish-backed FSA and SDF, YPG withdraws to east of Euphrates[1] though Turkey disputes this[2]
  • As of 24 October, 7,541 refugees returned to areas controlled by rebel forces from Turkey's Gaziantep province alone and population of Jarablus increased by 25,000, currently exceeding 30,000.[3][4][5]
  • As of 25 October, SDF repels a number of rebel assaults on its Tel Rifaat frontline.[6]
  • As of 14 November, Turkish-backed Syrian rebels captured a total of 1,620 square kilometres (630 sq mi),[7] including 217 settlements[8]
  • ISIL-held territory along the Turkish-Syrian border completely captured by the Turkish-backed rebels[9]
  • Turkish-backed rebels capture all villages from the SDF in the Jarabulus area[10]
  • SDF captures two villages from the rebels in the Tal Rifaat area[11]
  • As of 23 November, rebels capture 4 villages from the SDF in the Manbij area[12]

 Syrian opposition[13]


 United States[14]
(only against ISIL, but not against SDF and until 16 November 2016)[15][16]
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Syrian Democratic Forces[17]
International Freedom Battalion[18]


 United States[19]
(only against ISIL, but not against Turkey)
Syrian Arab Republic[20] (only in the Tel Rifaat area, not in the Manbij area; opposition claim)
(only against rebels, but not against Turkey, rebel claim)
Commanders and leaders
Turkey Lt. Gen. Zekai Aksakallı[22]
(Operations chief commander)
Turkey Lt. Gen. İsmail Metin Temel[23][24]
(Second Army commander)
Syrian opposition Col. Ahmed Othman[25]
(Sultan Murad Division commander)
Syrian opposition Fehim İsa[26]
(Sultan Murad Division commander)
Syrian opposition Ali Şeyh Salih[27] (DOW)[28]
(Sultan Murad Division field commander)
Syrian opposition Süleyman Reşit[29] 
(Sultan Murad Division field commander)
Syrian oppositionKemal Ömer Tilki [30]
(Sultan Murad Division field commander)
Syrian opposition Muhammad al-Gabi (DOW)[31][32]
(Liberation Army commander)
Syrian opposition Mohammad Abu Ibrahim[33]
(Levant Front field commander)
Syrian opposition Mustafa Sejari[33]
(Al-Moutasem Brigade political leader)
Syrian opposition Abu Mohammed Kafr Zita[19]
(Liberation Brigade commander)
Syrian opposition Abdel Karim Alyato[34] 
(13th Division commander)
Mahmoud Abu Hamza[35]
(Descendants of Saladin Brigade commander)
Radwan Ibrahim  [36]
(Descendants of Saladin Brigade commander)
Capt. Abdel Salam Abdel Razaq[35] (Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement commander)
Capt. Mohammed Abu Mustafa[32]
(Sham Legion commander)
Abu Jafer[37]
(Brigade of Conquest commander)
Syrian opposition Ahmad Kheiriye[38] 
(Northern Hawks Brigade field commander)
Syrian opposition Abu Bahjat[39]
(Artillery base commander of Levant Front)
Syrian opposition Yusuf Sibli
(Qabasin Military Council commander)

Syrian opposition Muhammad Ahmed[40]
(Jarabulus Military Council commander)

Adnan Abu Amjad[41] (Manbij Military Council commander)
Units involved

Turkish Armed Forces

Syrian opposition Hawar Kilis Operations Room

Syrian opposition Akhtarin Military Council[55]
(from 3 September 2016) Syrian opposition Qabasin Military Council
(from 8 November 2016)
Syrian opposition Free Idlib Army[56]

Ahrar al-Sharqiya[59]
(until 16 September in al-Rai; from 10 October in Mare')
Syrian opposition Liberation Army[60]
Syrian opposition Liberation Brigade
(Leader and 50 defectors, rest still in the SDF)[19]
Syrian opposition First Division of Aleppo[61]
Syrian opposition al-Rahman Legion[62]
Brigade of Conquest[63]
Syrian opposition Syria Revolutionaries Front remnants[64]

Other Syrian rebels:
Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement[65]
Ahrar al-Sham[65]
Army of Sunna

United States United States Armed Forces

Military of ISIL

Manbij Military Council

Jarabulus Military Council[40]

Bob Crow Brigade[18]

United States United States Armed Forces

Allegedly Support:
Syrian Army

Russian Armed Forces


 Syrian opposition: "Hundreds" to 5,000[42][69]

Turkey 500 troops[70][71]

United States 40 SOFs[73][74]
50 soldiers for HIMARS systems in Turkey[75]
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses

Rebels: 282–321 killed[76]

Turkish Armed Forces: 18 killed, 2 captured or missing, 9–11 tanks destroyed or damaged[77][78][79]
713+ killed,[80][81][82][83]
370+ surrendered[37] (Turkish claim)

94+ killed, 8 captured (SOHR and SDF claims)[84]
209-249 killed, 11 captured (Turkish claim)[85]

350+ killed, 11 captured (FSA claim)[86]
102+ civilians killed (SOHR and SDF)[87][88]

The Turkish military intervention in Syria, code-named by Turkey as Operation Euphrates Shield (Turkish: Fırat Kalkanı Harekâtı), is an ongoing cross-border operation by the Turkish military and allied groups in the Syrian Civil War. Operations are ongoing in the region between the Euphrates river to the east and the rebel-held area around Azaz to the west. The Turkish military and Turkey-backed Syrian rebel groups, some of which use the Free Syrian Army label, have been fighting against forces of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as well as against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) since 24 August 2016.


