For other uses, see Dunedin (disambiguation).
Urban area
City of Dunedin

View across the University of Otago campus in April 2011

Coat of arms

Nickname(s): Edinburgh of the South;[1]
Dunners (colloquial)[2]
Coordinates: 45°52′S 170°30′E / 45.867°S 170.500°E / -45.867; 170.500
Country New Zealand
Region Otago
Territorial authority Dunedin City Council
Settled by Māori c. 1300[3]
Settled by Europeans 1848
Incorporated[4] 1855
Named for Dùn ÈideannScottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh
Electorates Dunedin North
Dunedin South
  Mayor Dave Cull
  Deputy Mayor Chris Staynes
  Territorial 3,314 km2 (1,280 sq mi)
  Urban 255 km2 (98 sq mi)
Population (June 2016)[6]
  Territorial 127,000
  Density 38/km2 (99/sq mi)
  Urban 118,500
  Urban density 460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Dunedinite
Time zone NZST (UTC+12)
  Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13)
Postcode 9010, 9011, 9012, 9013, 9014, 9016, 9018, 9022, 9023, 9024, 9035, 9076, 9077, 9081, 9082, 9092
Area code(s) 03
Website www.DunedinNZ.com

Dunedin (i/dʌˈndn/ dun-EE-din; Māori: Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region. It is named for the capital of Scotland, generally Anglicised as Edinburgh (with burgh being a literal translation of the Gaelic dun, meaning fort; although dun is also the source of the English word town). While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic, cultural and geographic reasons.[7]

Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland on the creation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Dunedin was the largest city in New Zealand by population from the 1860s until about 1900. The city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246.[8] The Dunedin urban area lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour. The harbour and hills around Dunedin represent the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, and along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean.

The city's most important activity in economic terms centres around tertiary education – Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's first university (established 1869), and the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population; 21.6 percent of the city's population was aged between 15 and 24 at the 2006 census, compared to the New Zealand average of 14.2 percent.[9] In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO Creative City of Literature.[10]


Main article: History of Dunedin

Māori settlements

Archaeological evidence shows the first human (Māori) occupation of New Zealand occurred between AD 1250–1300,[3] with population concentrated along the southeast coast.[11] A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time.[12] There are numerous archaic (moa hunter) sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied, particularly in the 14th century.[13] The population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several , fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at (Taiaroa Head), about 1650.[14] There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin (Ōtepoti) occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826.[15]

Maori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area, then Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical. The next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Mamoe late in the 16th century and then Kai Tahu (Ngai Tahu in modern standard Māori) who arrived in the mid 17th century.[16] These migration waves have often been represented as 'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that. They were probably migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed.[17]

The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the 'Kaika Otargo' (settlements around and near Otago Harbour) were the oldest and largest in the south.[18]

European settlement

Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders (on the Otago Peninsula) and Saddle Hill. He reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century.[19] The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Maori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815.[20] Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Maori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.[21]

Statue of Queen Victoria, at Queens Gardens. Dunedin was settled by Europeans during the Victorian era.

In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying (among others) his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement.[22] After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin.[23] (Tuckett turned down the site which would become Christchurch, as he felt the ground around the Avon river was swampy.)

The Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.[16] Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the characteristics of Edinburgh, produced a striking, "Romantic" design.[24] There resulted both grand and quirky streets as the builders struggled and sometimes failed to construct his bold vision across the challenging landscape. Captain William Cargill, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, served as the secular leader of the new colony. The Reverend Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet Robert Burns, provided spiritual guidance.

Gold rush era

Dunedin Railway Station, built in 1906

In 1852, Dunedin became the capital of the Otago Province, the whole of New Zealand from the Waitaki south. In 1861 the discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully, to the southwest, led to a rapid influx of people and saw Dunedin become New Zealand's first city by growth of population in 1865. The new arrivals included many Irish, but also Italians, Lebanese, French, Germans, Jews and Chinese.[25] The Dunedin Southern Cemetery was established in 1858, the Dunedin Northern Cemetery in 1872.[26]

Dunedin and the region industrialised and consolidated and the Main South Line connected the city with Christchurch in 1878 and Invercargill in 1879. Otago Boys' High School was founded in 1863. The University of Otago, the oldest university in New Zealand, in 1869.[27] Otago Girls' High School was established in 1871. Between 1881 and 1957, Dunedin was home to cable trams, being both one of the first and last such systems in the world. Early in the 1880s the inauguration of the frozen meat industry, with the first shipment leaving from Port Chalmers in 1882, saw the beginning of a later great national industry.[28]

After ten years of gold rushes the economy slowed but Julius Vogel's immigration and development scheme brought thousands more especially to Dunedin and Otago before recession set in again in the 1880s. In these first and second times of prosperity many institutions and businesses were established, New Zealand's first daily newspaper, art school, medical school and public art gallery the Dunedin Public Art Gallery among them.[29] There was also a remarkable architectural flowering producing many substantial and ornamental buildings. R.A. Lawson's First Church of Otago and Knox Church are notable examples, as are buildings by Maxwell Bury and F.W. Petre. The other visual arts also flourished under the leadership of W. M. Hodgkins.[30] The city's landscape and burgeoning townscape were vividly portrayed by George O'Brien 1821–1888.[31] From the mid-1890s the economy revived. Institutions such as the Toitū Otago Settlers Museum and the Hocken Collections – the first of their kind in New Zealand – were founded. More notable buildings such as the Railway Station and Olveston were erected. New energy in the visual arts represented by G.P. Nerli culminated in the career of Frances Hodgkins.[32]

Early Modern era

Historic panorama of the Botanical Gardens

By 1900, Dunedin was no longer the country's biggest city. Influence and activity moved north to the other centres ("the drift north"), a trend which continued for much of the following century. Despite this, the university continued to expand, and a student quarter became established. At the same time people started to notice Dunedin's mellowing, the ageing of its grand old buildings, with writers like E.H. McCormick pointing out its atmospheric charm.[33] In the 1930s and early 1940s a new generation of artists such as M.T. (Toss) Woollaston, Doris Lusk, Anne Hamblett, Colin McCahon and Patrick Hayman once again represented the best of the country's talent. The Second World War saw the dispersal of these painters, but not before McCahon had met a very youthful poet, James K. Baxter, in a central city studio.

