Nathaniel Hawthorne

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Nathaniel Hawthorne in the 1860s
Born Nathaniel Hathorne
(1804-07-04)July 4, 1804
Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died May 19, 1864(1864-05-19) (aged 59)
Plymouth, New Hampshire, U.S.
Language English
Alma mater Bowdoin College
Notable works The House of the Seven Gables, Twice-Told Tales, The Scarlet Letter
Spouse Sophia Peabody (m. 1842–64; his death)
Children Una Hawthorne
Julian Hawthorne
Rosa Hawthorne (Mother Mary Alphonsa)


Nathaniel Hawthorne (/ˈhɔːˌθɔːrn/; born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, Dark Romantic, and short story writer.

He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts, to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning. His ancestors include John Hathorne, the only judge involved in the Salem witch trials who never repented of his actions. Nathaniel later added a "w" to make his name "Hawthorne" in order to hide this relation. He entered Bowdoin College in 1821, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1824,[1] and graduated in 1825. Hawthorne published his first work, a novel titled Fanshawe, in 1828; he later tried to suppress it, feeling it was not equal to the standard of his later work.[2] He published several short stories in periodicals, which he collected in 1837 as Twice-Told Tales. The next year, he became engaged to Sophia Peabody. He worked at the Boston Custom House and joined Brook Farm, a transcendentalist community, before marrying Peabody in 1842. The couple moved to The Old Manse in Concord, Massachusetts, later moving to Salem, the Berkshires, then to The Wayside in Concord. The Scarlet Letter was published in 1850, followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment as consul took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to Concord in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, and was survived by his wife and their three children.

Much of Hawthorne's writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, Dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include novels, short stories, and a biography of his college friend Franklin Pierce.


Early life

Portrait of Nathaniel Hawthorne by Charles Osgood, 1841 (Peabody Essex Museum)

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4, 1804, in Salem, Massachusetts; his birthplace is preserved and open to the public.[3] William Hathorne, the author's great-great-great-grandfather, a Puritan, was the first of the family to emigrate from England, first settling in Dorchester, Massachusetts, before moving to Salem. There he became an important member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and held many political positions including magistrate and judge, becoming infamous for his harsh sentencing.[4] William's son and the author's great-great-grandfather, John Hathorne, was one of the judges who oversaw the Salem witch trials. Having learned about this, the author probably added the "w" to his surname in his early twenties, shortly after graduating from college, in an effort to dissociate himself from his notorious forebears.[5] Hawthorne's father, Nathaniel Hathorne, Sr., was a sea captain who died in 1808 of yellow fever in Suriname;[6] he had been a member of the East India Marine Society.[7] After his death, young Nathaniel, his mother, and two sisters moved in with maternal relatives, the Mannings, in Salem,[8] where they lived for 10 years. During this time, on November 10, 1813, young Hawthorne was hit on the leg while playing "bat and ball"[9] and became lame and bedridden for a year, though several physicians could find nothing wrong with him.[10]

Nathaniel Hawthorne's childhood home in Raymond, ME

In the summer of 1816, the family lived as boarders with farmers[11] before moving to a home recently built specifically for them by Hawthorne's uncles Richard and Robert Manning in Raymond, Maine, near Sebago Lake.[12] Years later, Hawthorne looked back at his time in Maine fondly: "Those were delightful days, for that part of the country was wild then, with only scattered clearings, and nine tenths of it primeval woods."[13] In 1819, he was sent back to Salem for school and soon complained of homesickness and being too far from his mother and sisters.[14] In spite of his homesickness, for the sake of having fun, he distributed seven issues of The Spectator to his family in August and September 1820. The homemade newspaper was written by hand. It included essays, poems, and news utilizing the young author's developing adolescent humor.[15]

Hawthorne's uncle Robert Manning insisted, despite Hawthorne's protests, that the boy attend college.[16] With the financial support of his uncle, Hawthorne was sent to Bowdoin College in 1821, partly because of family connections in the area, and also because of its relatively inexpensive tuition rate.[17] On the way to Bowdoin, at the stage stop in Portland, Hawthorne met future president Franklin Pierce and the two became fast friends.[16] Once at the school, he also met the future poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, future congressman Jonathan Cilley, and future naval reformer Horatio Bridge.[18] Years after his graduation with the class of 1825, he would describe his college experience to Richard Henry Stoddard:

I was educated (as the phrase is) at Bowdoin College. I was an idle student, negligent of college rules and the Procrustean details of academic life, rather choosing to nurse my own fancies than to dig into Greek roots and be numbered among the learned Thebans.[19]

Early career

Boston Custom House, Custom House Street, where Hawthorne worked ca.1839–1840[20]

In 1836, Hawthorne served as the editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. During this time, he boarded with the poet Thomas Green Fessenden on Hancock Street in Beacon Hill in Boston.[21] He was offered an appointment as weigher and gauger at the Boston Custom House at a salary of $1,500 a year, which he accepted on January 17, 1839.[22] During his time there, he rented a room from George Stillman Hillard, business partner of Charles Sumner.[23] Hawthorne wrote in the comparative obscurity of what he called his "owl's nest" in the family home. As he looked back on this period of his life, he wrote: "I have not lived, but only dreamed about living."[24] He contributed short stories, including "Young Goodman Brown" and "The Minister's Black Veil", to various magazines and annuals, though none drew major attention to the author. Horatio Bridge offered to cover the risk of collecting these stories in the spring of 1837 into one volume, Twice-Told Tales, which made Hawthorne known locally.[25]

Marriage and family

Sophia Peabody Hawthorne (1809–1871)

While at Bowdoin, Hawthorne bet his friend Jonathan Cilley a bottle of Madeira wine that Cilley would get married before he did.[26] By 1836, he had won the wager, but did not remain a bachelor for life. After public flirtations with local women Mary Silsbee and Elizabeth Peabody,[27] he began pursuing the latter's sister, illustrator and transcendentalist Sophia Peabody. Seeking a possible home for himself and Sophia, he joined the transcendentalist Utopian community at Brook Farm in 1841, not because he agreed with the experiment but because it helped him save money to marry Sophia.[28] He paid a $1,000 deposit and was put in charge of shoveling the hill of manure referred to as "the Gold Mine".[29] He left later that year, though his Brook Farm adventure would prove an inspiration for his novel The Blithedale Romance.[30] Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody on July 9, 1842, at a ceremony in the Peabody parlor on West Street in Boston.[31] The couple moved to The Old Manse in Concord, Massachusetts,[32] where they lived for three years. His neighbor, Ralph Waldo Emerson, invited him into his social circle, but Hawthorne was almost pathologically shy and stayed silent when at gatherings.[33] At the Old Manse, Hawthorne wrote most of the tales collected in Mosses from an Old Manse.[34]

Una, Julian, and Rose ca. 1862

Like Hawthorne, Sophia was a reclusive person. Throughout her early life, she had frequent migraines and underwent several experimental medical treatments.[35] She was mostly bedridden until her sister introduced her to Hawthorne, after which her headaches seem to have abated. The Hawthornes enjoyed a long and happy marriage. Of his wife, whom he referred to as his "Dove", Hawthorne wrote that she "is, in the strictest sense, my sole companion; and I need no other—there is no vacancy in my mind, any more than in my heart... Thank God that I suffice for her boundless heart!"[36] Sophia greatly admired her husband's work. In one of her journals, she wrote:

I am always so dazzled and bewildered with the richness, the depth, the ... jewels of beauty in his productions that I am always looking forward to a second reading where I can ponder and muse and fully take in the miraculous wealth of thoughts.[37]

On the first anniversary of the Hawthornes' marriage, the poet Ellery Channing came to the Old Manse for help. A local teenager named Martha Hunt had drowned herself in the river and Hawthorne's boat, Pond Lily, was needed to find her body. Hawthorne helped recover the corpse, which he described as "a spectacle of such perfect horror ... She was the very image of death-agony".[38] The incident later inspired a scene in his novel, The Blithedale Romance.

Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthorne had three children. Their first, a daughter, was born March 3, 1844. She was named Una, a reference to The Faerie Queene, to the displeasure of family members.[39] Hawthorne wrote to a friend, "I find it a very sober and serious kind of happiness that springs from the birth of a child ... There is no escaping it any longer. I have business on earth now, and must look about me for the means of doing it."[40] In October 1845, the Hawthornes moved to Salem.[41] In 1846, their son Julian was born. Hawthorne wrote to his sister Louisa on June 22, 1846, with the news: "A small troglodyte made his appearance here at ten minutes to six o'clock this morning, who claimed to be your nephew."[42] Their final child, Rose, was born in May 1851. Hawthorne called her his "autumnal flower".[43]

Middle years

Daguerrotype of Hawthorne, Whipple & Black, 1848

In April 1846, Hawthorne was officially appointed as the "Surveyor for the District of Salem and Beverly and Inspector of the Revenue for the Port of Salem" at an annual salary of $1,200.[44] He had difficulty writing during this period, as he admitted to Longfellow:

I am trying to resume my pen ... Whenever I sit alone, or walk alone, I find myself dreaming about stories, as of old; but these forenoons in the Custom House undo all that the afternoons and evenings have done. I should be happier if I could write.[45]

Like his earlier appointment to the custom house in Boston, this employment was vulnerable to the politics of the spoils system. A Democrat, Hawthorne lost this job due to the change of administration in Washington after the presidential election of 1848. Hawthorne wrote a letter of protest to the Boston Daily Advertiser, which was attacked by the Whigs and supported by the Democrats, making Hawthorne's dismissal a much-talked about event in New England.[46] Hawthorne was deeply affected by the death of his mother shortly thereafter in late July, calling it, "the darkest hour I ever lived".[47] Hawthorne was appointed the corresponding secretary of the Salem Lyceum in 1848. Guests that came to speak that season included Emerson, Thoreau, Louis Agassiz, and Theodore Parker.[48]

Hawthorne returned to writing and published The Scarlet Letter in mid-March 1850,[49] including a preface that refers to his three-year tenure in the Custom House and makes several allusions to local politicians, who did not appreciate their treatment.[50] One of the first mass-produced books in America, it sold 2,500 volumes within ten days and earned Hawthorne $1,500 over 14 years.[51] The book was immediately pirated by booksellers in London and became an immediate best-seller in the United States;[52] it initiated his most lucrative period as a writer.[51] One of Hawthorne's friends, the critic Edwin Percy Whipple, objected to the novel's "morbid intensity" and its dense psychological details, writing that the book "is therefore apt to become, like Hawthorne, too painfully anatomical in his exhibition of them",[53] though 20th-century writer D. H. Lawrence said that there could be no more perfect work of the American imagination than The Scarlet Letter.[54]

Hawthorne and his family moved to a small red farmhouse near Lenox, Massachusetts at the end of March 1850.[55] Hawthorne became friends with Herman Melville beginning on August 5, 1850, when the authors met at a picnic hosted by a mutual friend.[56] Melville had just read Hawthorne's short story collection Mosses from an Old Manse, and his unsigned review of the collection, titled "Hawthorne and His Mosses", was printed in The Literary World on August 17 and August 24.[57] Melville, who was composing Moby-Dick at the time, wrote that these stories revealed a dark side to Hawthorne, "shrouded in blackness, ten times black".[58] Melville dedicated Moby-Dick (1851) to Hawthorne: "In token of my admiration for his genius, this book is inscribed to Nathaniel Hawthorne."[59]

Hawthorne's time in the Berkshires was very productive.[60] While there he wrote The House of the Seven Gables (1851), which poet and critic James Russell Lowell said was better than The Scarlet Letter and called "the most valuable contribution to New England history that has been made"[61] and The Blithedale Romance (1852), his only work written in the first person.[30] He also published, in 1851, a collection of short stories retelling myths, A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, a book he had been thinking about writing since 1846.[62] Nevertheless, the poet Ellery Channing reported that Hawthorne "has suffered much living in this place".[63] Though the family enjoyed the scenery of The Berkshires, Hawthorne did not enjoy the winters in their small red house. They left on November 21, 1851.[60] Hawthorne noted, "I am sick to death of Berkshire ... I have felt languid and dispirited, during almost my whole residence."[64]

