For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation).

Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah
Founded 1985 (official)
  • Yellow
  • Green
Parliament of Lebanon
12 / 128
Cabinet of Lebanon
2 / 24
Official website

Hezbollah (pronounced /ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[14][15] Arabic: حزب الله Ḥizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[16]—is a Shi'a Islamist militant group and political party based in Lebanon.[17][18] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[19][20] and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General.

After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass the Israeli occupation.[4] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government,[21] which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon—SLA collapsed and surrendered, and Israel withdrew from Lebanon on May 24, 2000. Backed by Iran, Hezbollah fighters fought against Serbian forces during the Bosnian War.[22]

Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly[23][24] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[25][26] Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state",[27] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[28][29][30] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population,[31] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[32][33] Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria.[34] Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[35] After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[36] and clashes,[37] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, which gives them veto power.[18] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[38] Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel.[39][40] It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS.[41][42] Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world,[17] this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.[28][43][44]

Hezbollah's status as a legitimate political party, a terrorist group, a resistance movement, or some combination thereof is a contentious issue.[45] The Arab League,[46] United States,[47] France,[48] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[49][50] Australia,[51] Canada,[52] the Netherlands,[53] and Israel[54] have classified Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. The European Union, New Zealand and the United Kingdom[55] have proscribed Hezbollah's military wing as a terrorist organization, while making a distinction with Hezbollah's political wing.[56][57] Russia considers Hezbollah a legitimate sociopolitical organization.[58] China remains neutral, and maintains contacts with Hezbollah.[59]


Main article: History of Hezbollah


Hezbollah emerged in South Lebanon during a consolidation of Shia militias as a rival to the older Amal Movement. Hezbollah played a significant role in the Lebanese civil war, opposing American forces in 1982–83 and opposing Amal and Syria during the 1985–88 War of the Camps. However, Hezbollah's early primary focus was ending Israel's occupation of southern Lebanon[4] following Israel's 1982 invasion and siege of Beirut.[60] Amal, the main Lebanese Shia political group, initiated guerrilla warfare. In 2006, former Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak stated, "When we entered Lebanon … there was no Hezbollah. We were accepted with perfumed rice and flowers by the Shia in the south. It was our presence there that created Hezbollah".[61]

Hezbollah waged an asymmetric war using suicide attacks against the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and Israeli targets outside of Lebanon.[62] Hezbollah is reputed to have been among the first Islamic resistance groups in the Middle East to use the tactics of suicide bombing, assassination, and capturing foreign soldiers,[21] as well as murders[63] and hijackings.[64] Hezbollah also employed more conventional military tactics and weaponry, notably Katyusha rockets and other missiles.[63][65] At the end of the Lebanese Civil War in 1990, despite the Taif Agreement asking for the "disbanding of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias," Syria, which controlled Lebanon at that time, allowed Hezbollah to maintain their arsenal and control Shia areas along the border with Israel.[66]

After 1990

In the 1990s, Hezbollah transformed from a revolutionary group into a political one, in a process which is described as the Lebanonisation of Hezbollah. Unlike its uncompromising revolutionary stance in the 1980s, Hezbollah conveyed a lenient stance towards the Lebanese state.[67]

In 1992 Hezbollah decided to participate in elections, and Ali Khamenei, supreme leader of Iran, endorsed it. Former Hezbollah secretary general, Subhi al-Tufayli, contested this decision, which led to a schism in Hezbollah. Hezbollah won all twelve seats which were on its electoral list. At the end of that year, Hezbollah began to engage in dialog with Lebanese Christians. Hezbollah regards cultural, political, and religious freedoms in Lebanon as sanctified, although it does not extend these values to groups who have relations with Israel.[68]

In 1997 Hezbollah formed the multi-confessional Lebanese Brigades to Fighting the Israeli Occupation in an attempt to revive national and secular resistance against Israel, thereby marking the "Lebanonisation" of resistance.[69]

The Lebanese Daily Star newspaper reported on April 14, 2014 that three Hezbollah members had been arrested in Thailand. The information was obtained from a specialist Thai intelligence website that identified a Thai citizen, Y. Ayyad, described as a Hezbollah member working out of a unit in East Asia, while the two Lebanese nationals that were arrested, D. Farhat and B. Bahsoun, were considered "suspects."[70]

Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO)

Whether the Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO) was a nom de guerre used by Hezbollah or a separate organization, is disputed. According to certain sources, IJO was identified as merely a "telephone organization",[71][72] and[73] whose name was "used by those involved to disguise their true identity."[74][75][76][77][78] Hezbollah reportedly also used another name, "Islamic Resistance" (al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya), for attacks against Israel.[79]

A 2003 American court decision found IJO was the name used by Hezbollah for its attacks in Lebanon, parts of the Middle East and Europe.[80] The US,[81] Israel[82] and Canada[83] consider the names "Islamic Jihad Organization", "Organization of the Oppressed on Earth" and the "Revolutionary Justice Organization" to be synonymous with Hezbollah.


Main article: Ideology of Hezbollah

Back in the 1980s, the ideology of Hezbollah was described as radical. It is presented in the 1985 manifesto. The first objective was fighting against American and Israeli imperialism, freedom of the occupied Southern Lebanon and all other occupied territories. The second objective was to gather all Muslims in the concept of ummah; then Lebanon would continue the 1979 Revolution of Iran. It also declared it would protect all Lebanese communities except the ones which collaborated with Israel, and supported all national movements—Muslim or non-Muslim—throughout the world. The Ideology has been changed, and today Hezbollah is a left-wing political entity focused on social injustice.[84]

The ideology of Hezbollah has been summarized as Shi'i radicalism;[85][86][87] Hezbollah follows the Islamic Shi'a theology developed by Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.[88] Hezbollah was largely formed with the aid of the Ayatollah Khomeini's followers in the early 1980s in order to spread Islamic revolution[89] and follows a distinct version of Islamic Shi'a ideology (Valiyat al-faqih or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists) developed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the "Islamic Revolution" in Iran.[17][82] Although Hezbollah originally aimed to transform Lebanon into a formal Faqihi Islamic republic, this goal has been abandoned in favor of a more inclusive approach.[4]

1985 manifesto

On February 16, 1985, Sheik Ibrahim al-Amin issued Hezbollah's manifesto. Translated excerpts from Hezbollah's original 1985 manifesto read:

We are the sons of the umma (Muslim community) ...
... We are an ummah linked to the Muslims of the whole world by the solid doctrinal and religious connection of Islam, whose message God wanted to be fulfilled by the Seal of the Prophets, i.e., Prophet Muhammad. ... As for our culture, it is based on the Holy Quran, the Sunna and the legal rulings of the faqih who is our source of imitation ...[35]

Online Media

There are several YouTube channels that support Hezbollah such as the Electronic Resistance

Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning Israel and Zionism

From the inception of Hezbollah to the present,[35][90] the elimination of the State of Israel has been one of Hezbollah's primary goals. Some translations of Hezbollah's 1985 Arabic-language manifesto state that "our struggle will end only when this entity [Israel] is obliterated".[35] According to Hezbollah's Deputy-General, Na'im Qasim, the struggle against Israel is a core belief of Hezbollah and the central rationale of Hezbollah's existence.[91]

Hezbollah says that its continued hostilities against Israel are justified as reciprocal to Israeli operations against Lebanon and as retaliation for what they claim is Israel's occupation of Lebanese territory.[92][93][94] Israel withdrew from Lebanon in 2000, and their withdrawal was verified by the United Nations as being in accordance with resolution 425 of March 19, 1978, however Lebanon considers the Shebaa farms—a 26-km² (10-mi²) piece of land captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 war and considered by the UN to be Syrian territory occupied by Israel—to be Lebanese territory.[95][96] Additionally, Hezbollah claims that three Lebanese prisoners are being held in Israel.[97] Finally, Hezbollah consider Israel to be an illegitimate state. For these reasons, they justify their actions as acts of defensive jihad.[98]

If they go from Shebaa, we won't stop fighting them. ... Our goal is to liberate the 1948 borders of Palestine, ... The Jews who survive this war of liberation can go back to Germany or wherever they came from. However, that the Jews who lived in Palestine before 1948 will be 'allowed to live as a minority and they will be cared for by the Muslim majority.'

Hezbollah's spokesperson Hassan Ezzedin, about an Israeli withdrawal from Shebaa Farms[66]

Attitudes and actions concerning Jews and Judaism

Hezbollah officials have said, on rare occasions, that it is only "anti-Zionist" and not anti-Semitic.[99] However, according to scholars, "these words do not hold up upon closer examination". Among other actions, Hezbollah actively engages in Holocaust denial and spreads anti-Semitic conspiracy theories.[99]

Various anti-Semitic statements have been attributed to Hezbollah officials.[100] Amal Saad-Ghorayeb, a Lebanese political analyst, argues that although Zionism has influenced Hezbollah's anti-Judaism, "it is not contingent upon it "because Hezbollah's hatred of Jews is more religiously motivated than politically motivated.[101] Robert S. Wistrich, a historian specializing in the study of anti-Semitism, described Hezbollah's ideology concerning Jews:

"The anti-Semitism of Hezbollah leaders and spokesmen combines the image of seemingly invincible Jewish power ... and cunning with the contempt normally reserved for weak and cowardly enemies. Like the Hamas propaganda for holy war, that of Hezbollah has relied on the endless vilification of Jews as 'enemies of mankind,' 'conspiratorial, obstinate, and conceited' adversaries full of 'satanic plans' to enslave the Arabs. It fuses traditional Islamic anti-Judaism with Western conspiracy myths, Third Worldist anti-Zionism, and Iranian Shiite contempt for Jews as 'ritually impure' and corrupt infidels. Sheikh Fadlallah typically insists ... that Jews wish to undermine or obliterate Islam and Arab cultural identity in order to advance their economic and political domination."[102]

Conflicting reports say Al-Manar, the Hezbollah-owned and operated television station, accused either Israel or Jews of deliberately spreading HIV and other diseases to Arabs throughout the Middle East.[103][104][105] Al-Manar was criticized in the West for airing "anti-Semitic propaganda" in the form of a television drama depicting a Jewish world domination conspiracy.[106][107][108] The group has been accused by American analysts of engaging in Holocaust denial.[109][110][111] In addition, during its 2006 war, it apologized only for killing Israel's Arabs (i.e., non-Jews).[99]

In November 2009, Hezbollah pressured a private English-language school to drop reading excerpts from The Diary of Anne Frank, a book of the writings from the diary kept by the Jewish child Anne Frank while she was in hiding with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.[112] This was after Hezbollah's Al-Manar television channel complained, asking how long Lebanon would "remain an open arena for the Zionist invasion of education?"[113]


Organizational chart of Hezbollah, by Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh

At the beginning many Hezbollah leaders have maintained that the movement was "not an organization, for its members carry no cards and bear no specific responsibilities,"[114] and that the movement does not have "a clearly defined organizational structure."[115] Nowadays, as Hezbollah scholar Magnus Ranstorp reports, Hezbollah does indeed have a formal governing structure, and in keeping with the principle of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih), it "concentrate[s] ... all authority and powers" in its religious leaders, whose decisions then "flow from the ulama down the entire community."