Numerous large companies had been established in Dunedin, many of which became national leaders. Late among them was Fletcher Construction, founded by Sir James Fletcher in the early 20th century. Kempthorne Prosser, established in 1879 in Stafford Street, was the largest fertiliser and drug manufacturer in the country for over 100 years. G. Methven, a metalworking and tap manufacturer based in South Dunedin, was also a leading firm, as was H. E. Shacklock, an iron founder and appliance manufacturer later taken over by the Auckland concern Fisher and Paykel. The Mosgiel Woollens was another Victorian Dunedin foundation. Hallensteins was the colloquial name of a menswear manufacturer and national retail chain while the DIC and Arthur Barnett were department stores, the former a nationwide concern. Coulls, Somerville Wilkie – later part of the Whitcoulls group – had its origins in Dunedin in the 19th century. There were also the National Mortgage and Agency Company of New Zealand, Wright Stephensons Limited, the Union Steamship Company and the National Insurance Company and the Standard Insurance Company among many others, which survived into the 20th century.

Post-war developments

Dunedin Botanic Gardens in winter

After the Second World War prosperity and population growth revived, although Dunedin trailed as the fourth 'main centre'. A generation reacting against Victorianism started demolishing its buildings and many were lost, notably William Mason's Stock exchange in 1969. (Dunedin Stock Exchange building) Although the university continued to expand, the city's population contracted, notably from 1976 to 1981. This was, however, a culturally vibrant time with the university's new privately endowed arts fellowships bringing such luminaries as James K Baxter, Ralph Hotere, Janet Frame, and Hone Tuwhare to the city.

During the 1980s Dunedin's popular music scene blossomed, with many acts, such as The Chills, The Clean, The Verlaines, and Straitjacket Fits, gaining national and international recognition. The term "The Dunedin Sound" was coined to describe the 1960s-influenced, guitar-led music which flourished at the time.[34] Bands and musicians are still playing and recording in many styles.

By 1990, population decline had steadied and slow growth has occurred since and Dunedin re-invented itself as a 'heritage city' with its main streets refurbished in Victorian style.[35] R.A. Lawson's Municipal Chambers (Dunedin Town Hall) in the Octagon were handsomely restored. The city was also recognised as a centre of excellence in tertiary education and research. The university's and polytechnic's growth accelerated. Dunedin has continued to refurbish itself, embarking on redevelopments of the art gallery railway station and the Toitū Otago Settlers Museum.

The city has a population of 127,000 (June 2016).

Dunedin has flourishing niche industries including engineering, software engineering, bio-technology and fashion. Port Chalmers on the Otago Harbour provides Dunedin with deep-water facilities. It is served by the Port Chalmers Branch, a branch line railway which diverges from the Main South Line and runs from Christchurch by way of Dunedin to Invercargill. Dunedin is also home to MTF, the nationwide vehicle finance company.

The cityscape glitters with gems of Victorian and Edwardian architecture – the legacy of the city's gold-rush affluence. Many, including First Church, Otago Boys' High School and Larnach Castle were designed by one of New Zealand's most eminent architects R A Lawson. Other prominent buildings include Olveston and the Dunedin Railway Station. Other unusual or memorable buildings or constructions are Baldwin Street, claimed to be the world's steepest street; the Captain Cook tavern; Cadbury Chocolate Factory (Cadbury World); and the local Speight's brewery.

Dunedin is also a centre for ecotourism. The world's only mainland royal albatross colony and several penguin and seal colonies lie within the city boundaries on the Otago Peninsula. To the south, on the western side of Lake Waihola, are the Sinclair Wetlands.

The thriving tertiary student population has led to a vibrant youth culture (students are referred to as 'Scarfies' by people who are not students), consisting of the previously mentioned music scene, and more recently a burgeoning boutique fashion industry.[36][37] A strong visual arts community also exists in Dunedin, notably in Port Chalmers and the other settlements which dot the coast of the Otago Harbour, and also in communities such as Waitati.

Sport is catered for in Dunedin by the floodlit rugby and cricket venues of Forsyth Barr Stadium and University Oval, Dunedin respectively, the new Caledonian Ground football and athletics stadium near the University at Logan Park, the large Edgar Centre indoor sports centre, the Dunedin Ice Stadium, and numerous golf courses and parks. There are also the Forbury Park horseracing circuit in the south of the city and several others within a few kilometres. St Clair Beach is a well-known surfing venue, and the harbour basin is popular with windsurfers and kitesurfers. Dunedin has four public swimming pools: Moana Pool, Port Chalmers Pool, Mosgiel, and St Clair Salt Water Pool.


Taiaroa Head with lighthouse.

Dunedin City has a land area of 3,314.8 square kilometres (1,279.9 sq mi), slightly larger than the American state of Rhode Island or the English county of Cambridgeshire, and a little smaller than Cornwall. It was the largest city in land area in New Zealand until the formation of the 5,600 km2 (2,200 sq mi) Auckland Council on 1 November 2010. The Dunedin City Council boundaries since 1989 have extended to Middlemarch in the west, Waikouaiti in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and south-east, and the Waipori/Taieri River and the township of Henley in the south-west.

