List of cryptids

The Effingham Carcass, Vancouver Island, 1947. Supposed remains of 'Caddy'

This is a list of cryptids notable within cryptozoology, a pseudoscience that presumes the existence of animals and plants that have been derived from anecdotal or other evidence considered insufficient by mainstream science. While biologists regularly identify new species, cryptozoologists focus on entities mentioned in the folklore record (the academic study of which is folkloristics).

Cryptozoologists may consider any figure from folklore to be a "cryptid", (from the Greek κρύπτω, krypto, meaning "hide") — a 'hidden animal'. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the noun cryptid as "an animal whose existence or survival to the present day is disputed or unsubstantiated; any animal of interest to a cryptozoologist".[1] Some dictionaries and encyclopedias define the term "cryptid" as an animal whose existence is questionable.[2][3]

Well-known examples include the Yeti in the Himalayas, the Loch Ness Monster in Scotland, Sasquatch in North America, and chupacabras in the Americas. While there have been attempts to codify cryptozoology approaches, unlike biologists, zoologists, botanists, and other academic disciplines, however, "there are no accepted, uniform, or successful methods for pursuing cryptids".[4]

Eberhart's classification

Cryptozoologist George M. Eberhart classifies ten types of mystery animals under the cryptozoological umbrella:[5][6]

  1. Distribution anomalies (known animals reported outside their normal range, e.g. the anomalous big cats of the U.K.);
  2. Undescribed, unusual, or outsized variations of known species (e.g. the giant anacondas reported from Amazonia or the spotted lions of East Africa);
  3. Survivals of recently extinct species (e.g. ivory-billed woodpecker presumed extinct c. 1960, the Tasmanian Tiger (Thylacine), declared extinct in 1936, or the Steller's sea cow presumed extinct c. 1770, both of which are occasionally claimed to have survived to the present);
  4. Survivals of species known only from the fossil record into modern times (e.g. the mokele-mbembe of central Africa, sometimes described as a living dinosaur);
  5. Lingerlings, or survivals of species known from the fossil record much later into historical times than currently thought (e.g. the woolly mammoth, presumed extinct c. 12,000 BCE but occasionally purported to have survived into later eras);
  6. Animals not known from the fossil record but related to known species (e.g. the Andean wolf or the striped manta-ray reported by William Beebe in the 1930s);
  7. Animals not known from the fossil record nor related to any known species (e.g. North America's Bigfoot or most sea serpents];
  8. Mythical animals with a zoological basis (e.g. the griffin, partly inspired by dinosaur fossils of Central Asia);
  9. Seemingly paranormal or supernatural entities with some animal-like characteristics (e.g. Mothman, black dogs or some fairies from folklore);
  10. Known hoaxes or probable misidentifications (e.g. the jackalope, an antlered rabbit, a popular hoax in taxidermy).

Additionally, Eberhart argues for six exclusions from classification as a cryptid:

  1. Insignificance. "Cryptids must be big, weird, dangerous or significant to humans in some way."
  2. Lack of controversy. "Someone needs to observe a mystery animal and someone else needs to discredit the sighting. Cryptozoologists function as interventionists between witnesses and skeptical scientists."
  3. Erratics. "The out-of-place alligator […] that turns up in an odd spot, undoubtedly through human agency, is not a zoological mystery […] [I]f someone discovers a new species of alligator that lives only in sewers, that is a different matter."
  4. Bizarre humans (e.g. zombies)
  5. Angels or demons […] "the paranormal or supernatural is admitted only if it has an animal shape (a werewolf sighting, which might involve a real dog or wolf, or a mystery canid)."
  6. Aliens "[unless such extraterrestrials] arrived a long time ago and thus classify as residents."