Northern Aleppo Governorate is a region considered of major strategic importance in the Syrian civil war, previously mostly held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). For ISIL it is the only remaining gate to an international border. For the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), the Shahba region between the Euphrates river to the east and the Kurd Mountains to the west is the missing link to connect the cantons of the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava. For Turkey it is the path to its influence in Syria, while also viewing both ISIL and the People's Protection Units (YPG), a major component of the SDF, as ″terror groups that threaten our country in northern Syria″.[89][90] The stage for the Jarabulus offensive was set by the previous Manbij offensive from June to August which saw the SDF capturing the city of Manbij and its surroundings from ISIL and in the aftermath moving north. At the same time, Turkey-backed Syrian rebels fought the Battle of al-Rai to approach Jarabulus from the west.

According to an article published in The Independent, the Turkish objectives are to target ISIS, strike at the political and military power of the Democratic Union Party (PYD) and to consolidate it's position in expectation of shifts towards more war or greater peace.[91] Turkey′s defence minister Fikri Işık said that "preventing the Kurdish PYD party from uniting Kurdish cantons" east of Jarabulus with those further west was a priority.[92] In Ankara Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said "at 4am this morning, operations started in the north of Syria against terror groups which constantly threaten our country".[93] With the goals of the operation to secure Turkey's border by removing ISIL and halting the Kurdish YPG westward advance.[94][95]

Before the operation, SDF forces including YPG units were advancing on Jarabulus following their military victory over IS in Manbij.[96] Both Manbij and Jarabulus are west of the Euphrates river, but Turkey wanted YPG forces to move back to the east of the river after the conclusion of the SDF's Manbij operation.[97]

Turkey′s action pitched its military against a force backed by the U.S.[97][98] Also, it was the first time Turkish warplanes struck in Syria since November 2015, when Turkey downed a Russian warplane, and the first significant incursion by Turkish special forces since a brief operation to relocate the tomb of Suleyman Shah, in February 2015.[97]

It is alleged that Turkey had an agreement with ISIS to rescue it in Jarabulus from the "PYD offensive".[99] According to Hürriyet Daily News, the allegation is believed by many in Washington and Turkey and this could pose serious problems for Ankara.[100]


Turkmen majority areas in north Aleppo countryside. Syrian Turkmen are a claimed national and security interest of Turkey.[101]

Reportedly,[102] Turkey had prepared battle plans for such operation more than a year prior, but it was delayed due to doubts from U.S. officials about the capabilities of Syrian rebel forces that Turkey had recruited to fight with its military and the rift between Turkey and Russia that had only been mended in early August 2016.[103]

On 20 August 2016, a large number of rebels and a military convoy containing more than 50 vehicles loaded with heavy and medium weapons from al-Rai were transferred to the Turkish border with Jarabulus.[104]

On 22 August, as a response to the Gaziantep bombing and two mortar shells launched by ISIL hitting the town of Karkamış adjacent to Jarabulus, the Turkish Land Forces launched 60 artillery shells at IS positions in Jarabulus while simultaneously bombarding Manbij Military Council positions farther south in order to prevent them from advancing further to the north.[105] Karkamış was soon evacuated and cleared of its residents. Turkey continued to shell ISIL positions in Jarabulus after two mortar rounds hit Karkamış and three hit Kilis.[106]

On 23 August, Turkey shelled ISIL-held territory in northern Syria again. ISIL responded by firing rockets into Turkey.[107]

The Turkey-backed rebels under the brand of the FSA that took part in the offensive comprised mainly Syrian Turkmen, specifically the branches of Syrian Turkmen Brigades.[108][109] During the offensive, as a sign of classification, FSA troops of Turkmen origin use light blue armbands, a color which is often used as a symbol of Turkic heritage; meanwhile, the Arab origin soldiers mainly use red ones.[108][110][111]

The SDF have accused the Turkish military intelligence of assassinating Abdel Sattar al-Jader, the leader of the Jarabulus Military Council, a component of the SDF, just prior to the operations.[96] Turkey rejected the allegations, and Turkish media reported that al-Jader was killed by a local tribe member following a dispute.[112]

The offensives

Capture of Jarabulus by Turkish-backed forces (24 August)

Early in the morning of 24 August, Turkish forces directed intense artillery fire against ISIL positions in Jarabulus while the Turkish Air Force bombed 11 targets from the air.[113] Later that day, Turkish main battle tanks followed by pick-up trucks, believed to be carrying Turkish-backed Syrian rebels,[114] and the Turkish Special Forces crossed the border and were joined by hundreds of Free Syrian Army fighters as the ground forces attacked the town.[69] U.S.-led coalition planes helped the Turkish forces.[14][97] This was their first co-ordinated offensive into Syria.[97] The FSA said progress was slow because of mines planted by IS fighters in the area.[114]