Dunedin is the furthest city in the world from London, the former Imperial capital, at 19,100 km (11,870 mi) (90 km (56 mi) more than Invercargill, and 100 km (62 mi) more than Christchurch), and from Berlin at 18,200 km (11,310 mi). Its antipodes are some 300 km (190 mi) north of the Spanish city of A Coruña.

Dunedin is situated at the head of Otago Harbour, a narrow inlet extending south-westward for some 15 miles. The harbour is a recent creation formed by the flooding of two river valleys.[38] From the time of its foundation in 1848, the city has spread slowly over the low-lying flats and nearby hills and across the isthmus to the slopes of the Otago Peninsula.

Beach in the suburb of St Clair

Inner city

The central region of Dunedin is known as the Octagon. It was once a gully, filled in the mid nineteenth century to create the present plaza. The initial settlement of the city took place to the south on the other side of Bell Hill, a large outcrop which had to be reduced to provide easy access between the two parts of the settlement. The central city stretches away from this point in a largely northeast-southwest direction, with the main streets of George Street and Princes Street meeting at The Octagon. Here they are joined by Stuart Street, which runs orthogonally to them, from the Dunedin Railway Station in the southeast, and steeply up to the suburb of Roslyn in the northwest. Many of the city's notable old buildings are located in the southern part of this area and on the inner ring of lower hills which surround the central city (most of these hills, such as Maori Hill, Pine Hill, and Maryhill, rise to some 200 metres (660 ft) above the plain). The head of the harbour includes a large area of reclaimed land ("The Southern Endowment"), much of which is used for light industry and warehousing. A large area of flat land, simply known colloquially as "The Flat" lies to the south and southwest of the city centre, and includes several larger and older suburbs, notably South Dunedin and St. Kilda. These are protected from the Pacific Ocean by a long line of dunes which run east-west along the city's southern coastline and separate residential areas from Ocean Beach, which is traditionally divided into St. Clair Beach at the western end and St. Kilda Beach to the east.

Dunedin seen from Unity Park lookout in the suburb of Mornington

Dunedin is home to Baldwin Street, which, according to the Guinness Book of Records, is the steepest street in the world. Its gradient is 1 in 2.9.[39] The long since abandoned Maryhill Cablecar route had a similar gradient close to its Mornington depot.

Beyond the inner range of hills lie Dunedin's outer suburbs, notably to the northwest, beyond Roslyn. This direction contains Taieri Road and Three Mile Hill, which between them formed the original road route to the Taieri Plains. The modern State Highway 1 follows a different route, passing through Caversham in the west and out past Saddle Hill. Lying between Saddle Hill and Caversham are the outer suburbs of Green Island and Abbotsford. Between Green Island and Roslyn lies the steep-sided valley of the Kaikorai Stream, which is today a residential and light industrial area. Suburban settlements – mostly regarded as separate townships – also lie along both edges of the Otago Harbour. Notable among these are Portobello and Macandrew Bay, on the Otago Peninsula coast, and Port Chalmers on the opposite side of the harbour. Port Chalmers provides Dunedin's main deep-water port, including the city's container port.

The Dunedin skyline is dominated by a ring of (traditionally seven) hills which form the remnants of a volcanic crater. Notable among them are Mount Cargill (700 m (2,300 ft)), Flagstaff (680 m (2,230 ft)), Saddle Hill (480 m (1,570 ft)), Signal Hill (390 m (1,280 ft)), and Harbour Cone (320 m (1,050 ft)).[40]


Dunedin (grey area to lower left) sits close to the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, at the end of Otago Harbour.

Dunedin's hinterland encompasses a variety of different landforms. To the southwest lie the Taieri Plains, the broad, fertile lowland floodplains of the Taieri River and its major tributary the Waipori. These are moderately heavily settled, and contain the towns of Mosgiel, and Allanton.[40] They are separated from the coast by a range of low hills rising to some 300 metres (980 ft). Inland from the Taieri Plain is rough hill country. Close to the plain, much of this is forested, notably around Berwick and Lake Mahinerangi, and also around the Silverpeaks Range which lies northwest of the Dunedin urban area.[41] Beyond this, the land becomes drier and opens out into grass and tussock-covered land. A high, broad valley, the Strath-Taieri lies in Dunedin's far northwest, containing the town of Middlemarch, one of the area's few concentrations of population.

To the north of the city's urban area is undulating hill country containing several small, mainly coastal, settlements, including Waitati, Warrington, Seacliff and Waikouaiti. State Highway 1 winds steeply through a series of hills here, notably The Kilmog.[40] These hills can be considered a coastal extension of the Silverpeaks Range.

To the east, Dunedin City includes the entirety of the Otago Peninsula, a long finger of land that formed the southeastern rim of the Dunedin Volcano.[40] The peninsula is lightly settled, almost entirely along the harbour coast, and much of it is maintained as a natural habitat by the Otago Peninsula Trust. The peninsula contains several fine beaches, and is home to a considerable number of rare species, such as yellow-eyed and Little penguins, seals, and shags. Most importantly, it contains the world's only mainland breeding colony of royal albatross, at Taiaroa Head on the peninsula's northeastern point.