List of cryptids

Name Other names Description Location Depiction
Adjule Kelb-el-khela Unrecognized canine form reported from the western part of the Sahara by local people, said to live in packs North Africa
Agogwe Agogure, Kakundakari, Kikomba, Sehite Small human-shaped bipedal East Africa
Ahool Flying animal, giant bat Indonesia
Akkorokamui Cephalopod Japan and Thailand
Almas Abnauayu, almasty, albasty, bekk-bok,
biabin-guli, golub-yavan, gul-biavan, auli-avan,
kaptar, kra-dhun, ksy-giik, ksy-gyik, ochokochi,
mirygdy, mulen, voita, wind-man, Zana
Non-human ape or hominid Asia/Caucasus
Altamaha-ha Altie Sturgeon or plesiosaur-like river animal Georgia, United States
Amomongo Negros Ape Primate Negros Island, Philippines
Andean wolf Hagenbeck wolf, Andean mountain wolf, Dasycyon hagenbecki Canine High Andes, South America
Appalachian black panther A large, black felid. A melanistic cougar West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, New York, Alabama, Ohio, New England, North Carolina, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia, United States
Aswang Tik tik A vampire-like or cannibalistic human-like creature that could shape-shift Philippines
Ayia Napa sea monster To filiko teras (The Friendly Monster), Nappis Speculated to be something like a crocodile or sea serpent Cyprus
Barmanou Barmanu, Big Hairy One Ape or hominid Middle East/Asia
Batutut Ujit, Người rừng Hominid Vietnam, Laos, and Borneo
Beaman Ape or hominid Missouri, United States
Bear Lake Monster Lake monster Idaho/Utah, United States
Beast of Bladenboro Vampire Beast Blood-sucking feline-like predator North Carolina, United States
Beast of Bodmin Large felid Cornwall, England
Beast of Bray Road Wisconsin Werewolf, Wolfman Carnivorous mammal Wisconsin, United States
Beast of Busco Churubusco turtle; Oscar Reptile/dinosaur Churubusco, Indiana, United States
Beast of Dartmoor Lion-pig Boar-like mammal Dartmoor National Park, England
Beast of Dean Moose-pig Boar-like mammal England
Beast of Exmoor Big cat England
Beast of Gévaudan Bête du Gévaudan, Arenotelicon Canid Gévaudan (Lozère), France
Bergman's bear God bear; irkuiem Bear, proposed Arctodus simus Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia
Bessie Lake Erie Monster Lake monster Lake Erie, North America
Bigfoot Sasquatch, Skookum Hominid or other primate United States and Canada
Black Shuck Old Shuck Carnivorous mammal Coast of East Anglia, England
Bownessie Lake Windermere Monster Lake monster Windermere, England, UK
British big cats Alien big cats (ABCs), phantom cats, mystery cats, English lions,
Beast of Bodmin, Beast of Exmoor
Carnivorous mammal Great Britain
Brosno Dragon Brosnya Lake monster Lake Brosno, Russia
Bukit Timah Monkey Man BTM, BTMM Forest-dwelling hominid or other primate Singapore
Bunyip Lake and cave animal Australia
Burmese gray wild dog Canine Burma
Buru Reptile or giant lungfish Arunachal Pradesh, India
Cadborosaurus willsi[7] Caddy, Cadborosaurus Sea animal Pacific Coast of North America
Canvey Island Monster Fish, originally described as bipedal England
Champ Champtanystropheus americansus, Champy Lake monster Lake Champlain, North America
Cherufe Magma monster or draconic hominid Chile
Chessie Sea animal Atlantic Coast of the United States, especially Chesapeake Bay
Chickcharney Flightless bird Andros Island in The Bahamas
Chuchunya Large hominid Russia
Chupacabra Chupacabras (Brazilian Portuguese for goat-sucker) Puerto Rico (originally),
South and Central America,
Southern North America
Dingonek Jungle walrus A walrus or otherwise tusked water-animal that reportedly lives in the heart of Africa Western Africa