A few hours after the offensive's beginning, Turkish Special Forces and the Sham Legion captured their first village, Tal Katlijah, after ISIL fighters retreated from it to reinforce Jarabulus.[52] Some time later, FSA captured four more villages[115] including Tel Shair, Alwaniyah and two other villages.[116][117] Hours later, Turkish and US-backed rebels were reported to have captured the border town of Jarabulus, with ISIL offering little resistance.[118][119] SOHR too confirmed that FSA had captured the city almost entirely.[120] A FSA spokesman stated that a large number of ISIL fighters had withdrawn to al-Bab in front of the offensive.[121]

The fact that no actual combat took place between Turkey or Turkish-backed Syrian rebels versus ISIL in Jarabulus[122] and the closeness in Islamist political ideology between ISIL and some if not all involved rebel groups has led to some local and international speculation about a collusion between Turkey and ISIL in the operation, including allegations of ISIL fighters changing uniform.[123] In an interview published in The Independent on 9 September, an ISIL fighter claimed that "when the Turkish army entered Jarabulus, I talked to my friends who were there. Actually, Isis didn’t leave Jarabulus; they just shaved off their beards."[124]

Continued advance of Turkish-backed forces against ISIL and conflict with SDF (24–25 August)

Later on 24 August, speaking in Ankara, US vice president Joe Biden appeared to support Turkey′s stance vis-a-vis the Syrian Kurds and said that "the elements that were part of the Syrian Democratic Forces, the YPG that participated, that they must go back across the river" (the Euphrates).[114][125] The YPG, however, initially refused to withdraw from Manbij,[126] while the pro-SDF Jarabulus Military Council groups declared that they would not give up their hometown to the Turkish-backed rebel groups which they considered "no different from ISIS". In consequence, when Turkish-backed FSA units, among them the Sham Legion and Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement, forcibly attempted to enter the SDF-held village of Amarinah south of Jarabulus, they were met with resistance. Whereas the SDF claimed to have repelled the assault, the rebels announced to have captured the village. Before clashing with the SDF, the FSA had captured half a dozen villages.[127][128][129][130]

On early 25 August, more than 20 Turkish tanks crossed into the Syrian border.[131] The U.S. foreign minister later informed the his Turkish counterpart that the YPG had started withdrawing to the east of the Euphrates river.[132] A spokesman for Operation Inherent Resolve later announced that the SDF had withdrawn across the Euphrates river in order to prepare for an offensive on Raqqa.[133] The YPG later separately announced it had withdrawn to the east of Euphrates and said all military command along with all YPG-held positions was handed over to the Manbij Military Council.[134] Despite this, Turkey claimed that some YPG units had not retreated, leading the Turkish military to shell them with artillery and, according to Hürriyet Daily News, launch a drone strike against one YPG group.[135][136] While the conflict between Turkey and SDF continued, members of the Jarabulus Military Council stated once again that they "will not allow some mercenaries to take over our city. We will liberate Jarabulus," with some claiming that the Turkish-backed rebels were former ISIL fighters.[40]

Meanwhile, the offensive against ISIL continued, as both the Turkish-backed forces as well as SDF units took control of additional villages south of Jarabulus from ISIL.[137] Pro-PYD sources claimed that clashes had broken out among FSA groups in Jarabulus.[138] Turkish Defence Minister Fikri Işık stated later in the day that FSA was clearing Jarabulus of any remaining ISIL militants.[139] After Jarabulus was largely secured, rebel commanders declared conflicting targets for the further offensive; whereas the Levant Front announced that the rebels would next attempt to take Al-Bab, the Al-Moutasem Brigade and the Sultan Murad Division stated that the Turkish-backed forces would proceed west to break the ISIL siege of Mare', while Turkish media reported that the offensive aimed at securing a strip of territory along the Turkish-Syrian border.[23][33] However, Ankara's forces pushed south and mostly focused on targeting Kurdish-led SDF forces.[140]

Disputed YPG withdrawal; Turkish-backed rebels drive SDF south of the Sajur River (26–29 August)

On 26 August, al-Masdar News claimed that all YPG forces had actually withdrawn to the east of the Euphrates as result of the continued Turkish pressure, leaving all territory around Manbij under control of their allies within the SDF,[1] though rebel forces later released photos of YPG ID cards and weapons allegedly taken in Amarna, suggesting that at least some YPG fighters remained around Manbij, if not all.[2] On the next day Turkish planes bombed the SDF-aligned Jarabulus Military Council positions in the village of Amarna, 10 km south of Jarabulus. According to the SDF civilian homes were also hit and the SDF avoided moving north to prevent escalation of the clashes.[141] Turkish-backed rebel forces then attacked and captured the SDF-held villages of Maz'alah and Yousif Bayk, while also attempting to advance against the stragetic significant hilltop of Amarna.[142][143] In response to the attacks, mostly Arab SDF groups such as the Northern Sun Battalion announced that they would send reinforcements to help the Jarabulus Military Council.[67] Also, later on the same day, one Turkish soldier was killed and three were wounded in an anti-tank missile attack on a Turkish tank south of Jarabulus. According to Turkish military sources the missile was fired from territory held by the SDF. The soldier's death is the first reported fatality on the Turkish side.[144][145] Turkish forces retaliated with artillery fire.[146]

Meanwhile, the Free Syrian Army cleaned Jarabulus of mines and explosives planted by ISIL militants before their withdrawal from the town.[147] The Turkish Red Crescent started distributing food after landmines and other explosives had been cleared from the border between Karkamis in Turkey and Jarabulus in Syria. The humanitarian movement handed out various food supplies for around 5,000 people in the town.[148] Taking advantage of the conflict between SDF and FSA, ISIL launched a massive counteroffensive and captured al-Rai according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR).[149][150]