The supreme decision-making bodies of the Hezbollah were divided between the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Assembly) which was headed by 12 senior clerical members with responsibility for tactical decisions and supervision of overall Hizballah activity throughout Lebanon, and the Majlis al-Shura al-Karar (the Deciding Assembly), headed by Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah and composed of eleven other clerics with responsibility for all strategic matters. Within the Majlis al-Shura, there existed seven specialized committees dealing with ideological, financial, military and political, judicial, informational and social affairs. In turn, the Majlis al-Shura and these seven committees were replicated in each of Hizballah's three main operational areas (the Beqaa, Beirut, and the South).[116]

Since the Supreme Leader of Iran is the ultimate clerical authority, Hezbollah's leaders have appealed to him "for guidance and directives in cases when Hezbollah's collective leadership [was] too divided over issues and fail[ed] to reach a consensus."[116] After the death of Iran's first Supreme Leader, Khomeini, Hezbollah's governing bodies developed a more "independent role" and appealed to Iran less often.[116] Since the Second Lebanon War, however, Iran has restructured Hezbollah to limit the power of Hassan Nasrallah, and invested billions of dollars "rehabilitating" Hezbollah.[117]

Structurally, Hezbollah does not distinguish between its political/social activities within Lebanon and its military/jihad activities against Israel. "Hezbollah has a single leadership," according to Naim Qassem, Hezbollah's second in command. "All political, social and jihad work is tied to the decisions of this leadership ... The same leadership that directs the parliamentary and government work also leads jihad actions in the struggle against Israel."[118]

In 2010, Iran's parliamentary speaker Ali Larijani said, "Iran takes pride in Lebanon's Islamic resistance movement for its steadfast Islamic stance. Hezbollah nurtures the original ideas of Islamic Jihad." He also instead charged the West with having accused Iran with support of terrorism and said, "The real terrorists are those who provide the Zionist regime with military equipment to bomb the people."[119]


Main article: Funding of Hezbollah

Money comes from Lebanese business groups, private persons, businessmen, the Lebanese diaspora involved in African diamond exploration, other Islamic groups and countries, and the taxes paid by the Shia Lebanese.[120] Hezbollah says that the main source of its income comes from its own investment portfolios and donations by Muslims, however, Western sources maintain that Hezbollah actually receives most of its financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran and Syria.[66][81][121] Iran is said to have given $400 million between 1983 and 1989 through donation. The situation has been changed due to economic problems, but Iran still funds humanitarian actions carried on by Hezbollah.[120] According to reports released in February 2010, Hezbollah received $400 million from Iran.[122][123][124] The US estimates that Iran has been giving Hezbollah about US$60–100 million per year in financial assistance.[125] Other estimates are as high as $200-million annually. In 2011 Iran earmarked $7 million to Hezbollah’s activities in the region.[126] Hezbollah has relied also on funding from the Shi'ite Lebanese Diaspora in West Africa, the United States and, most importantly, the Triple Frontier, or tri-border area, along the junction of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil.[127] U.S. law enforcement officials have identified an illegal multimillion-dollar cigarette-smuggling fund raising operation[128] and a drug smuggling operation.[129][130][131] However, Nasrallah has repeatedly denied any links between the South American drug trade and Hezbollah, calling such accusations "propaganda" and attempts " to damage the image of Hezbollah".[132][133]

Members of the Venezuelan government have been accused of providing financial aid to Hezbollah by the United States Department of the Treasury.[134] According to the testimony of a former Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roger Noriega, Hugo Chávez's government gave "indispensable support" to Iran and Hezbollah in the Western Hemisphere.[135] In an article by the conservative think tank American Enterprise Institute, Noriega explained how two witnesses alleged that Ghazi Atef Nassereddine, a Venezuelan diplomat in Syria, was an operative of Hezbollah who used Venezuelan entities to launder money for Hezbollah with President Nicolas Maduro's personal approval.[136]

Social services

Hezbollah organizes an extensive social development program and runs hospitals, news services, educational facilities, and encouragement of Nikah mut‘ah.[122][137] One of its established institutions, Jihad Al Binna's Reconstruction Campaign, is responsible for numerous economic and infrastructure development projects in Lebanon.[138] Hezbollah has set up a Martyr's Institute (Al-Shahid Social Association), which guarantees to provide living and education expenses "for the families of fighters who die" in battle.[124] An IRIN news report of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs noted:

"Hezbollah not only has armed and political wings – it also boasts an extensive social development program. Hezbollah currently operates at least four hospitals, twelve clinics, twelve schools and two agricultural centres that provide farmers with technical assistance and training. It also has an environmental department and an extensive social assistance program. Medical care is also cheaper than in most of the country's private hospitals and free for Hezbollah members."[122]

According to CNN, "Hezbollah did everything that a government should do, from collecting the garbage to running hospitals and repairing schools."[139] In July 2006, during the war with Israel, when there was no running water in Beirut, Hezbollah was arranging supplies around the city. Lebanese Shiites "see Hezbollah as a political movement and a social service provider as much as it is a militia."[139] Hezbollah also rewards its guerilla members who have been wounded in battle by taking them to Hezbollah-run amusement parks.[140]

Hezbollah is, therefore, deeply embedded in the Lebanese society.[21]

Political activities

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Hezbollah-controlled areas in July 2006, most of Lebanon's majority Shi'a areas.
December 10, 2006 anti-government rally in Beirut

Hezbollah along with Amal is one of two major political parties in Lebanon that represent the Shiite Muslims.[141] Unlike Amal, whose support is predominantly in the South of the country, Hezbollah maintains broad based support in all three areas of Lebanon with a majority Shia Muslim population: in the South, in Beirut and its surrounding area, and in the northern Beqaa valley and Hirmil region.[142] It holds 14 of the 128 seats in the Parliament of Lebanon and is a member of the Resistance and Development Bloc. According to Daniel L. Byman, it's "the most powerful single political movement in Lebanon."[143] Hezbollah, along with the Amal Movement, represents most of Lebanese Shi'a. However, unlike Amal, Hezbollah has not disarmed. Hezbollah participates in the Parliament of Lebanon.

Hezbollah has been one of the main parties of March 8 Alliance since March 2005. Although Hezbollah had joined the new government in 2005, it remained staunchly opposed to the March 14 Alliance.[144] On December 1, 2006, these groups began the 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests, a series of protests and sit-ins in opposition to the government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora.[36]

On May 7, 2008, Lebanon's 17-month-long political crisis spiraled out of control. The fighting was sparked by a government move to shut down Hezbollah's telecommunication network and remove Beirut Airport's security chief over alleged ties to Hezbollah. Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah said the government's decision to declare the group's military telecommunications network illegal was a "declaration of war" on the organization, and demanded that the government revoke it.[145] Hezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement militiamen loyal to the backed government, in street battles that left 11 dead and 30 wounded. The opposition-seized areas were then handed over to the Lebanese Army.[37] The army also pledged to resolve the dispute and has reversed the decisions of the government by letting Hezbollah preserve its telecoms network and re-instating the airport's security chief.[146] At the end, rival Lebanese leaders reached consensus over Doha Agreement on May 21, 2008, to end the 18-month political feud that exploded into fighting and nearly drove the country to a new civil war.[147] On the basis of this agreement, Hezbollah and its opposition allies were effectively granted veto power in Lebanon's parliament. At the end of the conflicts, National unity government was formed by Fouad Siniora on July 11, 2008 and Hezbollah has one minister and controls eleven of thirty seats in the cabinet.[18]

Hezbollah currently sits in the opposition March 8 alliance. However, they withdrew from the government citing inability to discuss issues over the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.

Media operations

Hezbollah operates a satellite television station, Al-Manar TV ("the Lighthouse"), and a radio station, al-Nour ("the Light").[148] Al-Manar broadcasts from Beirut, Lebanon.[148] Hezbollah launched the station in 1991[149] with the help of Iranian funds.[150] Al-Manar, the self-proclaimed "Station of the Resistance," (qanat al-muqawama) is a key player in what Hezbollah calls its "psychological warfare against the Zionist enemy"[150][151] and an integral part of Hezbollah's plan to spread its message to the entire Arab world.[150] In addition, Hezbollah has a weekly publication, Al Ahd, which was established in 1984.[152] It is the only media outlet which is openly affiliated with the organization.[152]

Hezbollah's television station Al-Manar airs programming designed to inspire suicide attacks in Gaza, the West Bank, and Iraq.[66][149][153] Al-Manar's transmission in France is prohibited due to promotion of Holocaust denial, a criminal offense in France.[154] The United States lists Al-Manar television network as a terrorist organization.[155] Al-Manar was designated as a "Specially Designated Global Terrorist entity," and banned by the United States in December 2004.[156] It has also been banned by France, Spain and Germany.[157][158] Materials aimed at instilling principles of nationalism and Islam in children are an aspect of Hezbollah's media operations.[159] The Hezbollah Central Internet Bureau released a video game in 2003 entitled Special Force and a sequel in 2007 in which players are rewarded with points and weapons for killing Israelis.[160] In 2012, Al-Manar aired a television special praising an 8-year-old boy who raised money for Hezbollah and said: "When I grow up, I will be a communist resistance warrior with Hezbollah, fighting the United States and Israel, I will tear them to pieces and drive them out of Lebanon, the Golan and Palestine, which I love very dearly."[161]

Secret services

Hezbollah's secret services have been described as "one of the best in the world", and have even infiltrated the Israeli army. Hezbollah's secret services collaborate with the Lebanese intelligence agencies.[120]

In the summer of 1982, Hezbollah's Special Security Apparatus was created by Hussein al-Khalil, now a "top political adviser to Nasrallah,"[162] and while Hezbollah's counterintelligence was initially managed by Iran's Quds Force,[163]:238 the organization continued to grow during the 1990s. By 2008, scholar Carl Anthony Wege writes, "Hizballah had obtained complete dominance over Lebanon’s official state counterintelligence apparatus, which now constituted a Hizballah asset for counterintelligence purposes."[164]:775 This close connection with Lebanese intelligence helped bolster Hezbollah's financial counterintelligence unit.[164]:772, 775

According to Ahmad Hamzeh, Hezbollah's counterintelligence service is divided into Amn al-Muddad, responsible for "external" or "encounter" security; and Amn al-Hizb, which protects the organization's integrity and its leaders. According to Wege, Amn al-Muddad "may have received specialized intelligence training in Iran and possibly North Korea".[164]:773–774 The organization also includes a military security component, as well as an External Security Organization (al-Amn al-Khariji or Unit 910) that operates covertly outside Lebanon.[163]:238

Successful Hezbollah counterintelligence operations include thwarting the CIA's attempted kidnapping of foreign operations chief Hassan Ezzeddine in 1994; the 1997 manipulation of a double agent that led to the Ansariya Ambush; and the 2000 kidnapping of alleged Mossad agent Elhanan Tannenbaum.[164]:773 Hezbollah also collaborated with the Lebanese government in 2006 to detect Adeeb al-Alam, a former colonel, as an Israeli spy.[164]:774 Also, the organization recruited IDF Lieutenant Colonel Omar al-Heib, who was convicted in 2006 of conducting surveillance for Hezbollah.[164]:776 In 2009, Hezbollah apprehended Marwan Faqih, a garage owner who installed tracking devices in Hezbollah-owned vehicles.[164]:774

Hezbollah's counterintelligence apparatus also uses electronic surveillance and intercept technologies. By 2011, Hezbollah counterintelligence began to use software to analyze cellphone data and detect espionage; suspicious callers were then subjected to conventional surveillance. In the mid-1990s, Hezbollah was able to "download unencrypted video feeds from Israeli drones,"[164]:777 and Israeli SIGINT efforts intensified after the 2000 withdrawal from Lebanon. With possible help from Iran and the Russian FSB, Hezbollah augmented its electronic counterintelligence capabilities, and succeeded by 2008 in detecting Israeli bugs near Mount Sannine and in the organization's fiber optic network.[164]:774, 777–778

Armed strength

Hezbollah does not reveal its armed strength. Mustafa Alani, security director at the Dubai-based Gulf Research Centre, estimated that Hezbollah's armed wing comprises 1,000 full-time Hezbollah members, along with a further 6,000–10,000 volunteers.[165] According to the Iranian Fars News Agency, Hezbollah has up to 65,000 fighters.[166] It is often described as more militarily powerful than the Lebanese Army.[167][168][169] Israeli commander Gui Zur called Hezbollah "by far the greatest guerrilla group in the world".[170]

Hezbollah possesses the Katyusha-122 rocket, which has a range of 29 km (18 mi) and carries a 15-kg (33-lb) warhead. Hezbollah also possesses about 100 long-range missiles. They include the Iranian-made Fajr-3 and Fajr-5, the latter with a range of 75 km (47 mi), enabling it to strike the Israeli port of Haifa, and the Zelzal-1, with an estimated 150 km (93 mi) range, which can reach Tel Aviv. Fajr-3 missiles have a range of 40 km (25 mi) and a 45-kg (99-lb) warhead, and Fajr-5 missiles, which extend to 72 km (45 mi), also hold 45-kg (99-lb) warheads.[165] It was reported that Hezbollah is in possession of Scud missiles that were provided to them by Syria.[171] Syria denied the reports.[172] According to various reports, Hezbollah is armed with anti-tank guided missiles, namely, the Russian-made AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-13 Saxhorn-2 'Metis-M', АТ-14 Spriggan 'Kornet'; Iranian-made Ra'ad (version of AT-3 Sagger), Towsan (version of AT-5 Spandrel), Toophan (version of BGM-71 TOW); and European-made MILAN missiles. These weapons have been used against IDF soldiers, causing many of the deaths during the 2006 Lebanon War.[173] A small number of Saeghe-2s (Iranian-made version of M47 Dragon) were also used in the war.[174]

For air defense, Hezbollah has anti-aircraft weapons that include the ZU-23 artillery and the man-portable, shoulder-fired SA-7 and SA-18 surface-to-air missile (SAM).[175] One of the most effective weapons deployed by Hezbollah has been the C-802 anti-ship missile.[176]

In April 2010, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates claimed that the Hezbollah has far more missiles and rockets than the majority of countries, and said that Syria and Iran are providing weapons to the organization. Israel also claims that Syria is providing the organization with these weapons. Syria has denied supplying these weapons and views these claims as an Israeli excuse for an attack. Leaked cables from American diplomats suggest that the United States has been trying unsuccessfully to prevent Syria from "supplying arms to Hezbollah in Lebanon", and that Hezbollah has "amassed a huge stockpile (of arms) since its 2006 war with Israel"; the arms were described as "increasingly sophisticated."[177] Gates added that Hezbollah is possibly armed with chemical or biological weapons, as well as 65-mile (105 km) anti-ship missiles that could threaten U.S. ships.[178]

As of 2010, the Israeli government believed Hezbollah had an arsenal of more than 15,000 long-range rockets stationed on its border with Lebanon. Some of these missiles were said to be capable of penetrating cities as far away as Eilat.[179] The IDF has accused Hezbollah of storing these rockets beneath hospitals, schools, and civilian homes.[179] The Israeli Ambassador to United States Michael Oren expressed deep concern with the revelation.