List of suburbs

Main article: Suburbs of Dunedin
Inner suburbs

(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Woodhaugh; Glenleith; Leith Valley; Dalmore; Liberton; Pine Hill; Normanby; Mt Mera; North East Valley; Opoho; Dunedin North; Ravensbourne; Highcliff; Shiel Hill; Challis; Waverley; Vauxhall; Ocean Grove (Tomahawk); Tainui; Andersons Bay; Musselburgh; South Dunedin; St Kilda; St Clair; Corstorphine; Kew; Forbury; Caversham; Concord; Maryhill; Kenmure; Mornington; Kaikorai Valley; City Rise; Belleknowes; Roslyn, Otago; Kaikorai; Wakari; Maori Hill.

Outer suburbs

(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Burkes; Saint Leonards; Deborah Bay; Careys Bay; Port Chalmers; Sawyers Bay; Roseneath; Broad Bay; Company Bay; Macandrew Bay; Portobello; Burnside; Green Island; Waldronville; Brighton; Westwood; Saddle Hill; Sunnyvale; Fairfield; Mosgiel; Abbotsford; Bradford; Brockville; Halfway Bush; Helensburgh.

Towns within city limits

(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Waitati; Waikouaiti; Karitane; Seacliff; Warrington; Purakanui; Long Beach; Aramoana; Otakou; Taieri Mouth; Henley; Allanton; East Taieri; Momona; Outram; West Taieri; Waipori; Middlemarch; Hyde.

Since local council reorganisation in the late 1980s, these are suburbs, but are not commonly regarded as such.


The climate of Dunedin in general is temperate; however the city is recognised as having a large number of microclimates and the weather conditions often vary between suburbs mostly due to the city's topographical layout. Under the Köppen climate classification, Dunedin features an oceanic climate. The city's climate is also greatly modified by its proximity to the ocean. This leads to mild summers and cool winters. Winter is frosty but sunny, snowfall is common but significant snowfall is uncommon (perhaps every two or three years), except in the inland hill suburbs such as Halfway Bush and Wakari, which tend to receive a few days of snowfall each year. Spring can feature "four seasons in a day" weather, but from November to April it is generally settled and mild. Temperatures during summer can briefly reach 30 °C (86 °F). Due to its extreme maritime influence, Dunedin's cool summers and mild winters both stand out considering its latitude.

Dunedin has relatively low rainfall in comparison to many of New Zealand's cities, with only some 750 millimetres (30 in) recorded per year. Despite this fact it is sometimes misguidedly regarded as a damp city, probably due to its rainfall occurring in drizzle or light rain (heavy rain is relatively rare). Dunedin is one of the cloudiest major centres in the country, recording approximately 1650 hours of bright sunshine per annum.[42] Prevailing wind in the city is mainly a sometimes cool southwesterly and during late spring will alternate with northeasterlies.[43] Warmer, dry northwest winds are also characteristic Foehn winds from the northwest. The circle of hills surrounding the inner city shelters the inner city from much of the prevailing weather, while hills just to the west of the city can often push inclement weather around to the west of the city.

Inland, beyond the heart of the city and into inland Otago the climate is sub-continental: winters are quite cold and dry, summers hot and dry. Thick freezing ground fogs are common in winter in the upper reaches of the Taieri River's course around Middlemarch, and in summer the temperature occasionally reaches 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Dunedin (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.3
Average low °C (°F) 11.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.7 8.5 8.9 8.3 9.8 9.4 9.3 9.6 8.7 10.1 10.0 12.0 114.2
Average relative humidity (%) 74.2 77.6 77.1 76.9 79.5 79.7 80.2 77.6 72.1 71.6 70.6 73.2 75.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.6 158.0 146.1 125.9 108.4 95.3 110.6 122.2 136.8 165.5 166.9 168.3 1,683.7
Source: NIWA Climate Data[44]


Largest groups of overseas-born residents[45][46]
Nationality Population (2013)
 United Kingdom 7,140
 Australia 2,094
 China 1,422
 United States 924
 South Africa 750
 Malaysia 621
 India 603
 Netherlands 576
 South Korea 531
 Germany 483

Compared to New Zealand as a whole, Dunedin's demographics tend to show traits of the New Zealand education sector, largely caused by the city's high tertiary student population. These traits include a higher female population compared to males, a lower-than-average median age, a high proportion of people under 25 years, a higher proportion of people of European and Asian ethnicity and a lower proportion of Maori and Pacific Island ethnicities, higher unemployment, lower median income, and a higher proportion of those with school and post-school qualifications.[9]

At the 2006 census, Dunedin City had a residential population of 118,683, an increase of 4,341, or 3.8 percent, since the 2001 census. There were 45,072 occupied dwellings, 3,615 unoccupied dwellings, and 240 dwellings under construction.[9]

Of the residential population, 56,931 (48.0%) were male compared to 48.8% nationally, and 61,752 (52.0%) were female, compared to 51.2% nationally. The city had a median age of 35.0 years, 0.9 years below the national median age of 35.9 years. People aged 65 and over made up 13.4% of the population, compared to 12.3% nationally, and people under 15 years made up 16.8%, compared to 21.5% nationally. Due to the large tertiary education sector, people aged between 15 and 24 made up approximately 21.6% of the city's residential population.[9]

Dunedin's ethnicity is made up of (national figures in brackets): 78.7% European (67.6%), 6.4% Maori (14.7%), 5.3% Asian (9.2%), 2.2% Pacific Islanders (6.9%), 0.7% Middle Eastern/Latin American/African (0.9%), 13.6% 'New Zealanders' (11.1%), and 0.04% Other (0.04%).[9]

Dunedin had an unemployment rate of 6.1% of people 15 years and over, compared to 5.1% nationally. The median annual income of all people 15 years and over was $19,400, compared to $24,400 nationally. Of those, 51.2% earned under $20,000, compared to 43.2% nationally, while 13.4% earned over $50,000, compared to 18.0% nationally.[9]


Princes Street
Phone booths in Central Dunedin


Dunedin is a regular venue for touring ballet and dance companies, and also has multiple dance studios.