The Wayside and Europe

In May 1852, the Hawthornes returned to Concord, where they would live until July 1853.[41] In February, they bought The Hillside, a home previously inhabited by Amos Bronson Alcott and his family, and renamed it The Wayside.[65] Their neighbors in Concord included Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.[66] That year, Hawthorne wrote the campaign biography of his friend Franklin Pierce, depicting him as "a man of peaceful pursuits" in the book, which he titled The Life of Franklin Pierce.[67] Horace Mann said, "If he makes out Pierce to be a great man or a brave man, it will be the greatest work of fiction he ever wrote."[67] In the biography, Hawthorne depicted Pierce as a statesman and soldier who had accomplished no great feats because of his need to make "little noise" and so "withdrew into the background".[68] He also left out Pierce's drinking habits despite rumors of his alcoholism[69] and emphasized Pierce's belief that slavery could not "be remedied by human contrivances" but would, over time, "vanish like a dream".[70] With Pierce's election as President, Hawthorne was rewarded in 1853 with the position of United States consul in Liverpool shortly after the publication of Tanglewood Tales.[71] The role, considered the most lucrative foreign service position at the time, was described by Hawthorne's wife as "second in dignity to the Embassy in London".[72] In 1857, his appointment ended at the close of the Pierce administration and the Hawthorne family toured France and Italy. During his time in Italy, the previously clean-shaven Hawthorne grew a bushy mustache.[73]

The family returned to The Wayside in 1860,[74] and that year saw the publication of The Marble Faun, his first new book in seven years.[75] Hawthorne admitted he had aged considerably, referring to himself as "wrinkled with time and trouble".[76]

Later years and death

Grave of Nathaniel Hawthorne.

At the outset of the American Civil War, Hawthorne traveled with William D. Ticknor to Washington, D.C.. There, he met Abraham Lincoln and other notable figures. He wrote about his experiences in the essay "Chiefly About War Matters" in 1862.

Failing health prevented him from completing several more romances. Suffering from pain in his stomach, Hawthorne insisted on a recuperative trip with his friend Franklin Pierce, though his neighbor Bronson Alcott was concerned Hawthorne was too ill.[77] While on a tour of the White Mountains, Hawthorne died in his sleep on May 19, 1864, in Plymouth, New Hampshire. Pierce sent a telegram to Elizabeth Peabody asking her to inform Mrs. Hawthorne in person. Mrs. Hawthorne was too saddened by the news to handle the funeral arrangements herself.[78] Hawthorne's son Julian, at the time a freshman at Harvard College, learned of his father's death the next day; coincidentally, it was the same day he was initiated into the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity by being placed blindfolded into a coffin.[79] Longfellow wrote a tribute poem to Hawthorne, published in 1866, called "The Bells of Lynn".[80] Hawthorne was buried on what is now known as "Authors' Ridge" in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, Massachusetts. Pallbearers included Longfellow, Emerson, Alcott, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., James Thomas Fields, and Edwin Percy Whipple.[81] Emerson wrote of the funeral: "I thought there was a tragic element in the event, that might be more fully rendered,—in the painful solitude of the man, which, I suppose, could no longer be endured, & he died of it."[82]

His wife Sophia and daughter Una were originally buried in England. However, in June 2006, they were re-interred in plots adjacent to Hawthorne.[83]


Statue of Hawthorne in Salem, Massachusetts

Hawthorne had a particularly close relationship with his publishers William Ticknor and James Thomas Fields.[84] Hawthorne once told Fields, "I care more for your good opinion than for that of a host of critics."[85] In fact, it was Fields who convinced Hawthorne to turn The Scarlet Letter into a novel rather than a short story.[86] Ticknor handled many of Hawthorne's personal matters, including the purchase of cigars, overseeing financial accounts, and even purchasing clothes.[87] Ticknor died with Hawthorne at his side in Philadelphia in 1864; according to a friend, Hawthorne was left "apparently dazed".[88]

Literary style and themes

Hawthorne's works belong to romanticism or, more specifically, dark romanticism,[89] cautionary tales that suggest that guilt, sin, and evil are the most inherent natural qualities of humanity.[90] Many of his works are inspired by Puritan New England,[91] combining historical romance loaded with symbolism and deep psychological themes, bordering on surrealism.[92] His depictions of the past are a version of historical fiction used only as a vehicle to express common themes of ancestral sin, guilt and retribution.[93] His later writings also reflect his negative view of the Transcendentalism movement.[94]

Hawthorne was predominantly a short story writer in his early career. Upon publishing Twice-Told Tales, however, he noted, "I do not think much of them," and he expected little response from the public.[95] His four major romances were written between 1850 and 1860: The Scarlet Letter (1850), The House of the Seven Gables (1851), The Blithedale Romance (1852) and The Marble Faun (1860). Another novel-length romance, Fanshawe, was published anonymously in 1828. Hawthorne defined a romance as being radically different from a novel by not being concerned with the possible or probable course of ordinary experience.[96] In the preface to The House of the Seven Gables, Hawthorne describes his romance-writing as using "atmospherical medium as to bring out or mellow the lights and deepen and enrich the shadows of the picture".[97]