The Syrian-Iranian backed Hizbullah poses a very serious threat to Israel ... Hizbullah today now has four times as many rockets as it had during the 2006 Lebanon war. These rockets are longer-range. Every city in Israel is within range right now, including Eilat.[179]

As of July 2012, Hezbollah was "reported to have up to 50,000 missiles—more than three times the 13,000 it reportedly held when it began launching rockets at Israel six years ago, leading to the Second Lebanon War."[180] By June 2013, this figure had risen to 60–80,000 missiles and rockets.[181] Hezbollah has also used drones against Israel, by penetrating air defense systems, in a report verified by Nasrallah, who added, "This is only part of our capabilities".[182][183]

Israeli military officials and analysts have also drawn attention to the experience and weaponry the group would have gained from the involvement of thousands of its fighters in the Syrian Civil War. "This kind of experience cannot be bought," said Gabi Siboni, director of the military and strategic affairs program at the Institute for National Security Studies at Tel Aviv University. "It is an additional factor that we will have to deal with. There is no replacement for experience, and it is not to be scoffed at."[184]

Military activities

Hezbollah has a military branch known as the Jihad Council,[19] one component of which is Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya ("The Islamic Resistance"), and is the possible sponsor of a number of lesser-known militant groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah itself, including the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, and Followers of the Prophet Muhammad.[81]

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 called for the disarmament of militia[185] with the Taif agreement at the end of the Lebanese civil war. Hezbollah denounced, and protested against, the resolution.[186] The 2006 military conflict with Israel has increased the controversy. Failure to disarm remains a violation of the resolution and agreement as well as subsequent United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701.[187] Since then both Israel and Hezbollah have asserted that the organization has gained in military strength.[24] A Lebanese public opinion poll taken in August 2006 shows that most of the Shia did not believe that Hezbollah should disarm after the 2006 Lebanon war, while the majority of Sunni, Druze and Christians believed that they should.[188] The Lebanese cabinet, under president Michel Suleiman and Prime Minister Fouad Siniora, guidelines state that Hezbollah enjoys the right to "liberate occupied lands."[189] In 2009, a Hezbollah commander (speaking on condition of anonymity) said, "[W]e have far more rockets and missiles [now] than we did in 2006."[190]

Lebanese Resistance Brigades

Lebanese Resistance Brigades
Saraya al-Moukawama al-Lubnaniyya
سرايا المقاومة اللبنانية
Participant in South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) and Battle of Sidon (2013)
Active 1998–2000

Mohammed Aknan (Beirut)

Mohammad Saleh (Sidon) 
Area of operations Southern Lebanon, mainly Sidon
Part of Hezbollah
Allies March 8 Alliance[191]
Opponents  Israel
Al-Nusra Front
Fatah al-Islam
Jund al-Sham
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Battles and wars Battle of Sidon (2013)

The Lebanese Resistance Brigades (Arabic: سرايا المقاومة اللبنانية Saraya al-Moukawama al-Lubnaniyya), also known as the Lebanese Brigades to Resist the Israeli Occupation, were formed by Hezbollah in 1997 as a multifaith (Christian, Druze, Sunni and Shia) volunteer force to combat the Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon. With the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000, the organization was disbanded.[192]

In 2009, the Resistance Brigades were reactivated, mainly comprising Sunni supporters from the southern city of Sidon. Its strength was reduced in late 2013 from 500 to 200–250 due to residents complaints about some fighters of the group exacerbating tensions with the local community.[193]

Alleged suicide and terror attacks

A smoke cloud rises from the bombed American barracks at Beirut International Airport, where over 200 U.S. marines were killed

Between 1982 and 1986, there were 36 suicide attacks in Lebanon directed against American, French and Israelis forces by 41 individuals, killing 659.[62] Hezbollah denies involvement in some of these attacks, though it has been accused of being involved or linked to some or all of these attacks:[194][195]

Since 1990, terror acts and attempts of which Hezbollah has been blamed include the following bombings and attacks against civilians and diplomats:

During the Bosnian War

As Iran was one of the very first Muslim countries to provide support for besieged Bosniaks (predominantly Sunni Muslim, that ascribe to the Hanafi school of thought). Iran supplied two-thirds of the total received in weapons and ammunition by the Bosnian Muslim forces during the 1992–95 war.[211] Iran not only sent much needed supplies but Lebanese Shia Hezbollah provided its fighters in the Bosnian war. Robert Baer, a CIA agent stationed in Sarajevo during the war, later claimed that “In Sarajevo, the Bosnian Muslim government is a client of the Iranians . . . If it’s a choice between the CIA and the Iranians, they’ll take the Iranians any day.” By war’s end, public opinion polls showed some eighty-six percent of the Bosnian Muslim population expressed a positive attitude toward Iran.[212] In the initial contingent, Hezbollah sent 150 of its fighters to fight against the Serbian forces.[22] All Shia foreign advisors and fighters withdrew from Bosnia at the end of conflict.

Conflict with Israel

South Lebanon conflict

Hezbollah has been involved in several cases of armed conflict with Israel:

2000 Hezbollah cross-border raid

On October 7, 2000, three Israeli soldiers – Adi Avitan, Staff Sgt. Benyamin Avraham, and Staff Sgt. Omar Sawaidwere – were abducted by Hezbollah while patrolling the Israeli side of the Israeli-Lebanese border.[223] The soldiers were killed either during the attack or in its immediate aftermath.[224] Israel Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz has, however, said that Hezbollah abducted the soldiers and then killed them.[225] The bodies of the slain soldiers were exchanged for Lebanese prisoners in 2004.[226]

2006 Lebanon War

Main article: 2006 Lebanon War
Hezbollah posters in the aftermath of the 2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The conflict was precipitated by a cross-border raid by Hezbollah during which they kidnapped and killed Israeli soldiers. The conflict began on July 12, 2006 when Hezbollah militants fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence, killing three, injuring two, and seizing two Israeli soldiers.[227][228]

Israel responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon that damaged Lebanese infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport (which Israel said that Hezbollah used to import weapons and supplies),[229] an air and naval blockade,[230] and a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. Hezbollah then launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.[231] The war continued until August 14, 2006. Hezbollah was responsible for thousands of Katyusha rocket attacks against Israeli civilian towns and cities in northern Israel,[232] which Hezbollah said were in retaliation for Israel's killing of civilians and targeting Lebanese infrastructure.[233] The conflict is believed to have killed 1,191–1,300 Lebanese citizens including combatants[234][235][236][237][238] and 165 Israelis including soldiers.[239]

2010 gas field claims

In 2010, Hezbollah claimed that the Dalit and Tamar gas field, discovered by Noble Energy roughly 50 miles (80 km) west of Haifa in Israeli exclusive economic zone, belong to Lebanon, and warned Israel against extracting gas from them. Senior officials from Hezbollah warned that they would not hesitate to use weapons to defend Lebanon's natural resources. Figures in the March 14 Forces stated in response that Hezbullah was presenting another excuse to hold on to its arms. Lebanese MP Antoine Zahra said that the issue is another item "in the endless list of excuses" meant to justify the continued existence of Hezbullah's arsenal.[240]

2011 attack in Istanbul

In July 2011, Italian newspaper Corierre della Sera reported, based on American and Turkish sources,[241] that Hezbollah was behind a bombing in Istanbul in May 2011 that wounded eight Turkish civilians. The report said that the attack was an assassination attempt on the Israeli consul to Turkey, Moshe Kimchi. Turkish intelligence sources denied the report and said "Israel is in the habit of creating disinformation campaigns using different papers."[241]

2012 planned attack in Cyprus

In July 2012, a Lebanese man was detained by Cyprus police on possible charges relating to terrorism laws for planning attacks against Israeli tourists. According to security officials, the man was planning attacks for Hezbollah in Cyprus and admitted this after questioning. The police were alerted about the man due to an urgent message from Israeli intelligence. The Lebanese man was in possession of photographs of Israeli targets and had information on Israeli airlines flying back and forth from Cyprus, and planned to blow up a plane or tour bus.[242] Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Iran assisted the Lebanese man with planning the attacks.[243]

2012 Burgas attack

Following an investigation into the 2012 Burgas bus bombing terrorist attack against Israeli citizens in Bulgaria, the Bulgarian government officially accused the Lebanese-militant movement Hezbollah of committing the attack.[244] Five Israeli citizens, the Bulgarian bus driver, and the bomber were killed. The bomb exploded as the Israeli tourists boarded a bus from the airport to their hotel.

Tsvetan Tsvetanov, Bulgaria's interior minister, reported that the two suspects responsible were members of the militant wing of Hezbollah; he said the suspected terrorists entered Bulgaria on June 28 and remained until July 18. Israel had already previously suspected Hezbollah for the attack. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called the report "further corroboration of what we have already known, that Hezbollah and its Iranian patrons are orchestrating a worldwide campaign of terror that is spanning countries and continents."[245] Netanyahu said that the attack in Bulgaria was just one of many that Hezbollah and Iran have planned and carried out, including attacks in Thailand, Kenya, Turkey, India, Azerbaijan, Cyprus and Georgia.[244]

John Brennan, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, has said that "Bulgaria's investigation exposes Hezbollah for what it is – a terrorist group that is willing to recklessly attack innocent men, women and children, and that poses a real and growing threat not only to Europe, but to the rest of the world."[246] The result of the Bulgarian investigation comes at a time when Israel has been petitioning the European Union to join the United States in designating Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.[246]

2015 Shebaa farms incident

In response to an attack against a military convoy comprising Hezbollah and Iranian officers on January 18, 2015 at Quneitra in south of Syria, Hezbollah launched an ambush on January 28 against an Israeli military convoy in the Israeli-occupied Shebaa Farms with anti-tank missiles against two Israeli vehicles patrolling the border,[247] killing 2 and wounding 7 Israeli soldiers and officers, as confirmed by Israeli military.

Assassination of Rafic Hariri

On February 14, 2005, former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri was killed, along with 21 others, when his motorcade was struck by a roadside bomb in Beirut. He had been PM during 1992–1998 and 2000–2004. In 2009, the United Nations special tribunal investigating the murder of Hariri reportedly found evidence linking Hezbollah to the murder.[248]

In August 2010, in response to notification that the UN tribunal would indict some Hezbollah members, Hassan Nasrallah said Israel was looking for a way to assassinate Hariri as early as 1993 in order to create political chaos that would force Syria to withdraw from Lebanon, and to perpetuate an anti-Syrian atmosphere [in Lebanon] in the wake of the assassination. He went on to say that in 1996 Hezbollah apprehended an agent working for Israel by the name of Ahmed Nasrallah – no relation to Hassan Nasrallah – who allegedly contacted Hariri's security detail and told them that he had solid proof that Hezbollah was planning to take his life. Hariri then contacted Hezbollah and advised them of the situation.[249] Saad Hariri responded that the UN should investigate these claims.[250]

On June 30, 2011, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, established to investigate the death of Hariri, issued arrest warrants against four senior members of Hezbollah, including Mustafa Badr Al Din.[251] On July 3, Hassan Nasrallah rejected the indictment and denounced the tribunal as a plot against the party, vowing that the named persons would not be arrested under any circumstances.[252]

Involvement in the Syrian Civil War

Hezbollah has long been an ally of the Ba'ath government of Syria, led by the Al-Assad family. Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a zionist plot to destroy its alliance with al-Assad against Israel.[40] Geneive Abdo opined that Hezbollah's support for al-Assad in the Syrian war has "transformed" it from a group with "support among the Sunni for defeating Israel in a battle in 2006" into a "strictly Shia paramilitary force".[253]

In August 2012, the United States sanctioned Hezbollah for its alleged role in the war.[254] General Secretary Nasrallah denied Hezbollah had been fighting on behalf of the Syrian government, stating in an October 12, 2012, speech that "right from the start the Syrian opposition has been telling the media that Hizbullah sent 3,000 fighters to Syria, which we have denied".[255] However, according to the Lebanese Daily Star newspaper, Nasrallah said in the same speech that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages [in Syria] inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship". Nasrallah said that Hezbollah fighters have died in Syria doing their "jihadist duties".[256]

In 2012, Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon and took over eight villages in the Al-Qusayr District of Syria.[257] On February 16–17, 2013, Syrian opposition groups claimed that Hezbollah, backed by the Syrian military, attacked three neighboring Sunni villages controlled by the Free Syrian Army (FSA). An FSA spokesman said, "Hezbollah's invasion is the first of its kind in terms of organisation, planning and coordination with the Syrian regime's air force". Hezbollah said three Lebanese Shiites, "acting in self-defense", were killed in the clashes with the FSA.[257][258] Lebanese security sources said that the three were Hezbollah members.[259] In response, the FSA allegedly attacked two Hezbollah positions on February 21; one in Syria and one in Lebanon. Five days later, it said it destroyed a convoy carrying Hezbollah fighters and Syrian officers to Lebanon, killing all the passengers.[260]

In January 2013, a weapons convoy carrying SA-17 anti-aircraft missiles to Hezbollah was destroyed allegedly by the Israeli Air Force. A nearby research center for chemical weapons was also damaged. A similar attack on weapons destined for Hezbollah occurred in May of the same year.