In December 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO Creative City of Literature.[10] Mayor of Dunedin Dave Cull said at the time "This announcement puts our city on the world map as a first-class literary city. We keep honourable company; other cities bestowed with City of Literature status include Edinburgh, Dublin, Iowa City, Melbourne, Reykjavík, Norwich and Kraków."[47]

Dunedin's application was driven by a steering committee and an advisory board of writers, librarians and academics from a range of Dunedin institutions. The bid highlighted the quality of the city's considerable literary heritage, its diverse combination of literary events, businesses, institutions and organisations, plus its thriving community of writers, playwrights and lyricists.

Dunedin's City of Literature online presence, www.cityofliterature.co.nz, showcases Dunedin as a literary city; taking pride in its past, illustrating its vibrant present, and designing for the future. The site presents 10 fast facts about Dunedin's literary strengths. These strengths align with UNESCO's list of criteria and characteristics a city must have to be considered a candidate for joining its Creative City network.

UNESCO established the Creative Cities Network to develop international co-operation among cities and encourage them to drive joint development partnerships in line with UNESCO's global priorities of 'culture and development' and 'sustainable development'. Each city in the network reflects one of UNESCO's seven Creative City themes: folk art, gastronomy, literature, design, film or music. Dunedin is New Zealand’s first city to be appointed to the Creative City network.



Dunedin is home to many choirs. These include the following:

Instrumental classical and jazz ensembles

The Southern Sinfonia is a semi-professional orchestra based in Dunedin. Other instrumental ensembles include the Rare Byrds early music ensemble, the Collegiate Orchestra, and the Dunedin Youth Orchestra. Many schools also hold school orchestras and bands. There are also three brass bands in Dunedin: St. Kilda Brass, Kaikorai Brass, and Mosgiel Brass. The Otago Symphonic Band and City of Dunedin Pipe Band are also important Dunedin musical ensembles.

Dunedin lends its name to the Dunedin Sound, a form of indie rock music which was created in the city in the 1980s. At that time, Dunedin was a fertile ground for bands, many of whom recorded on the Flying Nun Records label, based in Christchurch. Among the bands with strong Dunedin connections at this time were The Chills, The Clean, The Verlaines, The Bats, Sneaky Feelings, The Dead C and Straitjacket Fits, all of which had significant followings throughout New Zealand and on the college radio circuit in the United States and Europe.

Dunedin has also been home to a number of successful bands since the end of the Dunedin Sound era. Six60, Julian Temple Band, Two Cartoons, Males, Summer Thieves and Albion Place are all good examples of Dunedin bands to have received national and international acclaim in recent years.


Major teams

Football match between Otago United and Waikato FC in Round 7 of the 2011–12 ASB Premiership

Major grounds and stadiums


Fortune Theatre lays claim to being the world's southernmost professional theatre company

Dunedin hosts the world's southernmost professional theatre company: The Fortune Theatre, as well as having a large theatre venue, the Regent Theatre in the Octagon. Smaller theatres in Dunedin include the Globe Theatre, the Mayfair Theatre, and the Playhouse Theatre.

Visual arts

Dunedin has a substantial public art gallery, the Dunedin Public Art Gallery, in the Octagon. The city contains numerous other galleries, including over a dozen dealer galleries, many of which are found south of the Octagon along Princes Street, Moray Place and Dowling Street. There are also several more experimental art spaces, notably the Blue Oyster Gallery in Dowling Street.

Many notable artists have strong links with Dunedin, among them Ralph Hotere, Frances Hodgkins, Grahame Sydney, and Jeffrey Harris.


The Dunedin Town Hall


Main article: Dunedin City Council

The Dunedin City Council (DCC) governs the Dunedin City territorial authority. It is made up of an elected mayor and 14 additional councillors elected across three wards, one of whom gets chosen as deputy mayor. The current mayor, first elected in the 2010 mayoral election, is Dave Cull.

Coat of Arms

The City of Dunedin has a Coat of Arms emblazoned; Argent above a Fess Dancette Vert, a Castle Triple-Towered Sable on a Rock issuing from the Fess, Masoned Argent, with Windows, Vanes and Portcullis Gules. In the base a Three-Masted Lymphad with Sail Furled Azure, Flagged of Scotland, a Ram's Head Affrontee Horned Or between Two Garbs of the last. Coronet: A Mural Crown. Supporters: On the dexter a Scotsman Habited with Philabeg and Plaid of the Clan Cameron, supporting in His Exterior Hand a Cromach; on the Sinister a Maori Chief Attired in Korowai, Two Huia Feathers in his hair, an Aurei and a Hei Matau and in His Exterior hand a Taiaha. All Proper. Motto: Maiorum Institutis Utendo.

Translation of the Blazon. Firstly the shield is described. "Argent" means silver or white so this is the base colour of the shield. A "Fess" is a horizontal strip across the middle of the shield but "Dancette" means the edges of the fess are deeply set in a saw-tooth fashion. "Vert" means green so the fess is coloured green. Above this fess is placed a Castle with three towers. Sable means black so the castle is coloured black in outline. The castle is sitting on a rock which itself is sitting on the fess. The castle is made of stone ("masoned") and has some windows, a portcullis (castle entry point) and flags ("vanes") and all these objects are coloured red ("gules".)