De Loys' Ape Ameranthropoides loysi Primate Near the Tarra River, Colombia
Devil Bird Ulama Bird Sri Lanka
Dobhar-chú Water Hound Extra-large otter-like carnivorous aquatic mammal Ireland
Dover Demon Bipedal, alleged extraterrestrial Dover, Massachusetts, United States
Eastern cougar Puma concolor couguar Felid predator Eastern United States
Ebu Gogo Theorized to be related to Homo floresiensis, also called Hobbit Small primate, possible early hominid Flores, Indonesia
Elasmotherium Giant rhinoceros Herbivorous mammal Asia
Elmendorf Beast Canid Elmendorf, Texas (United States)
Elwedritsche Mammal Germany
Emela-ntouka Chipekwe, Irizima, Aseka-moke Reptile/dinosaur or an undiscovered aquatic rhinoceros Republic of the Congo
Enfield Monster Three legs, short body, two little short arms with claws, grayish epidermis and big reddish eyes Enfield, Illinois, United States
Ennedi tiger Hadjel, Gassingram, Vossoko, Mourou N'gou, Mamaimé, Dilali, saber-toothed cat Carnivorous mammal Chad
Am Fear Liath Mòr Fear Liath, Big Grey Man of Ben MacDhui, Greyman Primate; possible humanoid Scotland
Fiskerton Phantom Phantom cat/bear Fiskerton, Lincolnshire, UK
Flatwoods monster Green Monster, Braxton County Monster Spade-headed extraterrestrial. Possibly misidentified barn owl West Virginia, United States
Flying rod Skyfish, rod, sky squid Photographic artifact Worldwide
Fouke Monster Jonesville Monster, Southern Sasquatch, Boggy Creek Monster Hominid or other primate Arkansas, United States
Garou Loup Garou, Cajun werewolf Wolf-like creature Louisiana, United States
Gazeka Mammal Papua New Guinea
Gambo Sea animal Gambia
Ghoul Humanoid Warm climates
Ghost deer Large deer, supposedly impervious to bullets Northern California, United States
Giant anaconda Megaconda Giant snake South America
Giglioli's Whale Amphiptera pacifica Sea animal Off Chile, Scotland, and France (in the Mediterranean Sea)
Globster Blob Decaying sea animal Australia, New Zealand, and the Caribbean
Gloucester sea serpent Scoliophis Atlanticus Sea serpent Massachusetts, United States
Gnome of Gerona Goblin Small humanoid Girona, Spain
Goatman The Maryland Goatman, Chevo Man Bipedal Wisconsin, Maryland, and Kentucky, United States
Grassman Kenmore Grassman, Ohio Grassman Bigfoot-like primate Kenmore, Akron, Ohio, and eastern Iowa, both in the United States
Gunni Antlered, wombat-like marsupial Marysville and surrounding area, Victoria, Australia
Grootslang Elephant with a serpent's tail Richtersveld, South Africa
Hakawai Hokioi Mythological bird heard but not seen New Zealand
Hellhound Barghest, Black Shuck, Dip, Gwyllgi, Gytrash Large, black, spectral hound with red eyes Worldwide
Hibagon Hinagon Primate Japan
Hodag The Dag; Nasobatilus Carnivorous mammal/lizard Rhinelander, Wisconsin, United States
Hokkaidō wolf Ezo wolf Wolf Hokkaidō, Japan
Homo gardarensis Hominid (acromegalic Homo sapiens?) Greenland
Honey Island Swamp monster Letiche, Tainted Keitre Hominid or other primate Louisiana, United States
Honshū wolf Japanese wolf, yamainu Wolf Honshū, Japan
Hoop snake Snake United States/Australia
Huay Chivo Huaychivo Carnivorous mammal Yucatán, Campeche, and Quintana Roo, Mexico
Igopogo Kempenfelt Kelly Lake monster Lake Simcoe, Ontario (Canada)
Iliamna Lake Monster Lake monster. It is most likely a giant white sturgeon, though some reports have compared it to a shark or whale Lake Iliamna, Alaska
Inkanyamba Lake monster Africa
Isshii Issie Lake monster Japan
Ivory-billed woodpecker Bird Southern United States and Cuba
Jba Fofi Great Spider Large spider-like creature Central Africa
