Siege of Hama (2011)

This article pertains to the Syrian civil war. For other sieges of Hama, see Siege of Hama (disambiguation).
Siege of Hama
Part of the Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War
Location Hama, Syria
Target Opposition protestors
Date 3 July[1][2] – 4 August 2011[3]
(1 month and 1 day)
Executed by Syria Syrian Army
Outcome Protests suppressed
Casualties 16 civilians killed in early July 2011[1]
200 civilians killed during Ramadan offensive[3]
Total: 216+ killed

The Siege of Hama was among the nationwide crackdowns by the Syrian government during the early stage of the Syrian Civil War. Anti-government protests had been ongoing in the Syrian city of Hama since 15 March 2011, when large protests were first reported in the city,[4] similar to the protests elsewhere in Syria as part of the wider Syrian Civil War. The events beginning in July 2011, were described by anti-government activists in the city as a "siege"[5] or "blockade".[6]

On 1 July, with more than 400,000 protestors, Hama witnessed the largest demonstration against Bashar al-Assad.[2] Two days later, Syrian tanks deployed at Hama,[7] in an operation that led to more than 16 civilian deaths at the hands of Syrian security forces.[1]

On 31 July, the government of Syria sent the Syrian army into Hama to control protests on the eve of Ramadan, as part of a nationwide crackdown, nicknamed the Ramadan Massacre.[8] At least 142 people across Syria died on that day, including over 100 in Hama alone, and 29 in Deir ez-Zor. Hundreds more have been wounded.[9][10] By 4 August, more than 200 civilians had been killed in Hama.[3]


Early history

Hama has been the epicenter of Syrian civil war since the very event of the 1963 Ba'athist coup. As early as 1964, a wide scale riot, often described as uprising, broke out in the city, and was violently suppressed by the military, resulting in more than 70 citizens killed. Violence occurred once again during the 1976–1982 Islamic uprising in Syria, when hundreds of Hama citizens were executed in the April 1981 crackdown, whereas in February 1982, a much larger scale massacre took place in Hama, following an armed and organized uprising of Islamic groups, centered in the city. The 1982 Hama massacre claimed the lives of some 10,000 - 25,000 Hama citizens and Islamic militants and as many as 1,000 Syrian Army personnel.


Major disturbances in Hama began on 3 June 2011, primarily in the city center, and on occasion in the suburbs. The Syrian security forces shot dead up to 25 people when they dispersed a demonstration by tens of thousands of locals in the city of Hama on Friday 3 June 2011.[11]

On 1 July 2011, with more than 400,000 protestors, Hama witnessed the largest demonstration against Bashar al-Assad.[2] Soon after, Assad sacked Hama's governor.[12] Two days after, Syrian tanks deployed at Hama,[7] in an operation that led to more than 20 civilians killed by the Syrian security forces and two rape cases were witnessed.[1]


July 2011

A map of Syria with Hama (مُحافظة حماه) Governorate highlighted.
Wikinews has related news: More than 100 reported dead after Syrian troops move against protesters

As the city of Hama became one of the main opposition centers of the popular uprising, taking place in Syria, Hama turned into a focal point of growing violence. An armed blockade was imposed on the city on 3 July.[2]

On 6 July, a surprising step was taken by the US ambassador, Robert Ford, when he visited Hama and declared that he will stay there till Friday. Syria reacted with anger with this visit.[13] On 8 July, more than 500,000 Syrians flooded through the city of Hama, according to activists, in what they claim was the single biggest protest yet against the embattled government of President Bashar al-Assad.[14]

JJ Harder, the press attaché of the US embassy in Damascus, later told Al Jazeera: "Our ambassador Robert Ford was in Hama earlier this month, and he saw with his own eyes the violence that they are talking about. There was none. He maybe saw one teenager with a stick at a checkpoint, and the government is going on with these absolute fabrications about armed gangs running the streets of Hama and elsewhere. Hama has shown itself to be a model of peaceful protest. That was why our ambassador chose to go there."[15]