The object in the base of the shield is next described. It is a three masted sailing ship ("Lymphad") on which the sail is furled as it would be when in a harbour. "Azure" means the ship is blue and the flag on the mast is the flag of Scotland (St Andrew’s Cross.) Then the objects on the fess are mentioned. These are; a Ram’s head and "affrontee" means it is facing forward, while "horned" means it is displaying horns coloured gold ("Or"). The head is placed between two wheat sheaves ("garbs") and of the last means that these are also coloured gold.

The "Mural Crown" is a crown made of masonry or bricks and this is placed above the shield. The Supporters are the persons on either side of the shield. On the dexter side which is the right side from the shield carrier’s view but the left side for a viewer, is a Scotsman. He is clothed ("habited") with a "Philabeg" which is a belted plaid consisting of two widths of material stitched together. The plaid or tartan is of the Cameron clan. In his "exterior hand" which is the one furtherest from the shield he holds a Cromach which is a shepherd’s crook. The other supporter is a Maori Chief dressed in a "Korowai" or waist cloak. He has two huia feathers in his hair, and also has an "Aurei" or greenstone ear pendant and a "Hei Matau" which is a greenstone neck pendant. In his Exterior hand is a "Taiaha" or spear. The "All Proper" means that everything pertaining to the supporters is depicted in their natural colours.

The Motto may be given in English as "By following in the steps of our forefathers." The compartment which is what the supporters stand on and to what the motto is attached is not normally part of the blazon but is left to the heraldic artist to decide.

The flag of the city of Dunedin is a banner of arms in white and green and featuring the castle, lymphad, ram's head and wheat sheafs as on the coat of arms.[48]


Dunedin is covered by two general electorates: Dunedin North and Dunedin South, and one Māori electorate electorate: Te Tai Tonga.

The city in general is a stronghold of the New Zealand Labour Party, having won the Dunedin-based electorate seats continuously since the 1978 election. As of the 2014 general election, both general electorates are held by the party, with David Clark representing Dunedin North and Clare Curran representing Dunedin South. Te Tai Tonga (which covers the entire South Island and part of Wellington in the North Island) is currently also held by the Labour Party and represented by Rino Tirikatene.

In addition to electorate MPs, Dunedin is the home to two list MPs, both based in Dunedin North but representing both general electorates: Michael Woodhouse of the National Party, and Metiria Turei, co-leader of the Green Party.


The major daily newspaper is the Otago Daily Times, which is also the country's oldest daily newspaper and part of the Allied Press group. Weekly and bi-weekly community newspapers include The Star, Taieri Herald, the fortnightly street press POINT, and student magazines Critic (University of Otago) and Gyro (Otago Polytechnic).

The city is served by all major national radio and television stations. The city's main terrestrial television and FM radio transmitter sits atop Mount Cargill, north of the city, while the city's main AM transmitter is located at Highcliff, east of the city centre on the Otago Peninsula. Local radio stations include Radio Dunedin, community station Otago Access Radio (formerly Hills AM, then Toroa Radio), and the university radio station, Radio One. The city has one local television station, Dunedin Television, part of Allied Press.

The city is home to several prominent media-related production companies, notably Natural History New Zealand and Taylormade Media. Dunedin was the location of one of the four television broadcasting installations established in the sixties by the NZBC, operating under the name DNTV2.

The city was once home to the head offices of Radio Otago – now called RadioWorks (part of Mediaworks) and based in Auckland. It was also formerly the home to several now-defunct newspapers, prominent among which were the Otago Witness and the Evening Star.


The University of Otago, considered one of the world's most beautiful universities.[49][50]
Otago Boys School


Dunedin is home to 12 secondary schools: eight state and four state-integrated. The oldest secondary school is state-run Otago Boys' High School, founded in 1863. Its sister school, Otago Girls' High School (1871) is the oldest state girls' secondary school in New Zealand, even though it preceded the state education system by six years.

Other state schools include Bayfield High School, Kaikorai Valley College, Logan Park High School, King's High School (boys'), Queen's High School (girls'), and Taieri College in Mosgiel. The four state-integrated schools are Columba College, a Presbyterian girls' school; St. Hilda's Collegiate School, an Anglican girls' school; John McGlashan College, a Presbyterian boys' school; and Kavanagh College, a Catholic coeducational school.


Public health and hospitals

Publicly funded primary health and hospital services are provided by the Southern District Health Board (Southern DHB).

Dunedin Public Hospital is the main public hospital in Dunedin. Other hospitals include the Mercy Hospital and the Wakari Hospital. The Dunedin Public Hospital and the Wakari Hospital, which are closely related, are operated by Southern DHB.

Ambulance services are provided by St John New Zealand.



The Dunedin urban area is served by two State Highways, with an additional two State Highways and one tourist route serving other parts of the district. The main State Highway in Dunedin is State Highway 1, which runs in a north to south-west direction through the middle of the city, connecting Dunedin with Invercargill to the south and Timaru and Christchurch to the north. Between The Oval and Mosgiel, State Highway 1 follows the eleven-kilometre Dunedin Southern Motorway. State Highway 88 connects central Dunedin to the citys port facilities at Port Chalmers.

Other State Highways in the city are: State Highway 86 connecting SH 1 at Allanton with Dunedin International Airport, State Highway 87 connecting SH 1 at Kinmont with SH 85 at Kyeburn via Middlemarch, serving the Dunedin city hinterland.

Dunedin is the northeastern terminus of the Southern Scenic Route, a tourist highway connecting Dunedin to Te Anau via The Catlins, Invercargill and Fiordland.

