American Psychological Association
750 First Street, NE|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
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|Susan H. McDaniel|
|Cynthia D. Belar|
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students. The APA has an annual budget of around $115m. There are 54 divisions of the APA—interest groups covering different subspecialties of psychology or topical areas.
The American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association (both known by the acronym APA) are sometimes distinguished as "the bigger APA" (American Psychological Association) and "the little APA" (American Psychiatric Association) because of their relative membership sizes.
The APA has task forces which issue policy statements on various issues of social import such as the APA position on psychology of abortion; APA position on human rights (concerning issues such as detainee welfare, human trafficking, and rights for the mentally ill); APA position on IQ; APA position on treating homosexuality (sexual orientation change efforts); and APA position on men and women (gender differences).
APA is a corporation chartered in the District of Columbia. APA's bylaws describe structural components that serve as a system of checks and balances that ensure democratic process. The organizational entities include:
- APA President. APA's president is elected by the membership. The president chairs the Council of Representatives and the Board of Directors. During his or her term of office, the president performs such duties as are prescribed in the bylaws.
- Board of Directors. The board is composed of six members-at-large, the president-elect, president, past-president, treasurer, recording secretary, CEO, and the chair of the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS). The Board oversees the association's administrative affairs and presents an annual budget for council approval.
- APA Council of Representatives. The council has sole authority to set policy and make decisions regarding APA's roughly $60 million annual income. It is composed of elected members from state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, APA divisions and the APA Board of Directors.
- APA Committee Structure: Boards and Committees. Members of boards and committees conduct much of APA's work on a volunteer basis. They carry out a wide variety of tasks suggested by their names. Some have responsibility for monitoring major programs, such as the directorates, the journals and international affairs.
Good Governance Project
The Good Governance Project (GGP) was initiated in January 2011 as part of the strategic plan to "[assure] APA's governance practices, processes and structures are optimized and aligned with what is needed to thrive in a rapidly changing and increasingly complex environment." The charge included soliciting feedback and input stakeholders, learning about governance best practices, recommending whether change was required, recommending needed changes based on data, and creating implementation plans. The June 2013 GGP update on the recommended changes can be found in the document "Good Governance Project Recommended Changes to Maximize Organizational Effectiveness of APA Governance". The suggested changes would change APA from a membership-based, representational structure to a corporate structure. These motions will be discussed and voted upon by Council on July 31, 2013 and August 2, 2013.
APA comprises an executive office, a publishing operation, offices that address administrative, business, information technology, and operational needs, and five substantive directorates:
- the Education Directorate accredits doctoral psychology programs and addresses issues related to psychology education in secondary through graduate education;
- the Practice Directorate engages on behalf of practicing psychologists and health care consumers;
- the Public Interest Directorate advances psychology as a means of addressing the fundamental problems of human welfare and promoting the equitable and just treatment of all segments of society;
- the Public and Member Communications Directorate is responsible for APA's outreach to its members and affiliates and to the general public;
- the Science Directorate provides support and voice for psychological scientists.
Membership and title of "psychologist"
APA policy on the use of the title psychologist is contained in the Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists: Psychologists have earned a doctoral degree in psychology and may not use the title "psychologist" and/or deliver psychological services to the public, unless the psychologist is licensed or specifically exempted from licensure under the law. State licensing laws specify state specific requirements for the education and training of psychologists leading to licensure. Psychologists who are exempted from licensure could include researchers, educators, or general applied psychologists who provide services outside of the health and mental health field.
Full membership with the APA in United States and Canada requires doctoral training whereas associate membership requires at least two years of postgraduate studies in psychology or approved related discipline. The minimal requirement of a doctoral dissertation related to psychology for full membership can be waived in certain circumstances where there is evidence that significant contribution or performance in the field of psychology has been made.
The American Psychological Association Practice Organization (APAPO) and the Education Advocacy Trust, which operates autonomously as a part of APAPO, are 501(c)(6) entities, separate from APA. They engage in advocacy on behalf of psychological practitioners and health care consumers and psychology education, respectively.
Upcoming Annual Conventions
- 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Denver Colorado (4–7 August 2016)
- 125th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. (3-6 August 2017)
- 126th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, California (9-12 August 2018)
- 127th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois (8-11 August 2019)
- 128th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. (6-9 August 2020)
- 129th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, California (12-15 August 2021)
Each year, the APA recognizes top psychologists with the "Distinguished Contributions" Awards; these awards are the highest honors given by the APA.
- APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Psychology
- APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology
- Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest
- Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology
- APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research
- Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice.
- Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector
- APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology
- APA Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (APA's highest award)
- APA International Humanitarian Award
The American Psychologist is the Association's official journal. APA also publishes over 70 other journals encompassing most specialty areas in the field; APA's Educational Publishing Foundation is an imprint for publishing on behalf of other organizations. Its journals include:
- Behavioral Neuroscience
- Developmental Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Journal of Applied Psychology
- Journal of Comparative Psychology
- Journal of Experimental Psychology
- Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied
- Journal of Family Psychology
- Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
- Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
- Psychological Bulletin
- Psychological Review
- Psychology and Aging
- Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
- Psychology of Violence
- School Psychology Quarterly
The APA has published hundreds of books. Among these books are: the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (and a concise version titled Concise Rules of APA Style), which is the official guide to APA style; the APA Dictionary of Psychology; an eight-volume Encyclopedia of Psychology; and many scholarly books on specific subjects such as Varieties of Anomalous Experience. The APA has also published children's books under the Magination Press imprint, software for data analysis, videos demonstrating therapeutic techniques, reports, and brochures.
The Psychologically Healthy Workplace program
The Psychologically Healthy Workplace Program (PHWP) is a collaborative effort between the American Psychological Association and the APA Practice Organization designed to help employers optimize employee well-being and organizational performance. The PHWP includes APA's Psychologically Healthy Workplace Awards, a variety of APA Practice Organization resources, including PHWP Web content, e-newsletter, podcast and blog, and support of local programs currently implemented by 52 state, provincial and territorial psychological associations as a mechanism for driving grassroots change in local business communities. The awards are designed to recognize organizations for their efforts to foster employee health and well-being while enhancing organizational performance. The award program highlights a variety of workplaces, large and small, profit and non-profit, in diverse geographical settings. Applicants are evaluated on their efforts in the following five areas: employee involvement, work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, and employee recognition. Awards are given at the local and national level.
American Psychological Association (APA) Style is a set of rules developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences. Designed to ensure clarity of communication, the rules are designed to "move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision." The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains the rules for every aspect of writing, especially in the social sciences from determining authorship to constructing a table to avoiding plagiarism and constructing accurate reference citations. "The General Format of APA is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. General guidelines for a paper in APA style includes: typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. The font should be clear and highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font."
APA maintains a number of databases, including PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycBOOKS, PsycEXTRA, PsycCRITIQUES, PsycTESTS, and PsycTHERAPY. APA also operates a comprehensive search platform, PsycNET, covering multiple databases.
PsycINFO is a bibliographic database maintained by APA. It contains citations and summaries dating from the 19th century, including journal articles, book chapters, books, technical reports, and dissertations within the field of psychology. As of January 2010, PsycINFO has collected information from 2,457 journals.
The APA was founded in July 1892 at Clark University by a small group of around 30 men; by 1916 there were over 300 members. The first president was G. Stanley Hall. During World War II, the APA merged with other psychological organizations, resulting in a new divisional structure. Nineteen divisions were approved in 1944; the divisions with the most members were the clinical and personnel (now counseling) divisions. From 1960 to 2007, the number of divisions expanded to 54. Today the APA is affiliated with 60 state, territorial, and Canadian provincial associations.
Dominance of clinical psychology
Due to the dominance of clinical psychology in APA, several research-focused groups have broken away from the organization. These include the Psychonomic Society in 1959 (with a primarily cognitive orientation), and the Association for Psychological Science (which changed its name from the American Psychological Society in early 2006) in 1988 (with a broad focus on the science and research of psychology). Theodore H. Blau was the first clinician in independent practice to be elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1977.
- 2016 Susan H. McDaniel
- 2015 Barry S. Anton
- 2014 Nadine Kaslow
- 2013 Donald N. Bersoff
- 2012 Suzanne Bennett Johnson
- 2011 Melba J. T. Vasquez
- 2010 Carol D. Goodheart
- 2009 James H. Bray
- 2008 Alan E. Kazdin
- 2007 Sharon S. Brehm
- 2006 Gerald Koocher
- 2005 Ronald F. Levant
- 2004 Diane F. Halpern
- 2003 Robert J. Sternberg
- 2002 Philip G. Zimbardo
- 2001 Norine G. Johnson
- 2000 Patrick DeLeon
- 1999 Richard Suinn
- 1998 Martin E.P. Seligman
- 1997 Norman Abeles
- 1996 Dorothy Cantor
- 1995 Robert J. Resnick
- 1994 Ronald E. Fox
- 1993 Frank Farley
- 1992 Jack Wiggins, Jr.
