Russo-Turkish confrontation in Syria

Russo-Turkish confrontation in Syria
Part of the Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War, and Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War

Turkish Air Force F-16C flies an aerial superiority mission during Operation Allied Force on April 4, 1999
Date6 June 2012 – 9 August 2016[1]
(4 years, 2 months and 3 days)
LocationSyria–Turkey border

Impasse settled[2]

  • Russian embargoes on Turkey[3]
  • In early July 2016 Turkey and Russia improved diplomatic relations and proposed to cooperate in fighting the Islamic State, with Turkey proposing Russia to use the Incirlik Air Base.[4]
  • Aleppo offensive (June–August 2016)
  • Turkey closed its borders with Syria 9 August 2016
  • Russian-Turkish military, diplomatic and intelligence mechanism set up marking major cooperation.[2]


Political Support:


Political Support:

Commanders and leaders

Turkey Hulusi Akar

Political support (secretly):

Russia Valery Gerasimov
Russia Viktor Bondarev
Syria Ali Abdullah Ayyoub
Syria Issam Hallaq

Political support (secretly):

Casualties and losses

Aircraft lost

Aircraft lost

The Turco-Russian confrontation refers to an conflict between Turkey and, initially, the Syrian government which turned into a military crisis between Turkey and Russia after the November 2015 shoot-down of a Russian Air Force Su-24 by the Turkish Air Force after an alleged airspace violation. Increased Russian military aggression and hostile Turkish territorial responses have all contributed to increasing escalation. Aerial confrontations between two nations have grown more common. Turkey accuses Russian Forces of violating Turkish sovereign airspace and war crimes against Syrian Turkmens.[26] The Russian military has accused Turkey of illegal economic ties with ISIS and planning a military intervention in Syria.[27][28][29][30]