On 28 August, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and Aleppo24,[151] at least 20 civilians were killed and 50 wounded in Turkish artillery fire and air strikes on the village of Jeb el-Kussa, and another 28 were killed and 25 wounded in Turkish air strikes near the town of Al-Amarneh and the village of Saressat. Also, at least four SDF fighters had been killed and 15 injured in Turkish bombardment of the two areas.[152][153][154] Syrian monitoring groups reported that at least 70 people were killed at the weekend (27–28 August), most of whom were civilians, in the Turkish operations. Turkish officials didn't comment on the reported civilian death toll, except to say that commanders were taking all necessary measures to protect noncombatants.[151] On the other side, Turkey claimed to have killed 25 PKK and YPG militants in course of the airstrikes.[146] Turkish-backed forces then began a major attack against the SDF positions, capturing Amarna and nearby Ain al-Bayda; rebel groups also claimed to have taken the villages of Qusa, Balaban, Dabisa, Jeb el-Kussa, Suraysat, Umm Routha, Maghayer and Qiratah further south, though this could not be independently confirmed.[155][156] The ANF News Agency published a video of two Turkish army tanks destroyed by SDF anti-tank missiles.[157] Meanwhile, Turkish-backed Sham Legion fighters released footage showing them torturing SDF prisoners.[158]

Some of the Syrian refugees, mainly Syrian Turkmen and Arabs who were living in the area which Turkish-led forces captured, returned to the Jarabulus area. Erdoğan stated that necessary help will be given to other refugees who stated their will to return to their homelands[159] and Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu accused "the PYD" of "ethnic cleansing" in areas which were not inhabited by Kurds at all.[160]

On 29 August, Ibrahim Ibrahim, head of the Rojava Media Cell, stated that local forces in Jarabulus and Manbij were being reinforced but denied reports that YPG was reinforcing Manbij.[161] United States' envoy to the anti-ISIL coalition called the clashes between SDF and Turkish-backed rebels a "source of deep-concern". The spokesman for Pentagon called for YPG to pull back to east of the river which he stated had largely occurred. He also warned that such clashes enabled ISIL to find sanctuary and continue planning attacks.[162] In course of the day, Turkish-backed forces first captured all remaining SDF positions north of the Sajur River, and then proceeded to cross it to conquer three more villages,[163] bringing the number of villages captured by the rebels to 21.[164]

Rebel–SDF ceasefire attempt; Rebel fighting against ISIL continued (30 August – 2 September)

On 30 August, John Thomas, a spokesman for the US Central Command stated that Turkey and SDF had agreed to stop fighting each other and had opened communications with the United States as well as with each other.[165] Jarabulus Military Council claimed that it had reached a temporary ceasefire agreement with Turkey after mediation by the US-led anti-ISIL coalition. It also claimed that the ceasefire had started around midnight of 29–30 August.[166] On the same day, Turkey′s foreign ministry said the U.S.' comments regarding the objectives of the Turkish military operation in Syria were "unacceptable" and that the country would continue its operations until it achieved the goal of eliminating ″terrorist threats in the region″.[167] Turkish military sources[168] and commander of a Syrian opposition group denied a ceasefire had taken effect. The commander stated however while there was a pause in the operation, it would resume shortly.[169] The U.S. welcomed the putative pause in fighting.[170] Later in the day, Turkish Armed Forces stated that a Turkish tank near Sajur river had been hit by a rocket. However, it was not clear who had carried out the attack. The Turkish military carried out a strike 45 minutes after the tank was hit and claimed it had destroyed a group of "terrorists" west of Jarabulus. It also claimed that it had carried out airstrikes against ISIL targets in Kulliyah in northern Syria.[165][171][172] SOHR confirmed that there was a pause in fighting between the two groups around Jarabulus and Sajor river.[173] General Joseph Votel meanwhile stated that Kurdish fighters had moved to east of Euphrates as per their commitment.[174]

Also on 30 August, SDF forces with coalition support started the Western al-Bab offensive against ISIL in the southwest of the region.

On 31 August, Turkey's officials rejected the announcement of ceasefire made by the U.S. shortly prior, saying Turkey would not accept any compromise or ceasefire between Turkey and what Turkey saw as terrorist elements.[175][176] Prime Minister Binali Yildirim said that "operations will continue until all terrorist elements have been neutralised, until all threats to our borders, our lands and our citizens are completely over".[175] Meanwhile, ISIL launched a massive counterattack in the southwestern countryside of Jarabulus preceded by a suicide attack. The militants captured four villages (Kiliyeh, Arab Hasan Saghir, Al-Muhsinli, and Al-Bulduq) from both the SDF and Turkish-backed rebels. Two Turkish tanks were reportedly destroyed in the clashes.[177]

On 1 September 2016, explosive experts of the Turkish Armed Forces cleared mines from the area around Jarabulus using controlled explosions. The de-mining operation on the Syrian side of the border was visible from the Turkish border town of Karkamış. An AFP photographer nearby heard at least a dozen explosions.[178]

