December 1, 1971|
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Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 3 October 2015, Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection.
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Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence. Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a virtually unlimited amount of computer time; its value at that time has since been variously estimated at $100,000 or $100,000,000. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, and to do so by the end of the 20th century.
This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free. He used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort. All of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more widely available, which made book scanning more feasible. Hart later came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances. As the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run.
Starting in 2004, an improved online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse, access and hyperlink. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role (1994–2004), the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in "best of the Web" listings, and contributing to the project's popularity.
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- Hart, Michael S. "United States Declaration of Independence by United States". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
- "Project Gutenberg Releases eBook #50,000". Project Gutenberg News. 3 October 2015.
- Hart, Michael S. (23 October 2004). "Gutenberg Mission Statement by Michael Hart". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
- Thomas, Jeffrey (20 July 2007). "Project Gutenberg Digital Library Seeks To Spur Literacy". U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Information Programs. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Project Gutenberg Releases eBook #50,000". Project Gutenberg News. 3 October 2015.
- "Hobbes' Internet Timeline". Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- Hart, Michael S. (August 1992). "Gutenberg:The History and Philosophy of Project Gutenberg". Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- Day, B. H.; Wortman, W. A. (2000). Literature in English: A Guide for Librarians in the Digital Age. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. p. 170. ISBN 0-8389-8081-3.
- Vara, Vauhini (5 December 2005). "Project Gutenberg Fears No Google". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
- "Gutenberg:Credits". Project Gutenberg. 8 June 2006. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
- "Michael_S._Hart". Project Gutenberg. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Hane, Paula (2004). "Project Gutenberg Progresses". Information Today. 21 (5). Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Staff (August 2007). "The Distributed Proofreaders Foundation". Distributed proofreaders. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
- "Some Amazon Self-service Publishers sell Project Gutenberg's free books". The Kindle World blog.
- "Project Gutenberg". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 2015-09-12.
- "The CD and DVD Project". Gutenberg. 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- According to gutindex-2006, there were 1,653 new Project Gutenberg items posted in the first 33 weeks of 2006. This averages out to 50.09 per week. This does not include additions to affiliated projects.
- For a listing of the categorized books, see: Staff (28 April 2007). "Category:Bookshelf". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
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- Michael Sperberg-McQueen, "Textual Criticism and the Text Encoding Initiative", 1994, http://xml.coverpages.org/sperb-mla94.html, retrieved July 25, 2015.
- Hoffmann, Sebastian (2005). Grammaticalization And English Complex Prepositions: A Corpus-based Study (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36049-8. OCLC 156424479.
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- Staff (17 July 2007). "Gutenberg:Partners, Affiliates and Resources". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
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- Staff (2004). "Project Gutenberg Consortia Center". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Staff (1994). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Staff (2005). "Project Gutenberg Europe". EUnet Yugoslavia. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Kirps, Jos (22 May 2007). "Project Gutenberg Luxembourg". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Riikonen, Tapio (28 February 2005). "Projekti Lönnrot". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Staff. "Project Gutenberg of the Philippines". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
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- "sham". World Public Library. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
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- "sham". Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- "History of Wikipedia". "World Heritage Encyclopedia" (sham); actually World Public Library Association. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
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