Critics have applied feminist perspectives and historicist approaches to Hawthorne's depictions of women. Feminist scholars are interested particularly in Hester Prynne, who realized that she herself could not be the "destined prophetess," but that "angel and apostle of the coming revelation" must be a woman." [98] Camille Paglia saw Hester as mystical, "a wandering goddess still bearing the mark of her Asiatic origins ... moving serenely in the magic circle of her sexual nature".[99] Lauren Berlant termed Hester "the citizen as woman [personifying] love as a quality of the body that contains the purest light of nature," her resulting "traitorous political theory" a "Female Symbolic" literalization of futile Puritan metaphors.[100] Historicists view Hester as a protofeminist and avatar of the self-reliance and responsibility that led to women's suffrage and reproductive emancipation. Anthony Splendora found her literary genealogy among other archetypally fallen but redeemed women, both historic and mythic. As examples, he offers Psyche of ancient legend; Heloise of twelfth-century France's tragedy involving world-renowned philosopher Peter Abelard; Anne Hutchinson (America's first heretic, circa 1636), and Hawthorne family friend Margaret Fuller.[101] In Hester's first appearance, Hawthorne likens her, "infant at her bosom", to Mary, Mother of Jesus, "the image of Divine Maternity". In her study of Victorian literature, in which such "galvanic outcasts" as Hester feature prominently, Nina Auerbach went so far as to name Hester's fall and subsequent redemption, "the novel's one unequivocally religious activity".[102] Regarding Hester as a deity figure, Meredith A. Powers found in Hester's characterization "the earliest in American fiction that the archetypal Goddess appears quite graphically," like a Goddess "not the wife of traditional marriage, permanently subject to a male overlord"; Powers noted "her syncretism, her flexibility, her inherent ability to alter and so avoid the defeat of secondary status in a goal-oriented civilization".[103]

Aside from Hester Prynne, the model women of Hawthorne's other novels — from Ellen Langton of Fanshawe to Zenobia and Priscilla of The Blithedale Romance, Hilda and Miriam of The Marble Faun and Phoebe and Hepzibah of The House of the Seven Gables — are more fully realized than his male characters, who merely orbit them.[104] This observation is equally true of his short-stories, in which central females serve as allegorical figures: Rappaccini's beautiful but life-altering, garden-bound, daughter; almost-perfect Georgiana of "The Birthmark"; the sinned-against (abandoned) Ester of "Ethan Brand"; and goodwife Faith Brown, linchpin of Young Goodman Brown's very belief in God. "My Faith is gone!" Brown exclaims in despair upon seeing his wife at the Witches' Sabbath..

Hawthorne also wrote nonfiction. In 2008, Library of America selected Hawthorne's "A Collection of Wax Figures" for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American True Crime.


Edgar Allan Poe wrote important, and somewhat unflattering, reviews of both Twice-Told Tales and Mosses from an Old Manse. Poe's negative assessment was partly due to his own contempt of allegory and moral tales, and his chronic accusations of plagiarism, though he admitted,

The style of Hawthorne is purity itself. His tone is singularly effective—wild, plaintive, thoughtful, and in full accordance with his themes ... We look upon him as one of the few men of indisputable genius to whom our country has as yet given birth.[105]

Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote, "Nathaniel Hawthorne's reputation as a writer is a very pleasing fact, because his writing is not good for anything, and this is a tribute to the man."[106] Henry James praised Hawthorne, saying, "The fine thing in Hawthorne is that he cared for the deeper psychology, and that, in his way, he tried to become familiar with it."[107] Poet John Greenleaf Whittier wrote that he admired the "weird and subtle beauty" in Hawthorne's tales.[108] Evert Augustus Duyckinck said of Hawthorne, "Of the American writers destined to live, he is the most original, the one least indebted to foreign models or literary precedents of any kind."[109]

Contemporary response to Hawthorne's work praised his sentimentality and moral purity while more modern evaluations focus on the dark psychological complexity.[110] Beginning in the 1950s, critics have focused on symbolism and didacticism.[111]

The critic Harold Bloom has opined that only Henry James and William Faulkner challenge Hawthorne's position as the greatest American novelist, although he admits that he favors James as the greatest American novelist.[112][113] Bloom sees Hawthorne's greatest works to be principally The Scarlet Letter, followed by The Marble Faun and certain short stories, including "My Kinsman, Major Molineux", "Young Goodman Brown", "Wakefield", and "Feathertop".[113]

Selected works

The Midas myth, from A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys. Illustration by Walter Crane for the 1893 edition.