On 2 September the SDF-aligned Bob Crow Brigade, composed of (mostly British and Irish) international volunteers for Rojava, said it was leaving the Raqqa front and heading to Manbij to defend it against a possible assault by Turkish forces and Islamist rebel groups.[18][179] A day prior, the Turkish prime minister′s spokesman said the Turkish government would treat such volunteers as terrorists, and Yasin Aktay, a spokesman for Turkey′s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), speaking to Middle East Eye opined that when it comes to Europeans or Americans joining the YPG, they could only be considered "crusaders" or intelligence agents.[180][181][182] Macer Gifford, a prominent British volunteer with the YPG and leader of its medical unit was quoted as saying "only in the minds of right wing and nationalist politicians in Turkey could the volunteers ever be called terrorists"; he said that while he had no intention to fight against Turkey, he would do so if and when Turkey attacked the YPG.[183]

Later on 2 September 2016, a statement released by the Turkish military said that a total of 271 targets were hit 1195 times by the Turkish Armed Forces and the Free Syrian Army while anti-ISIL coalition jets struck two ISIL targets. Also, the Turkish-backed FSA captured the Syrian village of Qundarah from ISIL.[184] The Turkish military also said that the Turkish Air Force destroyed three buildings used by ISIL in Arab Ezza and Qundarah with airstrikes.[185]

Also on 2 September, the leader of small SDF component group Liberation Brigade, Abdul Karim Obeid, defected to the camp of Turkish-backed rebels with 20 to 50 of his men, citing opposition to alleged YPG domination of the SDF, while SDF sources suggested he was displeased with the civil administration of the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava replacing warlordist political rule.[19]

Turkey enters the rebel's al-Rai front against ISIL (3 September – 19 September)

On 3 September, Turkey additionally deployed tanks to the Syrian town of al-Rai to help the Turkish-backed rebels to push east from the town towards villages captured by the rebels west of Jarabulus. The incursion was launched from Kilis province which had been frequently targeted with rocket attacks from ISIL.[186] The Sham Legion and the Hamza Division also announced they had captured four villages (Fursan, Lilawa, Kino and Najma) south of Arab Ezza. The United States stated that it had hit ISIL targets near the Turkey-Syria border via the newly deployed HIMARS system.[187][188] The Turkish armed forces meanwhile reported that the rebels had captured two villages and an airport near al-Rai.[189][190] An official of the Fastaqim Kama Umirt also stated that the rebels had captured eight villages to the east and south of the town.[191] SOHR confirmed that the Turkish-backed rebels had captured three villages near the Sajur river with advances in two other villages. It also confirmed that the rebels had captured a village near al-Rai.[192] The U.S. Embassy in Ankara said US forces hit ISIL targets overnight near Turkey's border with Syria using HIMARS located in Turkey.[193]

On 4 September, Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım and Anadolu Agency declared that the Turkish-backed rebels had captured the last remaining ISIL held villages along the Turkish border, cutting off key supply lines used by the group to bring in foreign fighters, weapons and ammunition.[194][195] The SOHR confirmed that the ISIL no longer controlled territory along the Turkish-Syrian border after Turkish-backed rebels captured the last remaining villages under control of the group.[9]

On 5 September, nine more villages in northern Syria were cleared of ISIL by the Turkish-backed rebels as part of operation Euphrates Shield according to Turkish armed forces.[196] On 6 September, Turkish military reported that two Turkish soldiers were killed in a rocket attack on two tanks by ISIL during clashes near al-Waqf village, while five soldiers were also wounded. In addition, two Turkish-backed rebels were also killed while another two were injured.[197] One of the Turkish soldiers who was critically injured in the attack later succumbed to his injuries in a hospital.[198] The village along with the Sadvi village was reported to have been captured by the rebels on the same day.[199]

On 7 September, around 300 Syrians started to return to Jarabulus in Syria, after Turkish-backed rebels recaptured the region from ISIL, marking the first formal return of civilians since Turkey launched Operation Euphrates Shield.[200] Meanwhile, Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey Nurettin Canikli stated that Syrian Kurdish fighters still hadn't completely withdrawn to the east of Euphrates river.[201] Also according to ARA news report ISIL evacuated their headquarters in the city of al-Bab in Syria's Aleppo province.[202]

On 8 September, it was reported that ISIL would evacuate its headquarters in al-Bab, as SDF continued their advance towards the city from the west, and Turkish-backed rebels also announced readiness to fight ISIL in al-Bab and other areas.[203] The same day, Turkish fighter jets hit four ISIL targets in northern Syria as part of Euphrates Shield operation, published in a statement from the Turkish General Staff.[204] Also on the same day Turkey's foreign minister repeated the call for a no-fly zone over northern Syria to boost security and allow more refugees to return home while enabling more local troops to be trained in their fight against ISIL fighters.[205] However, the United States as in the years before rejected the idea of a "no-flight zone" in Syria.[206]

On 9 September, Turkish military stated that three Turkish soldiers were killed in clashes with ISIL near the region of Tel el-Hawa while one soldier was injured. The Turkish army also shelled 15 ISIL positions in the Kafr Ghan region after a rocket from the region landed near Kilis Province. The military also stated that it carried out an air operation in Tal Ali, Tel al-Hawa and south Wuquf regions which destroyed 4 buildings being used as headquarters by the militants. An ISIL fighter was also stated to have been killed in an air operation conducted by the anti-ISIL coalition.[207] On 10 September, the Turkish military stated that airstrikes conducted by it targeting 3 buildings in Tel el-Hawa resulted in the death of 20 ISIL fighters.[208] On 13 September, Turkish military stated that the US-led coalition conducted airstrikes targeting four mortar positions and 2 defensive positions of ISIL between al-Rai and Azaz. The attack resulted in the deaths of 6 militants.[209]