Jackalope Antelabbit, aunt benny, Wyoming thistled hare, stagbunny Herbivorous mammal North America
Jersey Devil Leeds Devil Winged bipedal horse United States, mainly the South Jersey Pine Barrens, as well as other parts of New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania
Kaijin Sea monster Japan
Kappa Gatarō, Kawako Bipedal Japan
Kawekaweau Delcourt's giant gecko, Hoplodactylus delcourti Lizard New Zealand
Kelpie Water horse Carnivorous equine Scottish and Irish lakes and rivers
Kingstie Lake George Monster Lake monster Lake Ontario, North America
Kongamato Pterosaur/bird/bat Kenya
Koolakamba Ape hybrid, KoolooKamba A cross between a chimpanzee and gorilla West Africa
Kraken Sea animal World's oceans
Kting Voar Holy Goat, Snake-eating Cow, Khting Vor, Linh Duong, Pseudonovibos spiralis Herbivorous mammal Vietnam and Cambodia
Kumi Lizard/Ngarara Reptile: giant monitor lizard New Zealand
Kusshii Lake monster Japan
Lagarfljót Worm lagarfljóts ormurinn Lake monster Iceland
Lake Tianchi Monster Lake Chonji Monster Lake monster China and North Korea
Lake Van Monster Monster of Lake Van Lake monster Turkey
Lake Worth Monster Lake Worth Goatman, Texas Bigfoot Carnivorous mammal Texas, United States
Lariosauro Como Lake Monster Water reptile Italy
Lizard Man of Scape Ore Swamp Lizard Man of Lee County Bipedal South Carolina, United States
Loch Ness Monster Nessie, Nessiteras rhombopteryx Lake monster (plesiosaur or another type of Sauropterygia?) Loch Ness, Scotland
Loveland Frog Loveland Lizard Bipedal lizard or frog, allegedly first seen in Loveland, Ohio Ohio, United States
Lusca Gigantic octopus Large octopus World's oceans
MacFarlane's bear Ursus inopinatus Carnivorous mammal, possibly a grizzly-polar bear hybrid Canada
Maero Mohoao Cannibalistic hominids in Māori mythology New Zealand
Mahamba Giant crocodile Lake Likouala swamp region, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Maltese tiger Blue tiger Carnivorous mammal China
Mamlambo Lake monster South Africa
Manananggal Female humanoid that can split its body into two parts Philippines
Manatee of Helena Manatee Saint Helena
Mande Barung Mande Burung, Indian Yeti Humanoid North East India, Bangladesh
Man-eating tree Carnivorous tree Various
Manipogo Winnipogo Lake monster Lake Manitoba, Canada
Mapinguari Herbivorous mammal Amazon rainforest
Maricoxi Primate South America
Marozi Spotted lion, Panthera leo maculatus Lion-like felid Africa
Mbielu-Mbielu-Mbielu Reptile/dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Megalania prisca Devil Dragon Giant Australian monitor lizard Australia
Megalodon Carcharodon, Carcharocles Giant shark World's oceans
Melon heads Humanoids with enlarged heads Allegan County woods, Michigan, and parts of Ohio and Connecticut, United States
Memphre Memphré, Lake Memphremagog Monster Lake monster Lake Memphremagog (United States and Canada)
Menehune Primate Hawaii, United States
Mermaid Human-fish All five oceans and several seas
Merman Human-fish All five oceans and several seas
Michigan Dogman Wolfman of Wexford County Carnivorous mammal Michigan, United States
Minhocão Big Earthworm Caecilian South America
Milton lizard Giant monitor lizard-like lizard Trimble County, Kentucky
Minnesota Iceman Homo pongoides Primate Minnesota, United States
Mitla Fawcett's zorro or Fawcett's cat Carnivorous mammal Bolivian rainforest
Mngwa Nunda Carnivorous mammal Tanzania
Moehau Maeroero, The Hairy Moehau, The Moehau Monster Primate New Zealand
Mogollon Monster Mug-ee-yun Monster Bipedal primate Mogollon Rim, Arizona, United States