  1. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. 1 2 "Turkey, Russia agree to build strong Syria mechanism: FM - DIPLOMACY". Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  3. "Turkey faces big losses as Russia sanctions bite - BBC News".
  4. 1 2 "Turkey proposes cooperation with Russia in fighting IS: foreign minister". Reuters. 4 July 2016.
  5. "Missing Russian jet pilot 'alive and well' in Syria - BBC News".
  6. Weaver, Matthew; Tran, Mark; Quinn, Ben; Chulov, Martin; Walker, Shaun; Letsch, Constanze; Smith, Helena; Shaheen, Kareem; Tisdall, Simon; Borger, Julian (24 November 2015). "Nato meets as Russia confirms one of two pilots dead after jet shot down - as it happened".
  7. CNN, Don Melvin, Michael Martinez and Zeynep Bilginsoy. "Putin calls jet's downing by Turkey 'stab in the back'".
  8. "Merkel says downing of Russian plane has complicated Syria solution".
  9. Jones, Sam (18 February 2016). "Turkey and Saudi Arabia consider Syria intervention" via Financial Times.
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  12. курс, The Baltic Course - Балтийский. "Latvian MFA: shooting down of Russian warplane over Turkey will escalate tensions between NATO and Russia".
  13. "Georgia backs Turkey over Russia warplane incident - World Bulletin".
  14. "L.Linkevičius: „Rusijos antskrydis Turkijoje nėra netikėtas"".
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  16. "Turkey risks sparking world war, says Iraq's Maliki".
  17. "PressTV-Syria: Turkey committed 'new crime'".
  18. "Armenia Condemns Turkey's Downing Of Russian Jet".
  21. "Turkey Says It Shot Down Syrian Military Helicopter Flying in Its Airspace". The New York Times. 17 September 2013.
  22. Rogoway, Tyler. "Why Turkey Shot A Syrian Air Force MiG-23 Out Of The Sky".
  23. "Turkey says Russian warplane violated its airspace".
  24., The Washington Times. "Russian helicopter shot down while searching for downed pilot: report".
  25. "The Turkish Air Force has shot down an unidentified drone in Turkish airspace. Known and unknown facts.". 16 October 2015.
  26. "MIDEAST - Turkmens escape to Turkey from Russian, al-Assad fire in Syria".
  27. Batchelor, Tom (5 February 2016). "End of ISIS? Turkey plans ground invasion of Syria as SAUDI ARABIA offers ground troops".
  29. "Turkish air forces on alert after alleged airspace violation by Russian warplane - Xinhua -". line feed character in |title= at position 81 (help)
  30. "Russia and Turkey trade accusations over Syria". 5 February 2016 via Reuters.
  32. "Turkey locates bodies of downed jet pilots".
  33. "Passenger jet forced to land by Turkish warplanes WAS carrying military equipment and ammunition to Syria, says Ankara".
  34. "Turkey says Syrian jet carried Russian arms, drawing Moscow deeper into crisis".
  35. "Syrian Mi-17 kill mark appears on Turkish F-16C during NATO Tiger Meet". 7 May 2015.
  36. 1 2 "Here's how the Turkish F-16 shot down a Syrian Mil Mi-17 Hip helicopter today". 16 September 2013.
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  38. "Business News World - Russian MiG-29 chased Turkish F-16 over Syrian border, says General Staff".
  39. "Turkish jets 'harassed by MIG-29' on Syrian border".
  40. "Russian Su-30SM, Su-24 violate Turkish airspace. Flanker locks on TuAF F-16 for +5 minutes". 5 October 2015.
  41. "Mystery deepens as "unidentified Mig-29 Fulcrum" locks on a Turkish F-16 again". 6 October 2015.
  42. Campbell, Scott (12 October 2015). "Russian jet SHOT DOWN by Turkey after it flew into their airspace, according to reports".
  43. "Turkey shot down Russian drone near Syrian border, official says - Fox News". 16 October 2015.
  44. "US to deploy F-15 jets to Turkey's Incirlik base".
  45. "US deploys 6 F-15 fighter jets to Turkish air base".
  46. "U.S. Confirms That Downed Russian Plane Entered Turkish Airspace".
  47. "Turkey downs Russian jet".
  48. "No US airstrikes in Syria since Russia deployed S-400 systems".
  49. "After Su-24M Jet Downing, Russia Deploys S-400 Missile System In Syria, Grounds US Aircraft". 18 December 2015.
  50. "Suriye sınırında göreve başlayan 'KORAL' Ruslarda panik yarattı".
  51. sitesi, Türkiye'nin lider haber. "KORAL, sınırda göreve başladı". Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  52. Reuters (6 December 2015). "Russian serviceman with shouldered rocket launcher 'seen on Bosphorus'".
  53. "Turkey Is Literally Pulling Russian Naval Ships Over To Give Them Tickets".
  54. "Russian warship fires warning shots at Turkish fishing boat - BBC News".
  55. "Russian Submarine Rostav-na-Donu Passed Through Bosphorus". 15 December 2015.
  56. "U.S. pulls F-15 fighter jets from Turkey".
  57. OHara, Katy. "US Air Force Begins Withdrawing F-15 Fighter Jets From Turkey".
  58. "Russia-Turkey Crisis: 27 Russian Ships Blocked After Moscow Detains Turkish Vessels Amid Escalating Tensions". 18 December 2015.
  59. Sputnik. "Turkish Mercenaries Arrive in Ukraine, Plot Subversions Against DPR, Russia".
  60. "A Russian Su-34 Fullback bomber has violated the Turkish airspace yesterday". 30 January 2016.
  61. "Turkey says Su-34 violated airspace, Moscow shrugs off report as 'propaganda'".
  62. "'Dangerous precedent': Turkey denies Russian observation flight along Syrian border".
  63. "Turkey has denied a Russian Open Skies observation flight over its territory because it was near the Syrian border". 10 February 2016.
  64. Sputnik. "Newest Su-35 Will Remain on Standby 24/7 at Hmeymim Airbase".
  65. "Russia's cutting edge Su-35 fighters to be on 24-hour alert at Latakia base".
  66. "Turkey air force in joint exercises with Saudi Arabia: army".
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  69. "Russia deploys doomsday aircraft in Syria".
  70. Νewsbomb. "Νέα πρόκληση - Τουρκικό αεροσκάφος CN -235 πέταξε απόψε πάνω από το Κουνελονήσι".
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  75. "ZAMAN".
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  80. Sputnik. "Russia, Turkey to Build Monuments Honoring Each Other's Fallen Soldiers".
  81. Sputnik. "Turkish Navy Enters Ukraine Port as Part of Military Cooperation".
  82. Istanbul, AFP in (13 April 2016). "Two Russians arrested over killing of Chechen fighter in Istanbul".
  83. "Turkey arrests two Russian agents over killing of Chechen".
  84. "Turkish prosecutors bring no charges against Celik for Russian pilot's murder — lawyer".
  85. "PressTV-Russia: CWs in Iraq come from Turkey".
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