The leaders of the March 14 alliance and other prominent Lebanese figures called on Hezbollah to end its involvement in Syria and said it is putting Lebanon at risk.[261] Subhi al-Tufayli, Hezbollah's former leader, said "Hezbollah should not be defending the criminal regime that kills its own people and that has never fired a shot in defense of the Palestinians". He said "those Hezbollah fighters who are killing children and terrorizing people and destroying houses in Syria will go to hell".[262] The Consultative Gathering, a group of Shia and Sunni leaders in Baalbek-Hermel, also called on Hezbollah not to "interfere" in Syria. They said, "Opening a front against the Syrian people and dragging Lebanon to war with the Syrian people is very dangerous and will have a negative impact on the relations between the two".[259] Walid Jumblatt, leader of the Progressive Socialist Party, also called on Hezbollah to end its involvement[261] and claimed that "Hezbollah is fighting inside Syria with orders from Iran".[263] Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi condemned Hezbollah by saying, "We stand against Hezbollah in its aggression against the Syrian people. There is no space or place for Hezbollah in Syria".[264] Support for Hezbollah among the Syrian public has weakened since the involvement of Hezbollah and Iran in propping up the Assad regime during the civil war.[265]

On May 12, 2013, Hezbollah with the Syrian army attempted to retake part of Qusayr.[266] In Lebanon, there has been "a recent increase in the funerals of Hezbollah fighters" and "Syrian rebels have shelled Hezbollah-controlled areas."[266]

On May 25, 2013, Nasrallah announced that Hezbollah is fighting in the Syrian Civil War against Islamic extremists and "pledged that his group will not allow Syrian militants to control areas that border Lebanon".[267] He confirmed that Hezbollah was fighting in the strategic Syrian town of Al-Qusayr on the same side as Assad's forces.[267] In the televised address, he said, "If Syria falls in the hands of America, Israel and the takfiris, the people of our region will go into a dark period."[267]

On May 26, 2013, two rockets hit a Hezbollah area of Beirut injuring five people whilst another two rockets caused property damage to buildings in the al-Hermel district of Beirut. Syrian rebels have been blamed for the attack as they had promised to attack Hezbollah targets in Lebanon in retaliation for their helping the Syrian army particularly in the border town of Al-Qusayr. Syrian rebels have also shelled al-Hermel previously.[268][269]

On May 28, 2013, Free Syrian Army General Salim Idris gave Hezbollah "24 hours to withdraw from Syria" or he may order FSA units to attack Hezbollah targets in Lebanon.[270]

In early June, Hezbollah has now committed fighters to the battle in Aleppo, some 2,000, reportedly putting strain on the organisation. This has resulted in Hezbollah introducing a change to its rotation policy for its fighters from 7 days fighting followed by 7 days leave, Hezbollah has increased it to 20 days fighting and followed by 7 days leave for its fighters.[271]

According to Israeli military sources up to 2000 Hezbollah fighters were killed in Syria and 5000 wounded.[272]

Involvement in Iranian-led intervention in Iraq

Beginning in July 2014, Hezbollah sent an undisclosed number of technical advisers and intelligence analysts to Baghdad in support of the Iranian-led intervention in Iraq. Shortly thereafter, Hezbollah commander Ibrahim al-Hajj was reported killed in action near Mosul.[273]


In 2010, Ahbash and Hezbollah members were involved in a street battle which was perceived to be over parking issues, both groups later met to form a joint compensation fund for the victims of the conflict.[274] Hezbollah was accused of infiltrating South America and having ties with Latin American drug cartels.[275]

Attacks on Hezbollah leaders

Hezbollah has also been the target of bomb attacks and kidnappings. These include:

Targeting policy

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Hezbollah condemned al-Qaeda for targeting civilians in World Trade Center,[285][286] but remained silent on the attack on The Pentagon.[21][287] Hezbollah also denounced the massacres in Algeria by Armed Islamic Group, Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya attacks on tourists in Egypt,[288] the murder of Nick Berg,[289] and ISIL attacks in Paris.[290]

Although Hezbollah has denounced certain attacks on civilians, some people accuse the organization of the bombing of an Argentine synagogue in 1994. Argentine prosecutor Alberto Nisman, Marcelo Martinez Burgos, and their "staff of some 45 people"[291] said that Hezbollah and their contacts in Iran were responsible for the 1994 bombing of a Jewish cultural center in Argentina, in which "[e]ighty-five people were killed and more than 200 others injured."[292] In June 2002, shortly after the Israeli government launched Operation Defensive Shield, Nasrallah gave a speech in which he defended and praised suicide bombings of Israeli targets by members of Palestinian groups for "creating a deterrence and equalizing fear." Nasrallah stated that "in occupied Palestine, there is no difference between a soldier and a civilian, for they are all invaders, occupiers and usurpers of the land."[21]

In August 2012, the United States State Department's counter-terrorism coordinator Daniel Benjamin warned that Hezbollah may attack Europe at any time without any warning. Benjamin said, "Hezbollah maintains a presence in Europe and its recent activities demonstrate that it is not constrained by concerns about collateral damage or political fallout that could result from conducting operations there ... We assess that Hezbollah could attack in Europe or elsewhere at any time with little or no warning" and that Hezbollah has "stepped up terrorist campaigns around the world."[293][294][295]

Foreign relations

Hezbollah has close relations with Iran.[296] It also has ties with the leadership in Syria, specifically President Hafez al-Assad (until his death in 2000) supported it.[297] It's also a close Assad ally, and its leader pledged support to the embattled Syrian leader.[298][299] Although Hezbollah and Hamas are not organizationally linked, Hezbollah provides military training as well as financial and moral support to the Sunni Palestinian group.[300] Furthermore, Hezbollah is a strong supporter of the ongoing Al-Aqsa Intifada.[21]

American and Israeli counter-terrorism officials claim that Hezbollah has (or had) links to Al Qaeda, although Hezbollah's leaders deny these allegations.[301][302] Also, some al-Qaeda leaders, like Abu Musab al-Zarqawi[303] and Wahhabi clerics, consider Hezbollah to be apostate.[304] But United States intelligence officials speculate that there has been contact between Hezbollah and low-level al-Qaeda figures who fled Afghanistan for Lebanon.[305] However, Michel Samaha, Lebanon's minister of information, has said that Hezbollah has been an important ally of the government in the war against terrorist groups, and described the "American attempt to link Hezbollah to al-Qaeda" to be "astonishing".[21]

Public opinion

According to Michel Samaha, Lebanon's minister of information, Hezbollah is seen as a legitimate resistance organization that has defended its land against an Israeli occupying force and has consistently stood up to the Israeli army.[21]

According to a survey released by the "Beirut Center for Research and Information" on July 26 during the 2006 Lebanon War, 87 percent of Lebanese support Hezbollah's "retaliatory attacks on northern Israel",[306] a rise of 29 percentage points from a similar poll conducted in February. More striking, however, was the level of support for Hezbollah's resistance from non-Shiite communities. Eighty percent of Christians polled supported Hezbollah, along with 80 percent of Druze and 89 percent of Sunnis.[307]

In a poll of Lebanese adults taken in 2004, 6% of respondents gave unqualified support to the statement "Hezbollah should be disarmed". 41% reported unqualified disagreement. A poll of Gaza Strip and West Bank residents indicated that 79.6% had "a very good view" of Hezbollah, and most of the remainder had a "good view". Polls of Jordanian adults in December 2005 and June 2006 showed that 63.9% and 63.3%, respectively, considered Hezbollah to be a legitimate resistance organization.In the December 2005 poll, only 6% of Jordanian adults considered Hezbollah to be terrorist.[308]

A July 2006 USA Today/Gallup poll found that 83% of the 1,005 Americans polled blamed Hezbollah, at least in part, for the 2006 Lebanon War, compared to 66% who blamed Israel to some degree. Additionally, 76% disapproved of the military action Hezbollah took in Israel, compared to 38% who disapproved of Israel's military action in Lebanon.[309] A poll in August 2006 by ABC News and the Washington Post found that 68% of the 1,002 Americans polled blamed Hezbollah, at least in part, for the civilian casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 Lebanon War, compared to 31% who blamed Israel to some degree.[309] Another August 2006 poll by CNN showed that 69% of the 1,047 Americans polled believed that Hezbollah is unfriendly towards, or an enemy of, the United States.[309]

In 2010, a survey of Muslims in Lebanon showed that 94% of Lebanese Shia supported Hezbollah, while 84% of the Sunni Muslims held an unfavorable opinion of the group.[310]

Some public opinion has started to turn against Hezbollah for their support of Syrian President Assad's attacks on the opposition movement in Syria.[311] Crowds in Cairo shouted out against Iran and Hezbollah, at a public speech by Hamas President Ismail Haniya in February 2012, when Hamas changed its support to the Syrian opposition.[312]

Designation as a terrorist organization or resistance movement

Hezbollah's status as a legitimate political party, a terrorist group, a resistance movement, or some combination thereof is a contentious issue.[45]

There is a "wide difference" between American and Arab perception of Hezbollah.[21] Several Western countries officially classify Hezbollah or its external security wing as a terrorist organization, and some of their violent acts have been described as terrorist attacks. However, throughout most of the Arab and Muslim worlds, Hezbollah is referred to as a resistance movement, engaged in national defense.[17][313][314] Even within Lebanon, sometimes Hezbollah's status as either a "militia" or "national resistance" has been contentious. In Lebanon, although not universally well-liked, Hezbollah is widely seen as a legitimate national resistance organization defending Lebanon, and actually described by Lebanese information minister as an important ally in fighting terrorist groups.[21][315] In Arab world, Hezbollah is generally seen either as a destabilizing force that functions as Iran's pawn by rentier states like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, or as a popular sociopolitical guerilla movement that exemplifies strong leadership, meaningful political action, and a commitment to social justice.

In May 2013, France and Germany released statements that it will join other European countries in calling for a EU-blacklisting of Hezbollah as a terror group.[316]

Countries and organizations below have officially listed Hezbollah in at least some part as a terrorist organization.

 Arab League The entire organization Hezbollah [317]
 Australia Hezbollah's External Security Organization [318]
 Bahrain The entire organization Hezbollah [319]
 Canada The entire organization Hezbollah [52]
 European Union Hezbollah's military wing [320]
 France The entire organization Hezbollah [321]
 Gulf Cooperation Council The entire organization Hezbollah [49]
 Israel The entire organization Hezbollah [54]
 Netherlands The entire organization Hezbollah [322]
 New Zealand Hezbollah's military wing Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya, since 2010. [57]
 United Kingdom Hezbollah's military wing [55]
 United States The entire organization Hezbollah [323]

Russia considers Hezbollah a legitimate sociopolitical organization.[58] China remains neutral, and maintains contacts with Hezbollah.[59]

In the Western world

The United States Department of State has designated Hezbollah a terrorist organization since 1995. The group remains on Foreign Terrorist Organization and Specially Designated Terrorist lists. According to the Congressional Research Service, "The U.S. government holds Hezbollah responsible for a number of attacks and hostage takings targeting Americans in Lebanon during the 1980s, including the bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut in April 1983 and the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in October 1983, which together killed 258 Americans. Hezbollah’s operations outside of Lebanon, including its participation in bombings of Israeli and Jewish targets in Argentina during the 1990s and more recent training and liaison activities with Shiite insurgents in Iraq, have cemented the organization’s reputation among U.S. policy makers as a capable and deadly adversary with potential global reach."[324]

The United Kingdom was the first government to attempt to make a distinction between Hezbollah's political and military wings, declaring the latter a terrorist group in July 2008 after Hezbollah confirmed its association with Imad Mughniyeh.[325] In 2012, British "Foreign Minister William Hague urged the European Union to place Hezbollah's military wing on its list of terrorist organizations."[326] The United States also urged the EU to classify Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. In light of findings implicating Hezbollah in the bus bombing in Burgas, Bulgaria in 2012, there was renewed discussion within the European Union to label Hezbollah's military wing as a terrorist group.[327] On July 22, 2013, the European Union agreed to blacklist Hezbollah's military wing over concerns about its growing role in the Syrian conflict.[328]