The French ambassador joined the US one on that day to show the French support to the victims.[16]

7 July had seen both the French and American ambassadors to Syria toured some of the nation’s hotspots. The American ambassador Robert Ford, had travelled, with the French ambassador Éric Chevallier to the city of Hama in what Robert Ford said was a gesture of solidarity with local protesters there.[17][18][19][20][21]

On 8 July, more tanks were deployed around the outskirts of Hama, as part of a strengthening blockade, following protests involving an estimated 500,000 people the previous weekend.[21] It has been estimated that up to 350,000 of the city's 700,000 population have taken part in many of the protests[22]

Over 500,000 citizens had rallied in the city on 29 July, following Muslim prayers in which a pro-rebel cleric told the congregation "the regime must go".[23] Local support for the government had imploded by 30 July in both Homs, Deir ez-Zor and Hama.[23][24][25] President Assad sent his "Terror Buses" packed with private Alawite militia and party loyalists into Hama on 30 July.[26]

On the eve of Ramadan, Syria witnessed the bloodiest day in its 139-day uprising against the single-party government, in which the Alawi-run government has allegedly targeted Sunni, Druze and Christian groups from across the country.[24]

Abdel Rahman of the Britain-based Syrian Observatory For Human Rights said on 31 July that Syrian security forces launched an offensive at 5:00 am (0200 GMT) on Muadhamiya, to the north, then encircled Hama shortly afterwards.[27]

In a separate incident on the same day, political prisoners attempted to mutiny in Hama's central prison, to which security forces responded with live ammunition. The death toll in the prison is unknown.[28] The state news agency reported that eight policemen were killed in clashes in Hama.[29]

The government has blamed much of the violence on terrorists and militants, who it says have killed hundreds of security personnel.[30] At least 136 people have died, over 100 in Hama alone, and 19 in Deir ez-Zor. Hundreds more have been wounded. The crackdown was the most intense of the Syrian civil war thus far, with over 2,200 protesters dead since 15 March.[9][15][31]

One Hama resident, a doctor who did not want to be identified for fear of arrest, told Reuters that tanks were attacking Hama from four different directions and "firing randomly". Another resident said snipers had climbed onto the roofs of the state-owned electricity company and the main prison, and that electricity had been cut in eastern neighbourhoods.[15] Syrian government tanks also fired on mosques where the loudspeakers broadcast, "Allah Akbar".[32]

A United Nations Security Council resolution condemning Syria was proposed by Russia and the Security Council met on the night of 31 July to debate the situation in Syria.[25]

Syrian dissidents claimed that the tank assault on Hama on 31 July, in which 84 people had died, was an attempt to pacify and regain control of the city ahead of Ramadan and to avert protests during the holy month.[33]

August 2011

Syrian security forces continued to bombard Hama on 1 August. Many of Hama's residents braved the obvious danger to head to mosques for dawn prayers. As they emerged onto the streets, the shelling resumed. Three worshipers were struck down and killed, while a fourth was shot dead by a sniper as he got into his car, opposition activists said. Tank shells struck residential buildings in the suburbs of al-Qousour and Al-Hamidiya. "The tanks are firing at random," one resident said. "They don't care who they hit. The aim seems to be to kill and terrify as many people as possible."[25] "The number of those wounded is huge and hospitals cannot cope, particularly because we lack the adequate equipment," said Hama hospital worker, Dr Abdel Rahman.[23] "It seems strange that the international community seems to care less about the people of Hama than the people of Benghazi," said Omar, a rebel activist in Damascus.[24] The death toll in Hama and Homs was reportedly ’slightly enlarged’ according to the local governorate's sources.[34] Government tanks also moved in on the eastern town of Albu Kamal. In the nearby city of Deir al-Zour, had witnessed upwards to 29 over that weekend.[24][24]