As of September 14, a total of 1,900 Syrian refugees returned to the area cleansed by Turkish-backed forces, mainly to Jarabulus and Çobanbey (Al Rai).[210]

On September 15, Turkish Armed Forces said that it had so far destroyed 26 mines and 671 improvised explosive devices (IEDs) planted by ISIL in northern Syria as part of operation Euphrates Shield.[211]

On September 16, US interference in al-Rai town caused the withdrawal of the Ahrar al-Sharqya Brigade from joining Euphrates Shield operation, the withdrawal came in protest against the US forces’ interference in northern Aleppo.[212] Earlier, US troops on gun trucks, followed by a Turkish tank and trucks carrying US-allied FSA fighters, withdrew from al-Rai back into Turkey after some fighters of Ahrar al-Sharqya, a Free Syrian Army labeled rebel group, denounced them as "infidels" and "Crusaders".[213] Dozens of US forces continued to cooperate with Turkish soldiers in support of the operation.[214] Meanwhile, the Turkish military stated that 5 fighters of FSA were killed while 6 were injured in an IED attack in Tatimus region. It also stated that 5 fighters of ISIL were killed in airstrikes carried out by anti-ISIL coalition in Kunaytirah, Tatimus, Cakka and Baragidah regions.[215]

On 17 September the Mountain Hawks Brigade announced that it had withdrawn from the Jarabulus and al-Rai fronts and its fighters and equipment will be transferred to the fronts in Aleppo city, Hama, and Latakia.[58] Meanwhile, Turkish military stated that 67 ISIL targets were hit with howitzer missiles and rockets between al-Rai and Azaz on the same day. It also stated that 5 fighters of the group were killed during the day.[216]

ISIL launched a counter-attack targeting the Tal Hajjar hilltop near al-Rai on 19 September. Amaq claimed that the hilltop was captured by ISIL.[217]

Third phase of the operation: Dabiq offensive (20 September – 17 October)

On September 16, US special operations forces entered northern Aleppo as part of a new US mission known as "Operation Noble Lance." According to the Pentagon, they will provide training, advice and assistance to the Syrian rebels. Furthermore, the soldiers likely will also be used to call in US airstrikes in support of the rebels as they advance.[218] The US participation caused the withdrawal of the Ahrar al-Sharqya Brigade from joining the Euphrates Shield operation, their withdrawal came in protest against the US forces’ interference in northern Aleppo and support for the YPG.[212] Earlier, US troops on gun trucks, followed by a Turkish tank and trucks carrying US-allied FSA fighters, supposedly withdrew from al-Rai back into Turkey after some fighters of Ahrar al-Sharqya Brigade denounced them as "infidels" and "Crusaders".[213] However, dozens of US forces continued to cooperate with Turkish soldiers in support of the operation.[214]

On the same day, the Turkish military stated that 5 fighters of FSA were killed while 6 were injured in an IED attack in Tatimus region. It also stated that 5 fighters of ISIL were killed in airstrikes carried out by anti-ISIL coalition in Kunaytirah, Tatimus, Cakka and Baragidah regions.[215]

As of 19 September Turkish forces and Turkish-backed rebels, the primary ground force being the Turkmen group Sultan Murad Division, took control of five new villages in the biggest advance of the third phase, making the total number of villages taken in this phase 10.[219]

After Turkish-backed rebels had captured a few villages from ISIL,[220] by 23 September ISIL had recaptured more than 20 villages from the rebels.[221]

Due to the rebel losses, the offensive was halted and the third phase of the Turkish operation was put on hold.[222][223] A late September piece in Al-Monitor assessed the campaign as follows: "IS has recaptured scores of Turkmen villages south of Jarablus from FSA militias. (...) From the outset, there were doubts about whether Euphrates Shield could be sustained without the involvement of Turkish ground troops. It was not difficult to foresee that the biggest weakness was the inadequacy of the motley crew of jihadists assembled under the FSA banner. To make up for this deficiency, the Turkish army will have to deploy increasing numbers of troops to advance southward in Syria and thus into the quagmire."[224]

In the immediate aftermath of the aborted offensive towards al-Bab, the rebels and Turkey launched a new offensive towards the ISIL-held town of Dabiq. On 1 October, the Turkish Parliament extended the military operation's mandate for another year.[225] The next day, Turkish-backed opposition forces started advancing; Turkmen villages Boztepe (Tallat al-Baydah), Türkmenbarı and Hurdanah were taken over by Turkish-backed rebel forces.[226]

On 5 October, Turkish-backed rebels, primarily driven by the Sultan Murad Division, took control of four more villages from ISIL and, with the Turkish Special Forces, entered the small and strategic town of Akhtarin, easing the way for the planned attack on Dabiq.[227] The town was captured by them on 6 October.[228]