Mokele-Mbembe Reptile/dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Momo the Monster Missouri Monster Primate Missouri, United States
Mongolian Death Worm Allghoi (or orghoi) khorkhoi Worm-like animal Gobi Desert (Asia)
Monkey-man of Delhi Black Monkey Big black monkey Old Delhi, India
Mono Grande Hominid South America
Montauk Monster Mounty Small, decomposed quadruped carcass Montauk, Long Island, United States
Morag Lake monster Scotland
Mothman Often associated with Indrid Cold, "The Grinning Man" from John A. Keels book The Mothman Prophecies Winged bipedal Mason County, West Virginia, United States
Mountain fennec Fox Southern Algeria and northern Chad, in the central Sahara mountains
Muckie Lake monster Lakes of Killarney, Ireland
Muc-sheilche Lake monster Scotland
Muhuru Reptile/dinosaur Kenya
Mussie Lake monster Ontario, Canada
Nahuelito Nahuel Huapi Lake Monster Lake monster Nahuel Huapi Lake, Argentina
Nandi Bear Chemosit, Chimiset, Chimisit, Duba, Engargiya, Gadett, Ikimizi, Kerit, Kikambangwe, Kikomba, Koddoelo, Ngoloko, Sabrookoo, Shivuverre Carnivorous mammal Africa
Ngoubou Reptile, proposed dinosaur Cameroon
Nguma-monene Reptile, proposed dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Ogopogo N'ha•a•itk, Naitaka Lake monster Lake Okanagan, Canada
Old Yellow Top Primate Canada
Olitiau Winged animal: bat or flying reptile Cameroon
Onza Big felid: possibly a new species of cougar Latin America
Orang-bati Bipedal Indonesia
Orang Mawas Mawa, Orang Dalam, hantu jerang gigi Primate Malaysia
Orang Pendek Primate, has been associated with Homo floresiensis Sumatra
Owlman Cornish Owlman, Owlman of Mawnan Human-owl England
Ozark Howler Ozark Black Howler Carnivorous mammal Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, United States
Panthera tigris sudanensis Big felid: possibly a new species of tiger Cairo, Egypt
Peluda Shaggy Beast, La Velue A dragon-like beast with a porcupine-like body, a snake's neck, head, and tail, large tortoise-like feet, and a green color La Ferté-Bernard, France
Phantom cat Alien Big Cats (ABCs) Carnivorous mammal Worldwide
Phantom kangaroo Marsupial Various
Phaya Naga River monster Laos and Thailand
Pogeyan Gray felid; possible leopard color morph or out-of-place Asian lion Ghats, India
Popobawa East Africa
Pope Lick Monster Bipedal Kentucky, United States
Poukai Pouakai, Hakawai Large carnivorous bird New Zealand
Pukwudgie Bipedal Massachusetts, United States
Pygmy elephant Pachyderm Western Ghats, Kerala, India
Qilin Kirin (from Japanese), Kỳ lân (from Vietnamese) or sometimes kyrin and ki-lin, Chinese unicorn Chimera China
Queensland tiger Yarri, the Beast of Buderim Carnivorous mammal Australia
Reptilians Lizard People, Draconian, Reptoid, Dinosauroid, Dragonoid Bipedal Worldwide
Salawa Set animal Carnivorous canid Egypt
Sea monk Sea animal World's oceans
Sea monsters Sea animals World's oceans
Sea serpent Sea animal World's oceans
Selma Seljordsormen Lake monster Lake Seljord, Telemark, Norway
Sewer alligator Albino alligator Contemporary phylogenesis Widespread urban environments
Sharlie Slimy slim, The twilight dragon of Payette lake Lake monster Lake Payette, McCall, Idaho, United States
Shōjō Xing-xing, translates to "heavy drinker" or "orangutan" Sea creature with red face and hair Japan
Shug Monkey Primate Europe
Shunka Warakin Carnivorous mammal; wolf-like, boar-like, hyena-like Western United States (especially Montana)
Sigbin Canine, cat-fox, civet Philippines
Sirrush Mushrushu Reptile/dinosaur Africa and ancient Babylon
Skookum Cannibalistic wildmen of Mt. St. Helens, Washington Ape-like hominid Pacific Northwest