Activists and witnesses said at least 24 civilians were killed in attacks on several cities, including Hama, on 1 August.[30] Later that day, The European Union imposed travel bans on five more military and government officials and extended sanctions against Assad's government, including Syrian Defence Minister Ali Habib Mahmud.[25][30]

The UN’s security council met to discuss the situation in Syria on 2 August. The US, UK and France wanted to formally condemn Syria, but Russia and China were afraid that "it could be used as a pretext for military intervention in Syria".[35][36]

On 2 August, Syrian dissident Radwan Ziadeh asked US President Barack Obama and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to demand President Bashar al-Assad to step down.[37]

By the morning of 3 August 2011, the city was under nearly continuous gunfire since the early hours of the morning and by midday Syrian army tanks stormed through rebel’s barricades in city of Hama, occupying a central square. A post on the Syrian Revolution Facebook page read "The army is now stationed in Assi Square," and "The heroic youths of Hama are confronting them and banning them from entering neighborhoods."[38] The water, electricity and all communications in Hama and its surrounding villages and towns had been cut off, according to nearby online posts on social networking sites.[38] The accounts could not be independently confirmed because the Syrian government banned foreign journalists from entering the country to report.[38] Shaam, an online video channel that is aligned to the protest movement, posted a video dated 3 August that showed at least one tank attacking a neighbourhood that the narrator said was Hayy al-Hader in Hama; heavy plumes of smoke could be seen rising in the sky.[38]

On 3 August, following the attacks, workers in Hama declared three days of general strike in memory of those killed by security forces.[39]

The town’s pro-democracy movement, the Local Coordination Committee, had emailed a statement saying that shelling was especially concentrated in the Janoub al-Mala’ab and Manakh districts. The group also claimed in the E-mail that civilians were being shot and houses shelled.[38] Rami Abdel Rahman, head of the Syrian Observatory For Human Rights, warned that "We might be witnessing another massacre in Hama."[38]

Russia’s Foreign Ministry's Middle East and North Africa Department chief, Sergei Vershinin, reminded the UN that his country was not "categorically" against adopting a UN resolution condemning the violence in Syria, but the Syrian Deputy Foreign Minister, Faisal Mekdad urged India to ignore Western "propaganda" if there was a vote over it in the Security Council.[40]

A total of 200 were killed in Hama by 4 August.[3]


The Attorney General of the Hama Governorate announced his resignation on 1 September in response to the government crackdown on protests. The government claimed he had been kidnapped and forced to lie at gunpoint.[41]

By late January 2012 activists said that four neighbourhoods in Hama were under opposition control.[42]

On 28 February 2012, government forces shelled a town in Hama Province, Helfaya, killing 20 civilian villagers.Activists said the 20 deaths of Sunni Muslim villagers there were among at least 100 killed in the province in the last two weeks in revenge for rebel Free Syrian Army attacks on security forces commanded by members of Assad’s minority Alawite sect.[43]