After taking control of the supply route between Al-Bab and Dabiq by taking Akhtarin and its vicinity, on 9 October, Turkey and the affiliated rebels announced that the area between Mare, Akhtarin and Kafrghan, an area which contains two important IS-held locations, Sawran and Dabiq, a military zone.[229] On the same day the offensive started from three different fronts towards Dabiq, from north, south and east of the city and seven villages were taken by FSA forces.[230]

On 10 October, Turkish forces and Turkish-backed rebels made significant advances and established control in all settlements on the way to the town of Sawran from its north and northwest, and started pushing into the town of Ihtamillat, the last settlement east of Sawran.[231][232]

One week later, following heavy clashes around the area, on 16 October, the FSA, headed by Sultan Murad Division, first took control of Sawran, Syria and continued towards Dabiq. One day earlier, IS leader Baghdadi published a voice record stating that the "Dabiq War", which IS was using as ritual propaganda, "isn't this ongoing one". Soon after Sawran, full control in Dabiq was also taken and rebel forces went as south as Asunbul to secure the newly acquired area before proceeding to the next stage of the offensive targeting Qabasin and Bab.[233]

Clashes between SDF, ISIS and rebels: western al-Bab offensive (18 October – 3 November)

On 17 October, Turkish troops and Turkish-backed FSA forces started their offensive headed towards al-Bab and captured 7 villages in the first day, namely; Guzhe, Baruze, al-Wash, aq-Burqan, Qar Kelbin, Talatayna and Shudud. After the first day of the offensive, rebels reduced their distance to al-Bab to as low as 15 km.[234]

On 18 October, the Northern Thunder Brigade issued an ultimatum to the "PKK" and the Army of Revolutionaries, warning them to leave Tell Rifaat within 48 hours after which they will attack the town.[235] On 19 October, following capturing the last remaining IS-held villages between the control line of the SDF, Turkey-backed rebels started an offensive towards the SDF positions in Shahba region and Tell Rifaat with Turkish support. Following the first days of clashes and strikes, the Turkish army boasted that its air strikes would have killed "160 to 200 YPG members were killed with maximum care for civilians". Syrian government sources however reported around such a number of civilians killed. SDF sources reported 11 fighters from their ranks killed. SOHR stated that death toll was around 20, possible 4 civilians included.

On 22 October, first alleged gains were announced by the rebel factions, namely 2 to 3 villages, which later turned out to be untrue. Turkish-backed rebels surrounded Shaykh Issa, just east of Tell Rifaat. Turkish artillery shelling and air strikes mainly focused on Tell Rifaat, Shaykh Issa and villages under SDF control in western al-Bab. Turkish tanks entered Syria also from the west, from Hatay region into Idlib region, to the southernmost point of the PYD-held Afrin canton and positioned on hills overlooking Tel Rifat and Afrin.[236]

By 25 October, it became evident that the SDF had successfully repelled all assault attempts by Turkish-backed rebels on villages and positions under its control.[6] ANHA further reported that the failures and casualties despite major Turkish support had "demoralized" rebel groups and caused their retreat from further attacks against the SDF.[237][238] Of the commanders of the Northern Thunder Brigade who had on 18 October sought to threaten the SDF, one was allegedly killed in action and one seriously injured.[239] In a counterattack, the SDF captured two villages from the rebels.[11]

Al-Bab (6 November– )

On 6 November, the rebels supported by Turkish planes and artillery advanced south towards al-Bab, entering the northern outskirts of the city on 14 November. The US-led coalition did not support the offensive due to it being an independent Turkish operation.[240]

On 24 November, according to the Turkish military, the Syrian Arab Air Force conducted an airstrike against Turkish Special Operations Forces and aligned Turkish-backed rebels north of al-Bab, killing three Turkish soldiers and injuring ten.[241][242][243] While the Turkish Prime Minister’s office has issued a temporary gag order on reporting about the airstrike,[243][244] main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP) leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu called on the Turkish government to "act with common sense."[244] Prime Minister Binali Yildirim issued a statement whereby he assured the aggression "will not be left unanswered" promising the Turkish military's determination to "clear the area of terrorists is unaffected by the move."[245]

Turkish officials initially stated the casualties were due to an ISIL attack, before blaming the Syrian Air Force. However, the pro-opposition activist group the SOHR disputed it was an air-strike and stated it was in fact an ISIL suicide attack. Additionally, ISIL confirmed it conducted a suicide attack in the area.[246]

On 25 November, the Syrian airforce denied that their jets bombed Turkish soldiers.[247]

Statements about claimed further Turkish military action

Against the Syrian Democratic Forces

On his press conference on 19 September, Turkish President Erdoğan stated that "Turkish forces will go to wherever they need to go. We need to cease these areas from being a security threat for us", adding that a possible "secure zone" or "no-fly zone" was "discussed with other important leaders". He also repeated Turkish government accusations against "the PYD" party and "its militant wing YPG" of "seizing and ethnically cleansing territories which don't belong to Kurds", criticizing alleged specific actions of YPG as "Tell Abyad, Suluk belonging to Arabs and Turkmens were taken over by YPG, these are not the only cases; similar events happened in Al-Hasakah and finally in Manbij area which has a 95% percent Arab presence.(...) These events are what also made it a necessity for us to start this intervention."[248][249]

On 20 September, the United States Department of Defense confirmed that U.S. Special Operation Forces were flying U.S. flags in the town of Tell Abyad in Kobanî Canton to deter Turkish harassment shelling or attacks.[250]