Skunk Ape Stink Ape, Myakka Ape, Myakka Skunk Ape Primate Florida, United States
Snallygaster Schneller Geist "A dragon-like beast... The earliest incarnations mixed the half-bird features of a siren with the nightmarish features of demons and ghouls. The Snallygaster was described as half-reptile, half-bird with a metallic beak lined with razor-sharp teeth, occasionally with octopus-like tentacles." The hills surrounding Washington, D.C. and Frederick County, Maryland; West Virginia
Steller's sea ape Sea animal Pacific Ocean
Storsjöodjuret Lake monster Sweden
Stronsay Beast Sea animal Orkney, Scotland
Sucuriju Gigante Giant Bull Eater (Matatoro in Spanish); giant anaconda; megaconda Giant boa Amazonia
Tahoe Tessie Lake Tahoe monster Lake monster Lake Tahoe, in California and Nevada, United States
Tapire-iauara Jaguar/tapir Amazon rainforest
Tatzelwurm Reptile/amphibian European Alps
Thetis Lake Monster Reptilian humanoid Vancouver Island, Canada
Thunderbird Giant bird North America
Tikbalang Humanoid Philippines
Trinity Alps giant salamander Salamander California, United States
Trunko The Margate monster Whale carcass South Africa
Tsuchinoko Snake Japan
Tsul 'Kalu Primate American West
Turtle Lake Monster Lake monster Saskatchewan, Canada
Umdhlebi Carnivorous tree Zululand, South Africa
Urayuli Arulataq, Bushman, Tent Monster, Nant'ina, Woodsman Hominid or other primate Southwest Alaska, near Lake Iliamna, United States
Veo Carnivorous mammal Indonesia
Waheela Carnivorous mammal Canada
Waitoreke Maori otter, New Zealand otter; Waitoreki, Waitorete Carnivorous mammal South Island, New Zealand
Wampus cat Foot Craver, Masked Cat, Canable Cat Legendary felid Southern and Southwestern United States
Wendigo Windiga, Witiko, Wihtikow, Weendigo Legendary creature Northern United States and Canada
Wild Man of the Navidad Wild Woman of the Navidad, Wildman of the Navidad Legendary creature South Texas, United States
Wolpertinger Crisensus bavaricus Mammal Germany
Wucharia Canis aureus lupaster or Canis lupus arabs Canine Danakil Depression, Eritrea
Ya-te-veo Man-Eating Tree Large tree with an eye and mouth; eats humans, its name means "I see you" Central and South America
Yeren Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman Primate (possible hominin) China
Yeti Abominable Snowman Primate / Ursidae Himalayas (Asia)
Yowie Yahoo Primate Australia
Zanzibar leopard Panthera pardus adersi Feline Unguja Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania

See also


  1. "cryptid, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2016. Web. 25 October 2016.
  2. "The Oxford Dictionary". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  3. "Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  4. Regal, Brian (2011) "Cryptozoology", pp. 326-329 as published in McCormick, Charlie T. and Kim Kennedy (2011). Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and Art. 2nd edition. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-241-8.
  5. Eberhart, George M. "Mysterious Creatures: Creating A Cryptozoological Encyclopedia." 2005. Journal of Scientific Exploration. Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 103113.
  6. Jobling, Mark A. (2013). "The truth is out there". Investigative Genetics. 4 (24). doi:10.1186/2041-2223-4-24. PMC 4121952Freely accessible.
  7. Loren Coleman & Jerome Clark (1999). Cryptozoology A to Z: The Encyclopedia of Loch Monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and Other Authentic Mysteries of Nature. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85602-6.
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