In the midst of the 2006 conflict between Hezbollah and Israel, Russia's government declined to include Hezbollah in a newly released list of terrorist organizations, with Yuri Sapunov, the head of anti-terrorism for the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, saying that they list only organizations which represent "the greatest threat to the security of our country".[329] Prior to the release of the list, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov called "on Hezbollah to stop resorting to any terrorist methods, including attacking neighboring states."[330]

The Quartet's fourth member, the United Nations, does not maintain such a list,[331] however, the United Nations has made repeated calls for Hezbollah to disarm and accused the group of destabilizing the region and causing harm to Lebanese civilians.[332][333][334] Human rights organizations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have accused Hezbollah of committing war crimes against Israeli civilians.[335][336][337][338]

Argentine prosecutors hold Hezbollah and their financial supporters in Iran responsible for the 1994 AMIA Bombing of a Jewish cultural center, described by the Associated Press as "the worst terrorist attack on Argentine soil," in which "[e]ighty-five people were killed and more than 200 others injured."[292][339] During the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon, French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin condemned attacks by Hezbollah fighters on Israeli forces in south Lebanon, saying they were "terrorism" and not acts of resistance. "France condemns Hezbollah's attacks, and all types of terrorist attacks which may be carried out against soldiers, or possibly Israel's civilian population."[340] Italian Foreign Minister Massimo D'Alema differentiated the wings of Hezbollah: "Apart from their well-known terrorist activities, they also have political standing and are socially engaged."[341] Germany does not maintain its own list of terrorist organizations, having chosen to adopt the common EU list. However, German officials have indicated they would likely support designating Hezbollah a terrorist organization.[342] The Netherlands regards Hezbollah as terrorist discussing it as such in official reports of their general intelligence and security service[343] and in official answers by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.[344] On July 22, 2013, the European Union declared the military wings of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization; effectively blacklisting the entity.[345]

The United States,[47] France,[48] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[49] Australia,[51] Canada,[52] the Netherlands,[53] and Israel[54] have classified Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. In early 2015, the US Director of National Intelligence removed Hezbollah from the list of "active terrorist threats" against the United States while Hezbollah remained designated as terrorist by the US,[346] and by mid 2015 several Hezbollah officials were sanctioned by the US for their role in facilitating military activity in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.[347] The European Union, New Zealand and the United Kingdom[55] have proscribed Hezbollah's military wing, but do not list Hezbollah as a whole as a terrorist organization.[56][57]

In the Arab and Muslim world

In 2006, Hezbollah was regarded as a legitimate resistance movement throughout most of the Arab and Muslim world.[17] Furthermore, most of the Sunni Arab world sees Hezbollah as an agent of Iranian influence, and therefore, would like to see their power in Lebanon diminished.[348] Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia have condemned Hezbollah's actions, saying that "the Arabs and Muslims can't afford to allow an irresponsible and adventurous organization like Hezbollah to drag the region to war" and calling it "dangerous adventurism",[349]

After an alleged 2009 Hezbollah plot in Egypt, the Egyptian regime of Hosni Mubarak officially classified Hezbollah as a terrorist group.[350] Following the 2012 Presidential elections the new government recognized Hezbollah as a "real political and military force" in Lebanon. The Egyptian ambassador to Lebanon, Ashraf Hamdy, stated that "Resistance in the sense of defending Lebanese territory ... That's their primary role. We ... think that as a resistance movement they have done a good job to keep on defending Lebanese territory and trying to regain land occupied by Israel is legal and legitimate."[351][352]

During the Bahraini uprising, Bahrain foreign minister Khalid ibn Ahmad Al Khalifah labeled Hezbollah a terrorist group and accused them of supporting the protesters.[353][354] On April 10, 2013, Bahrain blacklisted Hezbollah as a terrorist group, being the first Arab state in this regard.[355]

During the 2011 Syrian uprising Hezbollah's has voiced support for Syrian President Bashar Assad's government, which has prompted criticism from anti-government Syrians. As Hezbollah supported other movements in the context of the Arab Spring, anti-government Syrians have stated that they feel "betrayed" by a double standard allegedly applied by the movement. Following Hezbollah's aid in Assad government's victory in Qusair, anti-Hezbollah editorials began regularly appearing in the Arabic media and anti-Hezbollah graffiti has been seen in southern Lebanon.[356]

In March 2016, Gulf Cooperation Council designated Hezbollah as a terrorist organization due to its alleged attempts to undermine GCC states, and Arab League followed the move, with reservation by Iraq and Lebanon. In the summit, Lebanese Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil said that "Hezbollah enjoys wide representation and is an integral faction of the Lebanese community", while Iraqi Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari said PMF and Hezbollah "have preserved Arab dignity" and those who accuse them of being terrorists are terrorists themselves.[357] Saudi delegation walked out of the meeting.[358] Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called the step “important and even amazing".[359][360]

A day before the move by the Arab League, Hezbollah leader Nsarallah said that "Saudi Arabia is angry with Hezbollah since it is daring to say what only a few others dare to say against its royal family".[361]

In Lebanon

In an interview during the 2006 Lebanon War, then-President Emile Lahoud stated "Hezbollah enjoys utmost prestige in Lebanon, because it freed our country ... even though it is very small, it stands up to Israel."[362] Following the 2006 War, other Lebanese including members of the government were resentful of the large damage sustained by the country and saw Hezbollah's actions as unjustified "dangerous adventurism" rather than legitimate resistance. They accused Hezbollah of acting on behalf of Iran and Syria.[363] An official of the Future Movement, part of the March 14 Alliance, warned that Hezbollah "has all the characteristics of a terrorist party", and that Hezbollah is moving Lebanon toward the Iranian Islamic system of government.[364]

In August 2008, Lebanon's cabinet completed a policy statement which recognized "the right of Lebanon's people, army, and resistance to liberate the Israeli-occupied Shebaa Farms, Kafar Shuba Hills, and the Lebanese section of Ghajar village, and defend the country using all legal and possible means."[38]

Gebran Tueni, a late conservative Orthodox Christian editor of an-Nahar, referred to Hezbollah as an "Iranian import and said "they have nothing to do with Arab civilization." Tuení believed that Hezbollah's evolution is cosmetic, concealing a sinister long-term strategy to Islamicize Lebanon and lead it into a ruinous war with Israel.[21]

While Hezbollah has supported popular uprisings in Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain and Tunisia, Hezbollah publicly sided with Iran and Syria in their own violent repressions of dissent. In August 2010, 800 people demonstrated in Beirut against Syrian President Bashar Assad, and police were called in to contain the smaller pro-Syrian rallies that followed. Demonstrators were shouting, "Syria wants freedom," "Anyone who kills his people is a murderer and a coward," and "the people want an end to the regime."[365]

Scholarly views

Academics specializing in a wide variety of the social sciences believe that Hezbollah is an example of an Islamic terrorist organization. Such scholars and research institutes include the following:

Views of foreign legislators

J. Gresham Barrett brought up legislation in the U.S. House of Representatives which, among other things, referred to Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. Congress members Tom Lantos, Jim Saxton, Thad McCotter, Chris Shays, Charles Boustany, Alcee Hastings, and Robert Wexler referred to Hezbollah as a terrorist organization in their speeches supporting the legislation.[379] Shortly before a speech by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, U.S. Congressman Dennis Hastert said, "He [Maliki] denounces terrorism, and I have to take him at his word. Hezbollah is a terrorist organization."[380]

In 2011, a bipartisan group of members of Congress introduced the Hezbollah Anti-Terrorism Act. The act ensures that no American aid to Lebanon will enter the hands of Hezbollah. On the day of the act's introduction, Congressman Darrell Issa said, "Hezbollah is a terrorist group and a cancer on Lebanon. The Hezbollah Anti-Terrorism Act surgically targets this cancer and will strengthen the position of Lebanese who oppose Hezbollah."[381]

In a Sky News interview during the 2006 Lebanon war, British MP George Galloway said that Hezbollah is: "not a terrorist organization".[382]

Former Swiss member of parliament, Jean Ziegler, said in 2006: "I refuse to describe Hezbollah as a terrorist group. It is a national movement of resistance."[383]