On 21 September, The New York Times reported that the U.S. administration "is weighing a military plan to directly arm Syrian Kurdish fighters combating the Islamic State, a major policy shift that could speed up the offensive against the terrorist group but also sharply escalate tensions between Turkey and the United States."[251] Reacting to reports of the U.S. sending arms to SDF forces located in Kobani and Tell Abyad, Turkey President Erdoğan on 23 September claimed that "arming another terrorist group for fighting another terrorist group is not acceptable."[252] Following these statements, Turkish army shelled two YPG targets in the Tell Abyad area.[253]

On 25 September 2016, the U.S. spokesman for the Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) confirmed that the SDF, including the YPG, were also part of the "vetted forces" in the train and equip program and will be supplied with weapons. The President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, condemned this and claimed that the SDF were "endangering our future".[254]

On 26 September, Turkey's Deputy Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmuş claimed that a significant portion of YPG in Manbij had started withdrawing to the east of Euphrates river and this move was welcomed by Turkey.[255] On 27 September, Turkey sent military units to the border region of Tell Abyad.[256] Same day Turkish FM Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu claimed that YPG units had not withdrawn from Manbij and its countryside and stated "this means USA either is not capable of influencing YPG or they do not want to influence them."[257]

On 28 September, United States Deputy Secretary of State Anthony Blinken said that they are "against a connection between Kurdish self-declared cantons and won't give compromise on the territorial integrity of Syria", later adding that it should be understood that US is supporting SDF coalition against IS, not in particular the YPG.[258]

On 3 October, the Turkish government once again claimed that fighters of YPG were still present to the west of Euphrates and claimed that the United States must hold its alleged promise that they withdraw to the east of the river.[259] The following day, Yıldırım claimed that Turkey could use force to expel YPG from Jarabulus just like it did with ISIL.[260]

As a consequence of continuing Turkish verbal aggressions, the SDF spokesman on 4 October explicitly ruled out any Turkish participation in the upcoming joint military operation of the SDF and the CJTF–OIR to capture Raqqa from ISIL.[261]

President Erdoğan stated on 18 October that the YPG will be removed from Manbij after ISIL is driven from al-Bab.[262]

In a 21 October report from Jarabulus, the Financial Times assessed Turkish aims towards the SDF and as a conclusion quoted that "Mr Erdoğan is very good at perceptions. It is not important what reality is: people [in Turkey] love hearing Mr Erdoğan’s ambitions on the eight o’clock news when they come home."[263]

On 25 October, Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu stated that Turkey would dislodge "PYD/PKK" from Manbij if it did not leave the city.[264] On 26 October 2016, president Erdoğan said: “We are determined to clear the PYD from Manbij.”[265] "They will to go east of the Euphrates river. If not, we will do what is needed,” Erdoğan said.[266]

On 27 October 2016, Erdoğan said he told Obama that Free Syrian Army would advance on the Syrian border town of Al-Bab, which is held by DAESH. They would then march on to Manbij and go toward Ar-Raqqa — the de facto capital of ISIS in Syria.[267] On 11 November, Erdoğan stated the goal and roadmap of the intervention as "expanding the controlled area to cover 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi) including Bab, Manbij and Tell Rifaat, creating a national structure and army for this expanded area to provide solid control and to allow the refugees return to these areas jointly with EU, and after these, focusing on IS' de facto capital Raqqah and PYD"[268]

On 22 November 2016, “Why will we go to Manbij? Not because we are wild about the place but because the PYD and YPG are there,” Erdoğan said. “They say a number of them have left. But we want the place to be totally emptied of the PYD and YPG.”[269]

Against the Syrian government

On 29 November, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the President of the Republic of Turkey, said that the Turkish military launched its operations in Syria to end the rule of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.[270]

International reactions

UN-member states

Supranational Organizations

Other regional actors

Iraqi Kurdistan The Kurdish National Council in Syria condemned the "indiscriminate" Turkish bombings on populated towns such as Jandairis and other towns in the northern Aleppo Government. The council stated that “the Turkish Army and allied Islamist rebels have been killing civilians, carrying out indiscriminate shelling and airstrikes on populated areas.” and demanded the Turkish Armed Forces to withdraw its forces. A KNC member also denounced the Turkish focus on attacking the SDF.[312]

International law issues

The Syrian government denounced the intervention as a "blatant violation of its sovereignty" and said that "fighting terrorism isn’t done by ousting ISIS and replacing it with other terrorist organisations backed directly by Turkey".[313] Turkey′s officials were cited to state that the operation was in line with the country's right to self-defence and a mandate given to the armed forces by the Turkish parliament in 2014;[314] also cited was Resolution 2249 adopted by the UN Security Council in November 2015 that while failing to invoke the UN's Chapter VII, which gives specific legal authorisation for the use of force,[315] did urge UN members to "redouble and coordinate their efforts to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed specifically by ISIL also known as Da’esh as well as ANF, and all other individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities associated with Al-Qaida, and other terrorist groups, as designated by the United Nations Security Council, and as may further be agreed by the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) and endorsed by the UN Security Council".[316]

See also


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External links

Coordinates: 36°49′08″N 38°00′40″E / 36.819°N 38.011°E / 36.819; 38.011

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