English usage controversies
Numerous grammatical constructions in English are disputed, with a significant number of native speakers identifying a given construction as either correct or incorrect. Differences between formal and informal speech and between dialects are at the root of some of these disputes. Informal speech and non-standard dialects are sometimes simply labelled as incorrect. Correct use of a given register or dialect may be seen as a marker of education, culture, group identity, or respect. Various proscriptive authorities such as style guides and teachers make pronouncements on the correctness of many constructions. Disputes arise when these authorities disagree with each other or with actual usage by a population of speakers.
Some of the sources that consider some of the following examples incorrect consider the same examples to be acceptable in dialects other than Standard English or in an informal register; other sources consider certain constructions to be incorrect in any variety of English. On the other hand, many or all of the following examples are considered correct by some sources.
- Generic you – e.g. "Brushing your teeth is a good habit." as opposed to "Brushing one's teeth is a good habit"
- Flat adverbs – e.g. "Drive safe." as opposed to "Drive safely."
- Split infinitives – e.g. "To boldly go where no man has gone before." as opposed to "To go boldly where no man has gone before"
- Conjunction beginning a sentence – e.g. "But Mom said not to jump on the bed!"
- Double genitive – e.g. "a friend of theirs" as opposed to "a friend of them" or "their friend"
- Using "me" vs. "I" in the subject complement ("It's me." as opposed to "It's I." or "It is I.") or other cases - e.g. "Me and Bob" vs. "Bob and I"
- It's me again.
- Using "I" vs. "me" in the oblique case. e.g. "He gave the ball to Bob and I" instead of "He gave the ball to Bob and me". This is often called a hypercorrection, since it is perceived as related to avoidance of the stigmatized incorrect use of the oblique form.
- The validity of aren't as a negative first-person singular conjunction for to be in interrogative uses – e.g. "Aren't I the one you were talking about?"
- Whether to use the subjunctive mood – e.g. "I wish I were/was a better man."
- Whether to use who or whom in various contexts.
- The use of less or fewer with count nouns.
- Double negatives – e.g. "We don't need no education."
- Certain double modals – e.g. "You might could use it." - not considered standard, but used for example in Southern American English.
- Double copula – e.g. "What has to happen is is that the money has to come from somewhere."
- Ending a sentence with a preposition – e.g. "You have nothing to be afraid of." vs. "You have nothing of which to be afraid.", was first criticized by grammarians in the 1600s by analogy with Latin grammar and some teachers since, though many have always accepted it as part of standard English.
- Order of quoted punctuation marks, i.e. American style (e.g. 'Many dreams were characterized as "raw," "powerful," and "evocative."') vs. British style (e.g. 'Many dreams were characterized as "raw", "powerful", and "evocative".'). Some American authorities such as the APA and CMS require the former, while others either allow, prefer, or require the latter (such as the LSA).
Several proscriptions concern matters mainly of writing style and clarity but not grammatical correctness:
- Dangling modifiers (including dangling participles) are often cited as potentially causing confusion.
- Various style guides warn writers to avoid and not to avoid the passive voice.
- Gender neutrality in English is a consideration topic in several ways:
- Gender-specific and gender-neutral pronouns - Replacing masculine pronouns like "he" where they are meant to refer to a person of either gender with "he or she", alternative phrasing, or grammatically controversial gender-neutral personal pronouns such as the singular they or newly invented words like "hir" and "ze"
- Terms for humans in general - Replacing nouns like "mankind" with "humankind"
- Gender marking in job titles - Replacing nouns like "chairman" and "manpower" with alternatives like "chairperson" and "staffing levels"
- Married and maiden names - Whether or not women (and men) should change their names after marriage
- Use of Ms. for equality with Mr., as opposed to Miss and Mrs. which do not have male equivalents. (Cf. Master is the male equivalent of Miss).
For an alphabetical list of disputes concerning a single word or phrase, see List of English words with disputed usage.
Factors in disputes
The following circumstances may feature in disputes:
- Myths and superstitions
- There are a number of alleged "rules" of unclear origin that have no rational basis or are based on things such as misremembered rules taught in school. They are sometimes described by authorities as "superstitions" or "myths". These include "rules" such as not beginning sentences with "and":69 or "because":125–6 or not ending them with prepositions.:617
- No central authority
- Unlike some languages, such as French (which has the Académie française), English has no single authoritative governing academy, so assessments of correctness are made by "self-appointed authorities who, reflecting varying judgments of acceptability and appropriateness, often disagree".:14
- While some variations in the use of language are correlated with age, sex, ethnic group, or region, other forms may be taught in schools and be preferred in the context of interaction with strangers. These forms may also gain prestige as the standard language of professionals, politicians, etc., and be referred to as "standard English", whereas forms associated more with less educated speakers may be referred to as "nonstandard" (or, less commonly "substandard") English.:18
- The prescriptivist tradition may affect attitudes toward certain uses and thus the preferences of some speakers.:14
- Because of the stigma attached to violating prescriptivist norms, some speakers – attempting to avoid mistakes – may incorrectly extend the rules beyond their valid scope.:14
- Use by widely respected authors may lend credibility to a particular construction: for instance, Ernest Hemingway is known for beginning sentences with And.