The "definitive edition" of Hawthorne's works [114] is The Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, edited by William Charvat and others, published by The Ohio State University Press in twenty-three volumes between 1962 and 1997.[115] Tales and Sketches (1982) was the second volume to be published in the Library of America, Collected Novels (1983) the tenth.[116]


Short story collections

Selected short stories

See also


  1. Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Beta Kappa website, accessed Oct 4, 2009
  2. Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1828). Fanshawe. Boston: Marsh & Capen.
  3. Haas, Irvin. Historic Homes of American Authors. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1991: 118. ISBN 0-89133-180-8.
  4. Miller, 20–21
  5. McFarland, 18
  6. Wineapple, 20–21
  7. Edward B. Hungerford (1933). "Hawthorne Gossips about Salem". New England Quarterly. 6. JSTOR 359552.
  8. McFarland, 17
  9. Miller, 47
  10. Mellow, 18
  11. Mellow, 20
  12. Miller, 50
  13. Mellow, 21
  14. Mellow, 22
  15. Miller, 57
  16. 1 2 Edwards, Herbert. "Nathaniel Hawthorne in Maine", Downeast Magazine, 1962
  17. Wineapple, 44–45
  18. Cheever, 99
  19. Miller, 76
  20. George Edwin Jepson. "Hawthorne in the Boston Custom House". The Bookman. August 1904.
  21. Wineapple, 87–88
  22. Miller, 169
  23. Mellow, 169
  24. Letter to Longfellow, June 4, 1837.
  25. McFarland, 22–23
  26. Manning Hawthorne, "Nathaniel Hawthorne at Bowdoin", The New England Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 2 (June 1940): 246–279.
  27. Cheever, 102
  28. McFarland, 83
  29. Cheever, 104
  30. 1 2 McFarland, 149
  31. Wineapple, 160
  32. McFarland, 25
  33. Schreiner, 123
  34. Miller, 246–247
  35. Mellow, 6–7
  36. McFarland, 87
  37. January 14, 1851, Journal of Sophia Hawthorne. Berg Collection NY Public Library.
  38. Schreiner, 116–117
  39. McFarland, 97
  40. Schreiner, 119
  41. 1 2 Reynolds, 10
  42. Mellow, 273
  43. Miller, 343–344
  44. Miller, 242
  45. Miller, 265
  46. Cheever, 179
  47. Cheever, 180
  48. Miller, 264–265
  49. Miller, 300
  50. Mellow, 316
  51. 1 2 McFarland, 136
  52. Cheever, 181
  53. Miller, 301–302
  54. Miller, 284
  55. Miller, 274
  56. Cheever, 96
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  58. Mellow, 335
  59. Mellow, 382
  60. 1 2 Wright, John Hardy. Hawthorne's Haunts in New England. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2008: 93. ISBN 978-1-59629-425-7
  61. Mellow, 368–369
  62. Miller, 345
  63. Wineapple, 241
  64. Wineapple, 242
  65. McFarland, 129–130
  66. McFarland, 182
  67. 1 2 Miller, 381
  68. Schreiner, 170–171
  69. Mellow, 412
  70. Miller, 382–383
  71. McFarland, 186
  72. Mellow, 415
  73. McFarland, 210
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  76. Schreiner, 207
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  78. Miller, 518
  79. Matthews, Jack (August 15, 2010). "Nathaniel Hawthorne's Untold Tale". The Chronicle Review. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
  80. Wagenknecht, Edward. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Portrait of an American Humanist. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966: 9.
  81. Baker, Carlos. Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait. New York: Viking Press, 1996: 448. ISBN 0-670-86675-X.
  82. McFarland, 297
  83. Mishra, Raja and Sally Heaney. "Hawthornes to be reunited", The Boston Globe. June 1, 2006. Accessed July 4, 2008
  84. Madison, 9
  85. Miller, 281
  86. Charvat, William. Literary Publishing in America: 1790–1850. Amherst, MA: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1993 (first published 1959): 56. ISBN 0-87023-801-9
  87. Madison, 15
  88. Miller, 513–514
  89. Reynolds, David S. Beneath the American Renaissance: The Subversive Imagination in the Age of Emerson and Melville. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988: 524. ISBN 0-674-06565-4
  90. Wayne, Tiffany K. "Nathaniel Hawthorne", Encyclopedia of Transcendentalism. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2006: 140. ISBN 0-8160-5626-9.
  91. Bell, Michael Davitt. Hawthorne and the Historical Romance of New England. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980: 173. ISBN 0-691-06136-X
  92. Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007: 633. ISBN 978-0-19-507894-7.
  93. Crews, 28–29
  94. Galens, David, ed. Literary Movements for Students, Vol. 1. Detroit: Thompson Gale, 2002: 319. ISBN 0-7876-6517-7
  95. Miller, 104
  96. Porte, 95
  97. Wineapple, 237
  98. The Scarlet Letter Ch XXIV "Conclusion"
  99. Paglia, Sexual Personae, 581, 583
  100. Berlant, The Anatomy of National Fantasy, 94, 148, 175
  101. Splendora, "Psyche and Hester", 2, 5, 18
  102. Auerbach, Woman and the Demon, 150, 166
  103. Powers, The Heroine in Western Literature, 144
  104. Splendora, "Psyche and Hester", 12
  105. McFarland, 88–89
  106. Nelson, Randy F. (editor). The Almanac of American Letters. Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Inc., 1981: 150. ISBN 0-86576-008-X.
  107. Porte, 97
  108. Woodwell, Roland H. John Greenleaf Whittier: A Biography. Haverhill, Massachusetts: Trustees of the John Greenleaf Whittier Homestead, 1985: 293.
  109. McFarland, 88
  110. Person, Leland S. "Bibliographical Essay: Hawthorne and History", collected in A Historical Guide to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Oxford University Press, 2001: 187. ISBN 0-19-512414-6.
  111. Crews, 4
  112. Nathaniel Hawthorne by Harold Bloom (2000) p. 9
  113. 1 2 Nathaniel Hawthorne by Harold Bloom p. xii
  114. Rita K. Gollin, Hawthorne, Nathaniel, American National Biography Online Feb. 2000
  115. Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1962). The Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 9780814200599.
  116. Library of America Series
  117. Publication info on books from Editor's Note to The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Page by Page Books, accessed June 11, 2007.