See also


  1. 1 2 Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  2. Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
  3. Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Who are Hezbollah". BBC News. May 21, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2008.
  5. An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel.
  6. Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings.
  7. Julius, Anthony. "Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England." Google Books. May 1, 2015.
  8. Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. "Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present." Google Books. May 1, 2015.
  9. Perry, Mark. "Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies." Google Books. May 1, 2015
  10. "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post – JPost.com.
  11. Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 90-8555-037-8.
  12. Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 0-415-78361-5.
  13. Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5). doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695.
  14. "Hezbollah". The Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  15. "Hezbollah". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  16. Other transliterations include Hizbollah, Hezballah, Hisbollah, Hizbu'llah and Hizb Allah.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Jamail, Dahr (July 20, 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
  18. 1 2 3 "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. September 13, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  19. 1 2 Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 15. ... the Jihad Council coordinates 'resistance activity'.
  20. Ghattas Saab, Antoine (May 15, 2014). "Hezbollah cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved June 1, 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing … Known as the "Jihad Council"
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Adam Shatz (April 29, 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved August 14, 2006.
  22. 1 2 Fisk, Robert (September 7, 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  23. "UN: Hezbollah has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. October 25, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  24. 1 2 Frykberg, Mel (August 29, 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved May 31, 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.
  25. Barnard, Anne (May 20, 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers
  26. Morris, Loveday (June 12, 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved June 20, 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army.
  27. "Iran-Syria vs. Israel, Round 1: Assessments & Lessons Learned". Defense Industry Daily. September 13, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  28. 1 2 Hubbard, Ben (March 20, 2014). "Syrian Fighting Gives Hezbollah New but Diffuse Purpose". New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2014. ... the fighting has also diluted the resources that used to go exclusively to facing Israel, exacerbated sectarian divisions in the region, and alienated large segments of the majority Sunni population who once embraced Hezbollah as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory.
  29. Deeb, Lara (July 31, 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  30. Goldman, Adam (May 28, 2014). "Hezbollah operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved May 30, 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders.
  31. "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. March 8, 2005. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
  32. "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, January 25, 2014.
  33. The Christian Science Monitor. "Why Hezbollah has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor.
  34. Filkins, Dexter (September 30, 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 4, 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world.
  35. 1 2 3 4 Itamar Rabinovich. Israel in the Middle East. UPNE. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  36. 1 2 Ghattas, Kim (December 1, 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved August 15, 2008.
  37. 1 2 Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (May 10, 2008). "Hezbollah fighters retreat from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  38. 1 2 Nafez Qawas (August 6, 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved August 6, 2008.
  39. Barnard, Anne (January 3, 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times.
  40. 1 2 Barnard, Anne (July 9, 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013. Hezbollah has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad against Israel.
  41. Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post 16 February 16, 2015.
  42. Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq. Al Monitor November 25, 2014
  43. "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved September 17, 2014. By siding with the Assad regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d’être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation.
  44. Kershner, Isabel (March 10, 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni rebels in Syria while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel.
  45. 1 2 ""Hezbollah's Military and Political: Any Difference?" By Richard Horowitz, World Policy Institute, September 25, 2013".
  46. "Arab League labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization". Reuters. March 11, 2016.
  47. 1 2 Designation of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Department of State, Federal Register, Vol. 62, No. 195, October 8, 1997
  48. 1 2 "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France". Algemeiner Journal. April 4, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  49. 1 2 3 "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. June 3, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  50. "Hezbollah labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  51. 1 2 "Listed terrorist organisations – Hizballah's External Security Organisation (ESO)". Australian National Security. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  52. 1 2 3 "Listed Terrorist Entities – Currently Listed Entities". Government of Canada. Public Safety Canada. March 24, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  53. 1 2 Norman, Lawrence; Fairclough, Gordon (September 7, 2012). "Pressure Mounts for EU to Put Hezbollah on Terror List". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
  54. 1 2 3 "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. July 22, 2013.
  55. 1 2 3 Proscribed terrorist organisations (Report). Home Office. March 27, 2015. p. 10. Retrieved July 6, 2015. Hizballah’s External Security Organisation was proscribed March 2001 and in 2008 the proscription was extended to Hizballah’s Military apparatus including the Jihad Council.
  56. 1 2 Kanter, James; Rudoren, Jodi (July 22, 2013). "European Union Adds Military Wing of Hezbollah to List of Terrorist Organizations". New York Times. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  57. 1 2 3 "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. July 20, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
  58. 1 2 ' Russia says Hezbollah, Hamas not terror groups,' The Times of Israel November 16, 2015.
  59. 1 2 Omar Nashabe, 'China’s Ambassador in Lebanon: Hezbollah Arms a Trade Matter,' 4 May Al-Akhbar, 2012
  60. Avi Shlaim (2001) The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-32112-6 Chapter 10; "The Lebanese Quagmire 1981–1984". pp 384–423
  61. Norton, Augustus (2009). Hezbollah: A Short History. Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-691-13124-4.
  62. 1 2 3 Pape, Robert (2005). Dying to win: the strategic logic of suicide terrorism. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6317-5. Specifically: "Suicide Terrorist Campaigns, 1980–2003", Appendix 1. (Page 253 of Australian paperback edition, published by Scribe Publications)
  63. 1 2 H. CON. RES. 190, 1st session, 101st congress (August 4, 1989). "Expressing the sense of the Congress over the reported murder of Lieutenant Colonel William Higgins and Hezbollah-sponsored terrorism.". The Library of Congress. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  64. 1 2 3 "Lebanon profile". BBC News. September 3, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  65. Harnden, Tony (February 21, 2004). "Video games attract young to Hizbollah". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on July 21, 2006. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  66. 1 2 3 4 5 "In the Party of God: Are terrorists in Lebanon preparing for a larger war? by Jeffrey Goldberg". The New Yorker. October 14, 2002. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  67. "The strategy and tactics of Hizballah's current 'Lebanonization process". Mediterranean Politics, Volume 3, Issue 1 Summer 1998, pages 103–134.
  68. Alagha (2006), pp. 41–44
  69. Alagha (2006), p. 47
  70. "Hezbollah members arrested in Thailand: report". The Daily Star. April 14, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  71. Marius Deeb, Militant Islamic Movements in Lebanon: Origins, Social Basis, and Ideology, Occasional Paper Series (Washington, DC, Georgetown University, 1986) p.19
  72. al-Nahar, September 7, 1985
  73. LaRevue du Liban, July 27 – August 3, 1985
  74. al-Nahar al-Arabi, June 10
  75. Ma'aretz, December 16, 1983
  76. Le Point, July 30, 1987
  77. al-Shira, August 28, 1988
  78. Nouveau Magazine, July 23, 1988
  79. Ranstorp, Hizb'allah (1997), p.67
  80. see also Bates, John D. (Presiding) (September 2003). "Anne Dammarell et al. v. Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). District of Columbia, U.S.: The United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 31, 2005. Retrieved September 21, 2006.
  81. 1 2 3 US Department of State (October 8, 1999). "Background Information on Foreign Terrorist Organizations". Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  82. 1 2 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (April 11, 1996). "Hizbullah". Retrieved August 17, 2006.
  83. "SOR/2003-53: Criminal Code; Regulations Amending the Regulations Establishing a List of Entities" (PDF). Canada Gazette Part II. 137 (1 extra): 1. February 12, 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 18, 2012.
  84. Engeland, Dr Anisseh Van; Rudolph, Ms Rachael M (2013). From Terrorism to Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4094-9870-4.
  85. Barak, Oren. "Hizballah." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. p. 350.
  86. Rosenthal, Donna. The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land. New York: Free Press, 2003. p. 15.
  87. Collier, Robert. "Everyone casting suspicious eye on Iraq's Hezbollah." San Francisco Chronicle. December 29, 2003. March 14, 2008.
  88. Adam Shatz, New York Review of Books, April 29, 2004 In Search of Hezbollah Archived August 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved August 15, 2006.
  89. Wright, Robin (July 13, 2006). "Options for U.S. Limited As Mideast Crises Spread". Washington Post. p. A19.
  90. United Nations Document A/54/723 S/2000/55, citing Al Hayyat, October 30, 1999"Letter dated January 25, 2000 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2006. . Retrieved August 17, 2006.
  91. "The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program"By Joseph Elie Alagha,Published by Amsterdam University Press, 2006,ISBN 90-5356-910-3, ISBN 978-90-5356-910-8,380.
  92. Joshua Mitnick. Behind the dispute over Shebaa Farms, Christian Science Monitor, August 22, 2006.
  93. Whitaker, Brian (May 10, 2006). "Flashpoint farmland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  94. "Central to this issue is Hizballah's claim, which was also espoused by Lebanon's former pro-Syrian government, that the disputed Shebaa Farms are Lebanese rather than Syrian territories and are occupied by Israel. Therefore, Hizballah maintains that it is a legitimate resistance movement fighting for the liberation of Lebanese territory. Under this pretext, Hizballah, supported by some Lebanese parties, could argue that it is not a militia and thus it is outside the jurisdiction of Resolution 1559." Robert Rabil. Reinforcing Lebanon's Sovereignty, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, November 8, 2005.
  95. 1 2 "Security council endorses secretary-general's conclusion on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon as of 16 June". United Nations Security Council. June 18, 2000. Retrieved September 29, 2006.
  96. "BBC NEWS – Middle East – Israeli views on Shebaa Farms harden".
  97. Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal (July 23, 2006). "Hezbollah's Apocalypse Now". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  98. Thisreen (Syrian newspaper) June 21, 1999, reprinted by MEMRI Secretary General of Hizbullah Discusses the New Israeli Government and Hizbullah's Struggle Against Israel Archived September 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  99. 1 2 3 Joshua L. Gleis; Benedetta Berti (2012). Hezbollah and Hamas: A Comparative Study.
    Hezbollah is more than just anti-Zionist; it also exhibits a rabid streak of anti-Semitism, replete with Nazi-like salutes and goose-step marches. In addition, like most other Islamist extremist and terrorist organizations, Hezbollah engages in pure Holocaust denial. … Hezbollah's anti-Semitism, however, pervades the organization much more extensively than just Holocaust denial and conspiracy theories. Despite the rare occasions where Hezbollah officials have stated they are anti-Zionist and not anti-Semitic, these words do not hold up upon closer examination. … Notably, during the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the Islamist group apologized only for killing Israeli Arabs, who are not Jewish.
  100. "Lebanon and Israel: Nasrallah wins the war." The Economist. August 17, 2006. November 18, 2011.
  101. Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal. Hizbu'llah: Politics and Religion. London: Pluto Press, 2002. pp. 168–86.
  102. Wistrich, Robert S. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. New York: Random House, 2010. pp. 766–767.
  103. Block, Melissa. "'New Yorker' Writer Warns of Hezbollah's Radicalism." National Public Radio. August 16, 2006. February 16, 2008.
  104. Sciolino, Elaine. "French Court Delays Decision on Hezbollah-Run TV Channel." The New York Times December 12, 2004. February 14, 2008.
  105. Carvajal, Doreen. "French Court Orders a Ban on hezbollah-Run TV Channel." The New York Times. December 14, 2004. February 14, 2008.
  106. Sciolino, Elaine. " A New French Headache: When Is Hate on TV Illegal?" The New York Times. December 9, 2004. February 16, 2008.
  107. "Anti-Semitic Series Airs on Arab Television." ADL. January 9, 2004. February 16, 2008.
  108. "Urge President Chirac to Block Hezbollah's Antisemitic and Hate TV from broadcasting into France". Simon Wiesenthal Center. May 21, 2008.
  109. "Hezbollah Pressures School Into Dropping 'Anne Frank.'" The Jewish Daily Forward. November 9, 2009.
  110. Satloff, Roger. "The Holocaust's Arab Heroes." The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. October 8, 2006. January 14, 2009.
  111. Stalinsky, Steven. "Hezbollah's Nazi Tactics." The New York Sun. July 26, 2006. January 14, 2009.
  112. "Hezbollah presses school into pulling Anne Frank" Archived November 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. November 9, 2009
  113. "Anne Frank diary offends Lebanon's Hezbollah." Ynetnews. November 6, 2009. February 1, 2015.
  114. al-Nahar al-Arabi walduwali, June 10–16, 1985; and La Revue du Liban, July 27 – August 3, 1985. quoted in Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p.41
  115. Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p. 64
  116. 1 2 3 Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p. 45
  117. Nahmias, Roee. "Syria, Iran determined to protect Hizbullah." Ynetnews. July 19, 2006. July 31, 2010.
  118. Daragahi, Borzou. "Lebanon's Hezbollah savors increasing legitimacy." Los Angeles Times. April 13, 2009. April 17, 2009.
  119. "Larijani: Iran proud of backing Hezbollah". Siasat. July 30, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  120. 1 2 3 Engeland, Dr Anisseh Van; Rudolph, Ms Rachael M (2013). From Terrorism to Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-1-4094-9870-4.
  121. Levitt, Matthew. "Hezbollah Finances – Funding the Party of God." The Washington Institute. February 2005. February 1, 2015.
  122. 1 2 3 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (March 29, 2006). "LEBANON: The many hands and faces of Hezbollah". Retrieved August 17, 2006.
  123. Harel, Amos; Stern, Yoav (August 4, 2006). "Iranian official admits Tehran supplied missiles to Hezbollah". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  124. 1 2 Edward Cody; Molly Moore (August 14, 2006). "The Best Guerrilla Force in the World". The Washington Post.
  125. Madani, Blanca (January 2002). "Hezbollah's Global Finance Network: The Triple Frontier". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