- Classical languages
- Prescriptivist arguments about the correctness of various English constructions have sometimes been based on the grammar of Latin.:9
- Analogy with other constructions
- Sometimes, it will be argued that a certain use is more logical than another, or that it is more consistent with other usages, based on analogy with different grammatical constructions. For instance it may be argued that the accusative form must be used for the components of a co-ordinate construction where it would be used for a single pronoun.:9
Speakers and writers frequently do not consider it necessary to justify their positions on a particular use, taking it for granted that a given use is correct or incorrect. In some cases, people believe an expression to be incorrect partly because they also falsely believe it to be newer than it really is.
Prescription and description
The difference between prescriptivist and descriptivist approaches is often described as being that the former prescribes how English should be spoken and written and the latter describes how English is spoken and written, but this is an oversimplification.:5 Prescriptivist works deal with topics other than grammar, such as recommendations on style, but they may also contain statements about purported incorrectness of various common English constructions.:6 Prescriptivists and descriptivists differ in that when presented with evidence that purported rules disagree with the actual usage of most native speakers, the prescriptivist may declare that those speakers are wrong, whereas the descriptivist will assume that the usage of the overwhelming majority of native speakers defines the language, and that the prescriptivist has an idiosyncratic view of correct usage.:7–8 Particularly in older prescriptivist works, recommendations may be based on personal taste, confusion between informality and ungrammaticality,:6 or arguments related to other languages, such as Latin.:9
Different forms of English
English is spoken worldwide, and the Standard Written English grammar generally taught in schools around the world will vary only slightly. Nonetheless, disputes can sometimes arise: for example, in India it is a matter of some debate whether British, American, or Indian English is the best form for use.
Regional dialects and ethnolects
In contrast to their generally high level of tolerance for the dialects of other English-speaking countries, speakers often express disdain for features of certain regional or ethnic dialects, such as Southern American English's use of y'all, Geordies' use of "yous" as the second person plural personal pronoun, and non-standard forms of "to be" such as "The old dock bes under water most of the year" (Newfoundland English) or "That dock be under water every other week" (African-American Vernacular English).
Such disdain may not be restricted to points of grammar; speakers often criticize regional accents and vocabulary as well. Arguments related to regional dialects must center on questions of what constitutes Standard English. For example, since fairly divergent dialects from many countries are accepted widely as Standard English, it is not always clear why certain regional dialects, which may be very similar to their standard counterparts, are not.
Different constructions are acceptable in different registers of English. For example, a given construction will often be seen as too formal or too informal for a situation.
- Barbarism (grammar)
- Common English usage misconceptions
- English grammar
- List of dialects of the English language
- List of English words with disputed usage
- Linguistic prescription
- Standard English
- lists "one; anyone; people in general" as a definition without qualification that it is non-standard
- requires replacing "you" with another word unless it means "you the reader".
- Robert Allen, ed. (2002). "Split infinitive". Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage (1926). Oxford University Press. p. 547. ISBN 0-19-860947-7. "No other grammatical issue has so divided English speakers since the split infinitive was declared to be a solecism in the 19c [19th century]: raise the subject of English usage in any conversation today and it is sure to be mentioned."
- University of Chicago (2010). The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-226-10420-1.
- Quinion, Michael. "Double Possessive". World Wide Words. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 459. ISBN 0-521-43146-8.
- Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 463. ISBN 0-521-43146-8.
- ""Aren't I?" vs. "Ain't I" Usage Note". dictionary.com. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "less, fewer". Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage (2nd ed.). Merriam-Webster. 1995. p. 592. ISBN 0-87779-132-5.
- Fowler, H.W.; Gowers, Ernest (1965). Fowler's Modern English Usage (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 384–386. ISBN 019281389 7.
- Kenneth G. Wilson, "Double Modal Auxiliaries", The Columbia Guide to Standard American English, 1993.
- McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language, pp. 752-753. Oxford University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-19-214183-X The dangling modifier or participle
- The Elements of Style, 1918
- A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, 1926; Politics and the English Language, 1946
- Chicago Manual of Style, 13th edition, (1983): p. 233.
- Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage. Penguin. 2002. ISBN 9780877796336.
- Fowler, H.W.; Burchfield, R.W. (1996). The New Fowler's Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198610212.
- Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartvik, Jan (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman. ISBN 9780582517349.
- Call for Papers on Hemingway's influence on grammar
- Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43146-8.
- Freeman, Jan (9 October 2005). "Losing our illusions". The Boston Globe.
- Hohenthal, Annika (5 June 2001). "The Model for English in India – the Informants' Views". Archived from the original on 7 July 2006.
- Limerick, James (2002). "English in a global context". Victoria University.
- Robert Lane Greene (2011). You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity. ISBN 978-0553807875.