International reactions

Supranational organisations


Foreign Secretary William Hague condemned the attack later that day,[50] but said that any military action was not even "a remote possibility" and "There is no prospect of a legal, morally sanctioned military intervention".[25]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Syrian forces in deadly assault on Hama - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Syria: 'Hundreds of thousands' join anti-Assad protests". BBC. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Bakri, Nada (4 August 2011). "Civilian Toll Is Mounting in Assault on Syrian City". New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  4. Fresh Protests Erupt in Syria (Videos) | Middle East | World | Epoch Times
  5. "France-Diplomatie". Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  6. "Syrian protesters demand end of Hama blockade". 7 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  7. 1 2 "Syrian tanks deploy at Hama after large protest". Reuters. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  8. Samuelson, Robert J. (2 August 2011). "Syria's Ramadan massacre". The Washington Post.
  9. 1 2 AFP (31 July 2011). "Syrian army kills at least 95 in Hama: activist". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  10. "Hama assault into second day, UN revives Syria debate". Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  11. "'At least 25 dead' in Hama, Syria rallies reach capital". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  12. Evans, Dominic (2 July 2011). "Syria's Assad sacks Hama governor after protests". Reuters. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  13. Martin Chulov (8 July 2011). "Syria condemns US ambassador's 'provocative' visit to Hama". London: Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  14. "'Half a million' protest on streets of Hama - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  15. 1 2 3 "'Scores dead' as Syrian tanks storm Hama city - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  16. "French and US ambassador visits bolster Hama protests - SYRIA". FRANCE 24. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  17. Malas, Nour (15 July 2011). "Syria Revolt Fueled by Roof Fires and Tweets -". Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  18. ""Death Squads" Besiege Syrian City of Homs (VIDEO) | Care2 Causes". Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  19. ""Death Squads" Besiege Syrian City of Homs (VIDEO) | Care2 Causes". Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  20. 1 2 "Syrian tank assault on Hama 'kills 95'". Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  21. Blomfield, Adrian (25 July 2011). "Syria: dozens dead as Assad troops launch major tank offensive". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  22. 1 2 3 "Deadly Syrian crackdown continues - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 "Ramadan eve massacre in Syria". gulfnews. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Blomfield, Adrian (8 February 2011). "Syria: Bashar al-Assad's tanks renew assault on Hama". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  25. "Syria - Assad Terror Buses invade Hama - Alawite Militia and Tanks assault City 7-31-11". YouTube. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  26. HULIQ. "Syria: Army kills 95 oppositionists as international community stays silent". Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  27. "Hama residents defy siege, shelling to pray in the open". Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  28. Yacoub, Khaled. "Syrian tanks bombard residential areas of Hama". Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  29. 1 2 3 "UN Debates Resolution Condemning Syria As Unrest Continues". 20 August 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  30. "Syria says 120 forces killed in 'massacre'". MSNBC. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  31. Ben, Tzvi (8 January 2011). "New Videos: Syria Tank Fire". Israel National News. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  32. Reuters (7 hours ago) Today. "Syria's Assad embarks on path of no return". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  33. hama -and -Homs –dead- reportedly – enlarged -188592.html#ixzz1637JT0E8
  34. Lizzy Davies, Nour Ali and agencies (2 August 2011). "Syria deaths continue as UN considers condemnation". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  35. Derhally, Massoud A. (2 August 2011). "Syria Targets Hama as EU Seeks Condemnation". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  36. "AFP: Syrian dissidents ask Obama to demand Assad step down". Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bakri, Nada; Gladstone, Rick (3 August 2011). "Syria Sends In Tanks to Storm Center of Rebellious City". New York Times.
  38. "AFP: Syria's Hama on strike after deadly unrest". 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  39. "Russia Ready to Condemn Syria". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  40. "Syria unrest: Hama legal chief 'resigns over killings'". BBC News. 1 September 2011.
  41. AJE live blog
  42. Syria Violence: Wounded Journalists Escape, Military Pounds Opposition Areas
  43. Al Jazeera Syria Live Blog. August-2011-1232|Monday, 8 August 2011 - 12:32
  44. Al Jazeera Syria Live Blog. August-2011-1428|Monday, 8 August 2011 - 14:28 Entry
  45. August/International-condemnation-of-Syrian-atrocities.ashx#axzz1Tj37fkq3 "International condemnation of Syrian 'atrocities'" Check |url= value (help). The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  46. "Lebanon news - NOW Lebanon -Hariri condemns "massacre" in Syria's Hama". NOW Lebanon. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  47. "Syrian assault on Hama horrifies Turkish president". Today's Zaman. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  48. Hope, Christopher (1 August 2011). "Syria: No 10 says President Bashar-al Assad 'should reform or step aside'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  49. "Syria: William Hague condemns 'shocking' violence". London: Telegraph. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  50. "Syria unrest: Barack Obama condemns 'brutal' Hama raid". BBC. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  51. "Obama vows to isolate Syria's Assad". Sky News. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/12/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.