  126. Soibel, Leah. "Iran in our own backyard". NYDailyNews. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  127. Labaki, Boutros. "The Role of Transnational Communmities in Fostering Development in Countries of Origin." United Nations. May 12, 2006: 15–16. July 31, 2010.
  128. "Cigarette Smuggling Linked to Terrorism". The Washington Post. June 8, 2004.
  129. Levitt, Matthew (2007). Hamas. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12258-9.
  130. Giraldo, Jeanne (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-5565-8.
  131. "US Treasury takes action against Hezbollah funders". Jerusalem Post. April 24, 2013.
  132. "Nasrallah decries 'propaganda'". Al Jazeera. October 25, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  133. "Hezbollah denies drugs and money laundering claims". Agence France Presse. December 22, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  134. "Treasury Targets Hizballah in Venezuela". Press Release. United State Department of Treasury. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  135. Noriega, Roger F. "Hezbollah in Latin America: Implications for U.S. Homeland Security" (PDF). The House Committee on Homeland Security. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  136. Noriega, Roger F. "Hezbollah in the streets of Caracas?". AEIdeas. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  137. "The Militarization of Sex: The story of Hezbollah's halal hookups." by Hanin Ghaddar Archived November 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Foreign Policy, November 25, 2009
  138. Sachs, Susan (May 31, 2000). "Hezbollah Offers a Helping Hand in Southern Lebanon". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  139. 1 2 "Hezbollah's secret weapon". CNN. July 25, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  140. Avakian, Alexandra. Windows of the Soul. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. p. 186.
  141. Seelye, Kate (April 1, 2005). "Lebanon's religious mix". PBS Frontline World. Retrieved July 28, 2006.
  142. Norton, Augustus (2009). Hezbollah: A Short History. Princeton University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-691-13124-4.
  143. "Hezbollah: Most Powerful Political Movement in Lebanon". Council on Foreign Relations. May 29, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  144. Gambill, Gary. "The Counter-revolution of the Cedars". Mideastmonitor.org. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  145. "Lebanon tensions rise in clash with Hezbollah". Haaretz. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  146. Worth, Robert F.; Bakri, Nada (May 11, 2008). "Hezbollah to Withdraw Gunmen in Lebanon". New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
  147. "Lebanese leaders 'expect to elect a president' in 24 hours". France 24. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
  148. 1 2 Elise Labott; Henry Schuster (2006). "Lebanese media outlets' assets blocked". CNN.
  149. 1 2 "Terrorist Television Hezbollah has a worldwide reach". National Review Online. December 22, 2004. Archived from the original on April 27, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2007.
  150. 1 2 3 Avi Jorisch (Winter 2004). "Al-Manar: Hizbullah TV, 24/7". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved September 3, 2006.
  151. "Al-Manar Television". Archived from the original on April 10, 2003. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
  152. 1 2 Olfa Lamloum (2009). "Hezbollah's Media: Political History in outline" (PDF). Global Media and Communicatio. 5 (3): 353–367. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  153. Jorisch, Avi (April 2003). "Al-Manar and the War in Iraq". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
  154. "France pulls plug on Arab network". BBC News. December 14, 2004. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  155. "ADL Welcomes U.S. Designating Hezbollah's Al-Manar TV Station a Terrorist Organization: Calls On U.S. To Take Further Actions." ADL. February 2, 2015.
  156. "U.S. Designates Al-Manar as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Entity". U.S. Department of the Treasury. March 23, 2006.
  157. "France pulls plug on Arab network". BBC News. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
  158. Commission of the European Communities Commission document SEC(2006) 160. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
  159. Roee Nahmias (August 31, 2006). "Hizbullah presents: How to recruit children". Ynetnews. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  160. " Hezbollah Releases Anti-Israel War Game." ADL. August 17, 2007. July 10, 2010.
  161. "8 year-old boy donates money to Hezbollah." Ynetnews. November 6, 2012.
  162. Masters, Jonathan; Laub, Zachary. "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  163. 1 2 Wege, Carl Anthony (Summer 2016). "Anticipatory Intelligence and the Post-Syrian War Hezbollah Intelligence Apparatus". International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 29 (2): 236–259. doi:10.1080/08850607.2016.1121039.
  164. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Wege, Carl Anthony (2012). "Hizballah's Counterintelligence Apparatus". International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 25 (4): 771–785. doi:10.1080/08850607.2012.705185.
  165. 1 2 "Analysis: Hezbollah a force to be reckoned with". Iiss.org. Agence France Presse. July 18, 2006. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  166. "پیشنهاد عربستان برای تشکیل نیروی مقابله با حزبالله".
  167. Morris, Loveday; Haidamous, Suzan (June 12, 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post.
  168. "Hezbollah Upsets The Balance in Lebanon". VOA. June 14, 2013.
  169. Barnard, Anne (May 20, 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". The New York Times.
  170. Richard Augustus Norton – Hizbollah. Page 140
  171. Harel, Amos (April 13, 2010). "Syria is shipping Scud missiles to Hezbollah". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  172. "Syria: Israel's Scud accusation may be pretense for attack". Haaretz. Israel. October 25, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  173. Harvey, Benjamin (August 5, 2006). "Missiles Neutralizing Israeli Tanks". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  174. Weitz, Paul (August 12, 2006). "Hezbollah, Already a Capable Military Force, Makes Full Use of Civilian Shields and Media Manipulation". Journal of International Security Affairs. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
  175. "Hezbollah Reportedly Acquires SA-18 SAMs". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. April 2003.
  176. Gardner, Frank (August 3, 2006). "Hezbollah missile threat assessed". BBC News. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  177. Scott Shane; Andrew W. Lehren (November 28, 2010). "Leaked Cables Offer Raw Look at U.S. Diplomacy". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2010. ... Cables describe the United States' failing struggle to prevent Syria from supplying arms to Hezbollah in Lebanon, which has amassed a huge stockpile since its 2006 war with Israel. ... information that Syria was providing increasingly sophisticated weapons to the group.
  178. Charley Keyes, "U.S. military needs flexibility due to poor predictions, Gates says", CNN, May 24, 2011
  179. 1 2 3 Israeli US envoy: Hizbullah has 15,000 rockets on border. Jpost.com. Retrieved on October 19, 2010.
  180. Sales, Ben. "Hezbollah: Uncertain future, but still dangerous." Jewish Journal. July 23, 2012.
  181. Terrill, W. Andrew (Spring 2015). "Iran's Strategy for Saving Asad". Middle East Journal. Middle East Institute. 69 (2). Retrieved May 27, 2015 via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)).
  182. "Hezbollah drone busted Israel immunity myth: Analyst". Press TV. October 12, 2012.
  183. "IAF shoots down hostile drone from Lebanon off Haifa". Jerusalem Post. April 25, 2013.
  184. Kershner, Isabel (March 10, 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2014. [T]he only way for Mr. Assad, a longtime Hezbollah ally, to repay the group is by supplying it with sophisticated weapons.
  185. United Nations Security Council (September 2, 2004). "Resolution 1559 (2004)". Retrieved May 1, 2007. 3. Calls for the disbanding and disarmament of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias
  186. "Hezbollah has no intention to disarm". Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (Israeli). September 7, 2005. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
  187. "Hezbollah: Hezbollah and the Recent Conflict." ADL. September 29, 2006. June 26, 2007.
  188. Gambill, Gary (September–October 2006). "Briefing: Lebanese Public Opinion". Mideast Monitor. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  189. Haaretz August 14, 2008, "UN: We've cleared half the cluster bombs Israel dropped on Lebanon", by Shlomo Shamir
  190. Jpost.Com Staff (November 8, 2009). "Hizbullah says it's getting ready for new war with Israel". Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on January 29, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  191. "Army coordinating with Resistance Brigades in Sidon". NOW Lebanon. June 24, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  192. Blanford, Nicholas (2011). Warriors of God: Inside Hezbollah's Thirty-Year Struggle Against Israel. New York: Random House. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-679-60516-4. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  193. "Wariness of Resistance Brigades grows in Sidon". Daily Star. November 13, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  194. "Frontline: Target America: Terrorist attacks on Americans, 1979–1988", PBS News, 2001. Retrieved February 4, 2007.
  195. "Hezbollah again denies involvement in deadly Buenos Aires bombing BEIRUT, March 19 (AFP)". Lebanon.com. March 20, 2003. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  196. "Timeline of Hezbollah Violence." CAMERA: Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America. July 17, 2006. November 18, 2006. Later reprinted in On Campus magazine's Fall 2006 issue and attributed the article to author Gilead Ini.
  197. 1 2 3 4 Hezbollah CFR. org Staff, the US Council on Foreign Relations, July 17, 2006
  198. Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 289.
  199. Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 23.
  200. Worley, D. Robert. "Aligning Ends, Ways, and Means." Google Books. February 1, 2015.
  201. 1 2 3 Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 102.
  202. Argentine trials may shed light on Panama mystery, Eric Jackson, Panama News Online, October 17, 2001.
  203. "1994: Israel's London embassy bombed".
  204. Leonnig, Carol D. (December 23, 2006). "Iran Held Liable In Khobar Attack". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  205. Thiessen, Marc A. (December 8, 2011). "Iran responsible for 1998 U.S. embassy bombings". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  206. "Fast Facts: Hezbollah". Fox News. July 13, 2006. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  207. Lebanon: Hezbollah and the Jan 15 Bombing Stratfor, January 15, 2008
  208. "Egypt's Brotherhood backs Hizbullah in spat with Cairo". The Daily Star. April 24, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  209. "Hezbollah suspected in Bulgaria bus bombing". Al Jazeera. February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
  210. Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Georgetown University Press. p. 297.
  211. "Iranian Arms and Bosnia".
  212. "Iran in the Balkans: A History and a Forecast". World Affairs Journal.
  213. Nizar Abdel-Kader. "Iraq and the Future of Gulf Security Cooperation: A Lebanese perspective". Lebanese Army Magazine. Archived from the original on April 4, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  214. Third World Quarterly, Vol 14, No 2, 1993, reprinted at Al Mashriq Lebanon's Hizbullah: from Islamic revolution to parliamentary accommodation Accessed July 26, 2006
  215. Rex A. Hudson, "The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?," Federal Research Division, Library of Congress (September 1999). Accessed August 17, 2006
  216. Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p. 115
  217. 1 2 "2000: Hezbollah celebrates Israeli retreat". BBC News. May 26, 2000. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  218. "Operation Accountability – Increased Israeli casualties led to Operation Accountability in 1993". Ynet.co.il. July 25, 1993. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  219. "ISRAEL/LEBANON, Unlawful Killings During Operation "Grapes of Wrath"". BBC News. July 24, 1996. Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
  220. "The Grapes of Wrath Understanding". Mideastweb.org. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  221. "History of Israel's role in Lebanon". BBC News. April 1, 1998. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
  222. 1 2 Cobban, Helena, "Hizbullah's New Face". Boston Review. April–May 2005. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  223. "Israelis Held by the Hizbullah – October 2000 – January 2004". mfa.gov.il. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013.
  224. "Israel, Hezbollah swap prisoners". CNN. January 29, 2004. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  225. Stevn, Yoav and Eli Ashkenazi. "New film leaves parents in the dark on sons' fate during kidnap." Haaretz. September 6, 2006. February 28, 2008.
  226. "Israel, Hezbollah swap prisoners." CNN.com International. January 29, 2004. February 20, 2008.
  227. "Timeline of the July War 2006". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
  228. "Israel buries soldiers recovered in prisoner swap". A B C News. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
  229. "Israeli warplanes hit Beirut suburb". CNN. July 14, 2006.
  230. Cody, Edward (August 24, 2006). "Lebanese Premier Seeks U.S. Help in Lifting Blockade". Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  231. Urquhart, Conal (August 11, 2006). "Computerised weaponry and high morale". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved October 8, 2006.
  232. Bard, Mitchell (July 24, 2006). "Hezbollah Attacks Since May 2000". AIJAC. Archived from the original on August 19, 2006.
  233. MacIntyre, Donald; Silver, Eric (July 14, 2006). "Israel widens bombing campaign as Lebanese militia groups retaliate". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  234. Fisk, Robert (May 22, 2012). "Cloud of Syria's war hangs over Lebanese cleric's death". The Independent. London. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  235. Reuters, September 12, 2006; Al-Hayat (London), September 13, 2006
  236. "Country Report—Lebanon," The Economist Intelligence Unit, no. 4 (2006), pp. 3–6.
  237. Fisk, Robert (August 17, 2006). "Lebanon's pain grows by the hour as death toll hits 1,300". The Independent. London. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  238. "Lebanon Under Siege". Presidency of the Council of Ministers – Higher Relief Council (Lebanon). November 9, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved August 30, 2008.
  239. Israel Vs. Iran: The Shadow War, By Yaakov Katz, (NY 2012), page 17
  240. H. Varulkar, "Internal Conflict in Lebanon Over Control of Oil and Gas Resources," MEMRI, Inquiry & Analysis Series Report No. 624 (July 12, 2010). Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  241. 1 2
    "Quoting Washington sources, the paper said the attack was meant to avenge the death of Iranian nuclear scientist Masoud Ali Mohammadi who was killed last year. ... Turkish intelligence first attributed the Istanbul attack ... to the Kurdish resistance, but later concluded that Hezbollah, working on behalf of Iran, had organized it. According to the report, three Hezbollah operatives arrived in Istanbul from Beirut to assassinate Kimchi."
    "Report: Hezbollah tried to kill Israeli consul." Ynetnews. July 18, 2011.
  242. Ravid, Barak (July 14, 2012). "Man detained in Cyprus was planning attack on Israeli targets for Hezbollah". Haaretz. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  243. "PMO: Iran connected to Hezbollah activity in Cyprus". Yedioth Ahronot. July 14, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  244. 1 2 Tsvetelia Tsolova "Bulgaria blames Hezbollah in bomb attack on Israeli tourists," Reuters (February 5, 2013). Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  245. "Israel unlikely to retaliate after Bulgaria report. Times of Israel. Jan 2013". The Times of Israel.
  246. 1 2 "Bulgaria: Hezbollah behind Burgas attack".
  247. Tel Aviv Diary: Netanyahu Loses His Security Edge BY MARC SCHULMAN 1/28/15, Newsweek
  248. Follath, Erich. "New Evidence Points to Hezbollah in Hariri Murder". Der Spiegel.
  249. "Nasrallah: Israel used secret agent to turn Lebanon gov't against Hezbollah". Haaretz.com. August 9, 2010.
  250. "Lebanon PM: UN must probe claims of Israeli complicity in Hariri murder". Haaretz.com. August 12, 2010.
  251. "Hariri murder: UN tribunal issues arrest warrants". BBC News. June 30, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
  252. "Hezbollah leader Nasrallah rejects Hariri indictments". BBC News. July 3, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