  • Auerbach, Nina, Woman and the Demon: The Life of a Victorian Myth (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press 1982)
  • Berlant, Lauren. The Anatomy of National Fantasy: Hawthorne, Utopia, and Everyday Life (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press 1991)
  • Cheever, Susan. American Bloomsbury: Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau; Their Lives, Their Loves, Their Work. Detroit: Thorndike Press, 2006. Large print edition. ISBN 0-7862-9521-X.
  • Crews, Frederick. The Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne's Psychological Themes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966; reprinted 1989. ISBN 0-520-06817-3.
  • Madison, Charles A. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 1800–1974. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1974.
  • McFarland, Philip. Hawthorne in Concord. New York: Grove Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8021-1776-7.
  • Mellow, James R. Nathaniel Hawthorne in His Times. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980. ISBN 0-395-27602-0.
  • Miller, Edwin Haviland. Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991. ISBN 0-87745-332-2.
  • Paglia, Camille. Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson (New York: Vintage 1991)
  • Porte, Joel. The Romance in America: Studies in Cooper, Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, and James. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.
  • Powers, Meredith A. The Heroine in Western Literature: The Archetype and Her Reemergence in Modern Prose (Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland 1991)
  • Reynolds, Larry J. "Hawthorne's Labors in Concord". The Cambridge Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Edited by Richard H. Millington. Cambridge, UK, New York, US, and Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 052180745X
  • Schreiner, Samuel A., Jr. The Concord Quartet: Alcott, Emerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, and the Friendship that Freed the American Mind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2006. ISBN 0-471-64663-6.
  • Splendora, Anthony. "Psyche and Hester, or Apotheosis and Epitome: Natural Grace, La Sagesse Naturale", The Rupkatha Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014), pp. 1–34
  • Wineapple, Brenda. Hawthorne: A Life. Random House: New York, 2003. ISBN 0-8129-7291-0.

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