Three Designline-built buses, operated by Citibus (now Go Bus) on Dunedin urban routes


Buses in Dunedin are organised by the Otago Regional Council. A total of 64 buses operate on 17 weekday routes and 13 weeknight/weekend/holiday routes across the city. Buses are run by two operators, Ritchies Transport with three routes and Go Bus Transport with the remainder. Dunedin City Council-owned operator Citibus was a major player until 2011 when Passenger Transport(New Zealand) purchased Citibus from Dunedin City Holdings, and both companies were subsequently bought by Go Bus.


Dunedin Railway Station, located east of the Octagon, is the city's main railway station. Once the nation's busiest, decline in rail over the years saw the withdrawal of most services. Suburban services ceased in 1982, and the last regular commercial passenger train to serve Dunedin, The Southerner, was cancelled in February 2002. The Taieri Gorge Railway currently operates tourist-oriented services from the station, the most prominent of which is the Taieri Gorge Limited, a popular and famous train operated daily along the former Otago Central Railway through the scenic Taieri Gorge. Taieri Gorge Railway also operates to Palmerston once weekly. The station is also sometimes visited by excursions organised by other heritage railway societies, and by trains chartered by cruise ships docking at Port Chalmers.


Dunedin International Airport – an Air New Zealand 737 lands on the runway while an Air New Zealand A320 waits on the taxiway.

Dunedin International Airport is located 22 km (13.67 mi) southwest of the city, on the Taieri Plains at Momona. The airport operates a single terminal and 1,900-metre (6,200 ft) runway, and is the third-busiest airport in the South Island, after Christchurch and Queenstown. It is primarily used for domestic flights, with regular flights to and from Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington and charter flights to and from Queenstown, Wanaka, and Invercargill, but it also has international flights arriving from and departing to Brisbane year round. In recent years, a decline in International passengers can be attributed to fewer international flights operating direct to the airport.


Ferries operated between Port Chalmers and Portobello in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[51] Occasional calls have been made to revive them, and a non-profit organisation, Otago ferries Inc., has been set up to examine the logistics of restoring one of the original ferries and again using it for this route.[52]

In 1866, plans were made for a bridge across the Otago Harbour between Port Chalmers and Portobello,[53] but this grand scheme for an 1140-metre structure never eventuated. Plans were also mooted during the 1870s for a canal between the Pacific coast at Tomahawk and Andersons Bay, close to the head of the harbour.[54] This scheme also never came to fruition.


180° view of Dunedin shot from the hills on the west. Mount Cargill is at the extreme left of picture, and the Otago Peninsula is beyond the harbour to the centre
A panorama from just east of the summit of Mount Cargill. The harbour runs from its entrance near the centre to the city centre on the right, the peninsula beyond. The base of a television mast is at the extreme left and right edges
The view from the summit of Mount Cargill. The base of a television mast can be seen on the left, with the harbour and the peninsula beyond. The city centre is in the middle
The view from the summit of Flagstaff. The city centre is on the right, and Mosgiel on the left. Mount Cargill is slightly right of centre
The view from the summit of Signal Hill. Dunedin CBD is in the center of the image. The Otago Peninsula stretches out to the left

Notable people


Annual events

Past events

Main sights

Museums, art galleries, and libraries


Parks and gardens

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Dunedin is twinned with several cities throughout the world. These include:

Further reading



  • Anderson, Atholl (1983), When All the Moa-Ovens Grew Cold : nine centuries of changing fortune for the southern Maori, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Heritage Books 
  • Anderson, Atholl (1998), The Welcome of Strangers : an ethnohistory of southern Maori A.D. 1650–1850, Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago Press with Dunedin City Council, ISBN 1-877133-41-8 
  • Anderson, Atholl; Allingham, Brian; Smith, Ian W G (1996), Shag River Mouth : the archaeology of an early southern Maori village, Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, OCLC 34751263, ISBN 0-7315-0342-1 
  • Bathgate, Alexander (ed) (1890), Picturesque Dunedin, Dunedin, NZ: Mills, Dick & Co., OCLC 154535977 
  • Beaglehole, J C, ed. (1955–67), The Journals of Captain James Cook, London, UK: The Hakluyt Society 
  • Begg, A. Charles; Begg, Neil Colquhoun (1979), The world of John Boultbee : including an account of sealing in Australia and New Zealand, Christchurch, NZ: Whitcoulls, ISBN 0-7233-0604-4 
  • Bishop, Graham; Hamel, Antony (1993), From sea to silver peaks, Dunedin: John McIndoe, ISBN 0-86868-149-0 
  • Collins, Roger; Entwisle, Peter (1986), Pavilioned in Splendour, George O'Brien's Vision of Colonial New Zealand, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin Public Art Gallery, ISBN 0-9597758-1-1 
  • Dann, Christine; Peat, Neville (1989), Dunedin, North and South Otago, Wellington: GP Books, ISBN 0-477-01438-0 
  • Dunn, Michael (2005), Nerli an Italian Painter in the South Pacific, Auckland University Press., ISBN 1-86940-335-5 
  • Entwisle, Peter (1984), William Mathew Hodgkins & his Circle, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin Public Art Gallery, ISBN 0-473-00263-9 
  • Entwisle, Peter (1998), Behold the Moon, the European Occupation of the Dunedin District 1770–1848, Dunedin, NZ: Port Daniel Press., ISBN 0-473-05591-0 
  • Entwisle, Peter (2005), Taka, a Vignette Life of William Tucker 1784–1817, Dunedin, NZ: Port Daniel Press., ISBN 0-473-10098-3 
  • Entwisle, Peter; Dunn, Michael; Collins, Roger (1988), Nerli An Exhibition of Paintings & Drawings, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin Public Art Gallery, ISBN 0-9597758-4-6 
  • Hamel, J (2001), The Archaeology of Otago, Wellington, NZ: Department of Conservation, ISBN 0-478-22016-2 
  • Hayward, Paul (1998), Intriguing Dunedin Street Walks, Dunedin, NZ: Express Office Services 
  • Hocken, Thomas Moreland (1898), Contributions to the Early History of New Zealand (Settlement of Otago), London, UK: Sampson Low, Marston and Company, OCLC 3804372 
  • McCormick, E H (1954), The Expatriate, a Study of Frances Hodgkins, Wellington, NZ: New Zealand University Press., OCLC 6276263 
  • McCormick, E H (1959), The Inland Eye, a Sketch in Visual Autobiography, Auckland, NZ: Auckland Gallery Associates, OCLC 11777388 
  • McDonald, K C (1965), City of Dunedin, a Century of Civic Enterprise, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin City Corporation, OCLC 10563910 
  • McLintock, A H (1949), The History of Otago; the origins and growth of a Wakefield class settlement, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Centennial Historical Publications, OCLC 154645934 
  • McLintock, A H (1951), The Port of Otago, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Harbour Board 
  • Morrell, W P (1969), The University of Otago, a Centennial History, Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago Press., OCLC 71676 