  253. Abdo, Geneive (June 7, 2013). "Why Sunni-Shia conflict is worsening". June 7, 2013. cnn.com. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  254. "US adds Hezbollah to Syria sanctions list". Al Jazeera. August 10, 2012.
  255. "Drone flight over Israel: Nasrallah's latest surprise".
  256. Hirst, David (October 23, 2012). "Hezbollah uses its military power in a contradictory manner". The Daily Star. Beirut.
  257. 1 2 "Hezbollah fighters, Syrian rebels killed in border fighting". Al Arabiya. February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  258. "Hezbollah condemned for 'attack on Syrian villages'". BBC News, February 18, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  259. 1 2 "Baalbek figures urge Hezbollah to stop fighting in Syria". The Daily Star. February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  260. "Syrian rebels claim successful attack on Hezbollah". The Times of Israel, February 26, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  261. 1 2 "March 14, PSP slam Hezbollah activities in Syria". The Daily Star, February 19, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  262. "Hezbollah fighters dying in Syria will go to hell, Tufaili". Ya Libnan, February 26, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  263. "Rival Lebanese groups fighting in Syria: Jumblatt". The Daily Star, February 24, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  264. Morsi says Egypt cuts all ties with Damascus, calls for Syria no-fly zone. Russia Today, June 15, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  265. Eshman, Rob. "Syrian wake-up." Jewish Journal. May 8, 2013. May 8, 2013.
  266. 1 2 Barnard, Anne; Saad, Hwaida (May 20, 2013). "Hezbollah Aids Syrian Military In a Key Battle". The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  267. 1 2 3 Mroue, Bassej (May 25, 2013). "Hezbollah chief says group is fighting in Syria". Associated Press. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  268. Abedine, Saad; Brumfield, Ben (May 26, 2013). "Rockets strike Beirut suburb as sectarian strife flares in Lebanon, Syria". CNN. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  269. "Two rockets hit Beirut's southern suburbs". Al Jazeera English. May 29, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  270. Sherlock, Ruth (May 28, 2013). "Syria: rebels cling on to Qusayr". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  271. Morris, Loveday (June 2, 2013). "In Syria, Hezbollah forces appear ready to attack rebels in city of Aleppo". Washington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  272. "מעריב - מגפיים בבוץ: סופה של מלחמת האזרחים בסוריה לא נראה באופק". מעריב אונליין Maariv Online.
  273. Beauchamp, Zack (September 23, 2014). "Iran is fighting on the Iraqi government's side". vox.com. Vox. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  274. Yalib, Yalib (August 30, 2010). "Hezbollah, Al Ahbash chiefs meet over Borj Abi Haidar incident".
  275. "Iran, Hezbollah mine Latin America for revenue, recruits, analysts say". CNN. June 4, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  276. "Abduction of Sheikh Obeid, Security Council Resolution 638". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  277. "Hezbollah's most wanted commander killed in Syria bomb". Reuters. February 13, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  278. "Slain Hezbollah honcho held key role in drone program". The Times Of Israel. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
  279. "Masses chant 'Death to Israel' at funeral for Hezbollah commander slain in alleged Israeli strike". The Juresalem Post. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  280. "Hezbollah fighters killed in Israeli attack". AlJazeera. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  281. "Hezbollah mourns fighters killed in attack". Aljazeera. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  282. Tomson, Chris (May 13, 2016). "Breaking: Israel kills Hezbollah commander in airstrike over Damascus".
  283. "Leading Hezbollah commander and key Israel target killed in Syria". The Guardian. May 13, 2016.
  284. "Hezbollah blames insurgent shelling for death of top commander in Syria". Ynet. May 14, 2016.
  285. Co-Director Center for Contemporary Conflict James A Russell, PhD, James A. Russell, James J. Wirtz, Professor of National Security Affairs James J Wirtz, eds. (2009). Globalization and WMD Proliferation: Terrorism, Transnational Networks and International Security. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-134-07970-4.
  286. "FS_184 – CJPME – English". CJPME – English.
  287. Wright, Robin (July 16, 2006). "Inside the Mind of Hezbollah". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
  288. Hezbollah's condemnation of murder of civilians in Egypt and Algeria is described in Saad-Ghorayeb, p. 101.
  289. Usher, Sebastian (May 13, 2004). "Muted Arab reaction to Berg beheading". BBC News. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  290. "Hezbollah chief condemns Paris attacks - Video". Reuters. November 15, 2015. Retrieved October 21, 2016 via The New York Times.
  291. Larry Luxner (March 4, 2006). "AMIA Probe Was Botched: Argentina". The Jewish Week. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
  292. 1 2 "Former Iran leader sought in bombing". The Jerusalem Post. Associated Press. October 25, 2006. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  293. "US warns Hezbollah may strike in Europe". Yahoo News. AFP. August 10, 2012. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  294. "'Hezbollah could hit Europe at any time, with no warning'". The Jerusalem Post. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  295. "Hezbollah may strike in Europe at any time: US". France 24. AFP. August 10, 2012. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  296. Halliday, Fred. "A Lebanese fragment: two days with Hizbollah." openDemocracy. July 20, 2006. February 17, 2007.
  297. Rabil, Robert G. "Middle East Quarterly". Middle East Forum. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  298. "Who Are Syria's Friends And Why Are They Supporting Assad?". parallels. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  299. "Hezbollah leader Nasrallah vows victory in Syria". BBC News. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  300. "Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah: The Current Conflict" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. July 21, 2006. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
  301. 1 2 Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. p. 146.
  302. Stinson, Jeffrey. "Minister: Hezbollah doesn't need al-Qaeda's help fighting Israel in Lebanon." USA Today. July 28, 2006. February 17, 2006.
  303. "'Zarqawi tape' urges Sunni unrest". BBC News. June 2, 2006. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  304. "Saudi religious leader blasts Hizbullah". Jerusalem Post. August 5, 2006. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2006.
  305. Boettcher, Mike; Schuster, Henry (August 13, 2003). "New terror alliance suspected in Iraq". CNN World News. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
  306. "Poll finds support for Hizbullah's retaliation". Beirut Center for Research and Information. July 29, 2006. Archived from the original on August 30, 2006.
  307. Blanford, Nicholas (July 28, 2006). "Israeli strikes may boost Hizbullah base". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 29, 2006.
  308. Zarour, Khoder. "What led to the rapid increased popularity of Hezbollah in Lebanon". Arab News. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  309. 1 2 3 "Israel/Palestinians." PollingReport.com. December 10, 2006.
  310. Muslims offer mixed views on Hamas, Hezbollah, reject al Qaeda, CNN. December 3, 2010
  311. "Sunni Cleric Rises To Challenge Hezbollah In Lebanon". NPR. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  312. Akram, Fares (February 24, 2012). "In Break, Hamas Supports Syrian Opposition". The New York Times.
  313. "Hizbullah: Views and Concepts". Almashriq. June 20, 1997. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  314. "Statement of purpose". Almashriq. March 20, 1998. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  315. Dionigi, Filippo (2014). Hezbollah, Islamist Politics, and International Society. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 153–156. ISBN 978-1-137-40302-5.
  316. "Blacklisting Hezbollah EU is Blacklisting Hezbollah". The Times of Israel.
  317. "Arab League brands Hezbollah 'terror' group".
  318. Levin, Sandy. "Letter Urging European Union Council to Designate Hezbollah as a Terrorist Organization." Congressman Sandy Levin. September 21, 2012. February 1, 2015.
  319. "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. March 26, 2013.
  320. "EU places Hezbollah military wing on terror blacklist". The Jerusalem Post. July 22, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  321. "Jewish leaders applaud Hezbollah terror designation by France". JNS.org.
  322. Muriel Asseraf, "Prospects for Adding Hezbollah to the EU Terrorist List", September 2007
  323. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. October 11, 2005. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006. Retrieved July 16, 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
  324. Casey L. Addis & Christopher M. Blanchard, Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, January 3, 2011
  325. "EU Listing of Hezbollah: Inevitable Decision with Unpredictable Consequences". Chatham House.
  326. "UK urges EU to classify Hezbollah military wing as terrorist group." Jewish Journal. September 11, 2012.
  327. "Germany backs terror label for Hezbollah." Ynetnews. May 22, 2013.
  328. Kanter, James (July 22, 2013). "European Union Adds Military Wing of Hezbollah to List of Terrorist Organizations". New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  329. Meyer, Henry (July 28, 2006). "Hezbollah not on Russia's "terrorist" list". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved October 27, 2007. Sapunov told Rossiiskaya Gazeta the list of 17 "includes only those organizations which represent the greatest threat to the security of our country." Groups linked to separatist militants in Chechnya and Islamic radicals in Central Asia made the list.
  330. "Russian defense minister says Hezbollah uses 'terrorist methods'". Haaretz Service and News Agencies. July 15, 2006. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
  331. United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee Portal. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
  332. Bajpai, Arunoday. "Pratiyogita Darpan." Pratiyogita Darpan. October 2006. January 9, 2011.
  333. "Lebanon truce holds despite clashes". CNN. August 15, 2006. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  334. Frank, Thomas. "Israel says it doesn't plan to occupy Lebanon." USA Today. July 18, 2006. January 9, 2011.
  335. "Israel/Lebanon: Hezbollah Must End Attacks on Civilians." Human Rights Watch. August 4, 2006. January 9, 2011.
  336. "Amnesty: Hezbollah guilty of war crimes". CNN. September 14, 2006. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  337. Cowell, Alan (September 14, 2006). "Amnesty International Says Hezbollah Committed War Crimes". The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  338. Katie Fretland (September 14, 2006). "Amnesty: Hezbollah committed war crimes against Israel". Globe and Mail /AP. Toronto. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  339. "Judge: Arrest Ex-President Of Iran". The New York Sun. November 10, 2006. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  340. "French PM lashes Hezbollah 'terrorism'". BBC News. February 24, 2000. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  341. Dershowitz, Alan M. (August 29, 2006). "Italian FM: Hezbollah, Hamas are not al-Qaida". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  342. Germany's Relations with Israel: Background and Implications for German Middle East Policy Congressional Research Service (January 19, 2007)
  343. "Annual Report 2004" (PDF). Netherlands General intelligence and security service.
  344. "Answers to questions on Hezbollah and the EU (in Dutch)". Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. October 14, 2008. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009.
  345. Kanter, James; Rudoren, Jodi (July 22, 2013). "European Union Adds Military Wing of Hezbollah to List of Terrorist Organizations". The New York Times.
  346. 'US intel report scrapped Iran from list of terror threats,' The Times of Israel March 16, 2015.
  347. "U.S. imposes sanctions on Hezbollah officials for Syria support". Reuters. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  348. Javedanfar, Meir. "An Israeli Opportunity in a Lebanese Crisis" The Atlantic. January 31, 2011. August 10, 2011.
  349. Khaled Abu Toameh (July 17, 2006). "Arab world fed up with Hizbullah". The Jerusalem Post.
  350. "Egypt: Cairo calls Hezbollah terrorist organization," LA Times (April 13, 2009). Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  351. Kais, Roi (December 30, 2012). "Envoy: Egypt to tighten relations with Hezbollah". Ynetnews. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  352. Williams, Lauren (December 29, 2012). "New Egypt warms up to Hezbollah: ambassador". The Daily Star (Lebanon). Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  353. Spangler, Timothy (March 25, 2011). "Bahrain complains over Hezbollah comments on protests". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  354. Kahn, Gabe (March 31, 2011). "Bahrain: Hizbullah a Terrorist Group". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
  355. "'Bahrain first Arab state to blacklist Hezbollah'". Jerusalem Post. April 10, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
  356. Kais, Roi (June 8, 2013). "Hezbollah is a 'cancer,' say Arab media". Ynetnews. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  357. "Arab League declares Hezbollah 'terrorist organization'".
  358. "PressTV".
  359. "PressTV".
  360. "Reactionary Persian Gulf Arab States Praised by Netanyahu".
  361. "Arab League labels Hezbollah a 'terrorist' group".
  362. SPIEGEL Interview with Lebanese President Emile Lahoud: 'Hezbollah Freed Our Country'. Der Spiegel. July 25, 2006.
  363. Itani, Faysal (2007). "Hizbullah and Lebanese Nationalism". Bologna Center Journal of International Affairs. 10. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013.
  364. Allouch: Hezbollah qualifies as a terrorist group. YaLibnan. May 23, 2011
  365. Spangler, Timothy. "Syria uprising stirs old divisions in neighboring Lebanon". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  366. Phares, Walid. Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies against America. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. p. 148.
  367. LeVine, Mark. "Israel, Lebanon, Hezbollah, Hamas, fighting, terrorism, peace, by Mark LeVine". Beliefnet.com. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
  368. "Hizballah employed anti-Israel terrorism to pursue its goal of turning Lebanon into a state and society ruled solely by the Shari'a." Sela, Avraham. "Terrorism." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 822–836.
  369. "The Shiite Hezbollah has indeed become a trusted mentor and role model to the Sunni fundamentalist Hamas. Both organizations have inscribed on their banner the rejection of any treaties or peace agreements with Israel, energetically work for its demise and encourage suicide terrorism to that end." Wistrich, 731.
  370. Zisser, Eyal. "The Threat Posed by Hezbollah." Middle East Forum. November 26, 2002. January 18, 2011.
  371. Khatami, Siamak. Iran: A View from Within. Janus Publishing Company Lim. January 21, 2011.
  372. Gaba, Neeru. Hezbollah: in transition. La Trobe University. 2007. January 21, 2011.
  373. Bjørgo, Tore. Root Causes of Terrorism. Psychology Press. January 21, 2011.
  374. "EU: Designate Hezbollah a Terrorist Organisation Now".
  375. "Terrorist and Extremist Movements in the Middle East" (PDF).
  376. Daniel Byman, Should Hezbollah Be Next?, Foreign Affairs (November/December 2003)
  377. Hezbollah’s Impact on Security and Political Dynamics in the Middle East, September 30, 2010
  378. Special Report 111: Global Terrorism after the Iraq War, October 2003
  379. Congress. Congressional Record, V. 151, Pt. 4 ...." Government Printing Office. March 11 to April 6, 2005. January 23, 2011.
  380. Weisman, Jonathan (July 27, 2006). "Iraqi Prime Minister Presses for More Aid". Washington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  381. "Reps. Berman, Issa, Boustany, Rahall Introduce Bipartisan Legislation to Make Certain No Taxpayer Funds Benefit Hezbollah". The United States House of Representatives. June 16, 2011. Archived from the original on June 20, 2011.
  382. George Galloway, Anna Botting. Getting a word in (TV) (News). Sky News. Event occurs at 3:59–4:04. Retrieved January 22, 2011. But they're not a terrorist organization.
  383. Benjamin Weinthal (August 14, 2013). "Switzerland nominates Hezbollah advocate for UN Human Rights Council". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 14, 2013.

Further reading


External links

UN resolutions regarding Hezbollah

Other links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.