  1. "Southern style". Stuff.co.nz. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  2. "Supersport's Good Week / Bad Week: An unhappy spectator". The New Zealand Herald. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  3. 1 2 Irwin, Geoff; Walrond, Carl (4 March 2009). "When was New Zealand first settled? – The date debate". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  4. Dunedin Town Board
  5. "Mayor Dave Cull". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  6. "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2016 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-16 (2017 boundary)". Statistics New Zealand. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  7. The description of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin as the four main centres neatly divides the country geographically into northern and southern halves of each of the two main islands. These centres are thus described in a wide range of fields, from encyclopedias of New Zealand to scientific research institutes, the tourism industry to nationwide organisations and government departments, and from the entertainment industry to newspaper reports.
  8. 2013 Census Usually Resident Population Counts – Statistics New Zealand
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quickstats about Dunedin City
  10. 1 2 28 cities join the UNESCO Creative Cities Network
  11. (Hamel 2001); (Anderson, Allingham & Smith 1996); (Anderson 1998)
  12. (Anderson 1983)
  13. (Anderson, Allingham & Smith 1996) & (Hamel 2001)
  14. (Anderson 1998)
  15. Turton, Hanson "Introductory"in (Bathgate 1890); (Entwisle 2005)
  16. 1 2 (McLintock 1949)
  17. (Anderson 1983) & (Anderson 1998)
  18. Boultbee, J in (Begg & Begg 1979)
  19. Cook, James in (Beaglehole (ed) 1955–67)
  20. (Entwisle 2005)
  21. (Entwisle 1998)
  22. Byrne, T. B. "Wing, Thomas 1810–1888". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  23. Somerville, Ross. "Tuckett, Frederick 1807? – 1876". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  24. (Hocken 1898)
  25. (McLintock 1949); (McDonald 1965)
  26. Betteridge, Chris (28 July 2004). "Landscapes of Memory – breathing new life into old cemeteries" (PDF). NZ Historic Places Trust. p. 2. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  27. (Morrell 1969)
  28. (McLintock 1951)
  29. (McLintock 1949); (McDonald 1965); (Entwisle 1984)
  30. (Entwisle 1984)
  31. (Collins & Entwisle 1986)
  32. (McCormick 1954); (Entwisle 1984); (Entwisle, Dunn & Collins 1988); (Dunn 2005)
  33. (McCormick 1959)
  34. Roy Shuker Understanding popular music Routledge, 2001
  35. Dunedin City council page
  36. Thread fashion magazine article
  37. Schaer, Cathrin (3 March 2008). "Rain fails to dampen Dunedin's fashion parade". New Zealand Herald. APN Holdings.
  38. "Dunedin City". An Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 1966. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  39. "Steepest Streets in Dunedin". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
  40. 1 2 3 4 (Dann & Peat 1989)
  41. (Bishop & Hamel 1993)
  42. Lambert, M. (ed.) (1988) Air New Zealand almanac. Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Press Association, p. 394-5. Long-term average, 1951–1980.
  43. A Descriptive Atlas of New Zealand, A.H. McLintock (ed), New Zealand Government Printer, 1959 (see Map 8)
  44. "Climate Data and Activities". NIWA. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  45. "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Birthplace and people born overseas". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  46. "Birthplace (detailed), for the census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 (RC, TA) – NZ.Stat". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  47. "Dunedin Thrilled to be UNESCO City of Literature".
  48. "Coat of Arms of Dunedin City," Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  49. "Otago University in New Zealand – Beautiful universities around the world". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 16 August 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  50. "World's most beautiful universities". Huffington Post (UK). 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  51. Community archive. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
  52. Otago Ferries Inc.. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
  53. Hayward 1998, p.65
  54. Hayward 1998, p.66
  55. "NZ's biggest book sale reaches 25-year milestone". Scoop. 9 May 2005. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  56. "Sister cities – Edinburgh – Scotland". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 5 December 2011. Archived 5 December 2011 at WebCite
  57. "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh Council. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
  58. "Sister cities – Otaru – Japan". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 5 December 2011. Archived 5 December 2011 at WebCite
  59. "Sister cities – Portsmouth – USA". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 5 December 2011. Archived 5 December 2011 at WebCite
  60. "Sister cities – Shanghai – China". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 5 December 2011. Archived 5 December 2011 at WebCite
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Coordinates: 45°52′0″S 170°30′0″E / 45.86667°S 170.50000°E / -45.86667; 170.50000

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