- 1991 Charles Spielberger
- 1990 Stanley Graham
- 1989 Joseph Matarazzo
- 1988 Raymond D. Fowler
- 1987 Bonnie Strickland
- 1986 Logan Wright
- 1985 Robert Perloff
- 1984 Janet Taylor Spence
- 1983 Max Siegel
- 1982 William Bevan (psychologist)
- 1981 John J. Conger
- 1980 Florence Denmark
- 1979 Nicholas A. Cummings
- 1978 M. Brewster Smith
- 1977 Theodore H. Blau
- 1976 Wilbert J. McKeachie
- 1975 Donald T. Campbell
- 1974 Albert Bandura
- 1973 Leona E. Tyler
- 1972 Anne Anastasi
- 1971 Kenneth B. Clark
- 1970 George W. Albee
- 1969 George A. Miller
- 1968 Abraham Maslow
- 1967 Gardner Lindzey
- 1966 Nicholas Hobbs
- 1965 Jerome Bruner
- 1964 Quinn McNemar
- 1963 Charles E. Osgood
- 1962 Paul E. Meehl
- 1961 Neal E. Miller
- 1960 Donald O. Hebb
- 1959 Wolfgang Köhler
- 1958 Harry Harlow
- 1957 Lee J. Cronbach
- 1956 Theodore Newcomb
- 1955 E. Lowell Kelly
- 1954 O. Hobart Mowrer
- 1953 Laurance F. Shaffer
- 1952 J. McVicker Hunt
- 1951 Robert R. Sears
- 1950 Joy Paul Guilford
- 1949 Ernest R. Hilgard
- 1948 Donald R. Marquis
- 1947 Carl Rogers
- 1946 Henry E. Garrett
- 1945 Edwin R. Guthrie
- 1944 Gardner Murphy
- 1943 John Edward Anderson
- 1942 Calvin Perry Stone
- 1941 Herbert Woodrow
- 1940 Leonard Carmichael
- 1939 Gordon Allport
- 1938 John Dashiell
- 1937 Edward C. Tolman
- 1936 Clark L. Hull
- 1935 Albert Poffenberger
- 1934 Joseph Peterson
- 1933 Louis Leon Thurstone
- 1932 Walter Richard Miles
- 1931 Walter Samuel Hunter
- 1930 Herbert Langfeld
- 1929 Karl Lashley
- 1928 Edwin G. Boring
- 1927 Harry Levi Hollingworth
- 1926 Harvey A. Carr
- 1925 Madison Bentley
- 1924 G. Stanley Hall
- 1923 Lewis Terman
- 1922 Knight Dunlap
- 1921 Margaret Floy Washburn
- 1920 Shepherd Ivory Franz
- 1919 Walter Dill Scott
- 1918 John Wallace Baird
- 1917 Robert Mearns Yerkes
- 1916 Raymond Dodge
- 1915 John Broadus Watson
- 1914 Robert Sessions Woodworth
- 1913 Howard Crosby Warren
- 1912 Edward Thorndike
- 1911 Carl Emil Seashore
- 1910 Walter Bowers Pillsbury
- 1909 Charles Hubbard Judd
- 1908 George Malcolm Stratton
- 1907 Henry Rutgers Marshall
- 1906 James Rowland Angell
- 1905 Mary Whiton Calkins
- 1904 William James
- 1903 William Lowe Bryan
- 1902 Edmund Sanford
- 1901 Josiah Royce
- 1900 Joseph Jastrow
- 1899 John Dewey
- 1898 Hugo Münsterberg
- 1897 James Mark Baldwin
- 1896 George Stuart Fullerton
- 1895 James McKeen Cattell
- 1894 William James
- 1893 George Trumbull Ladd
- 1892 G. Stanley Hall
Positions on homosexuality
Cause of homosexuality
The APA states the following:
There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual orientation. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles; most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.
In 1975, APA issued a supporting statement that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. There is a concern in the mental health community that the advancement of conversion therapy itself causes social harm by disseminating inaccurate views about sexual orientation and the ability of homosexual and bisexual people to lead happy, healthy lives. Most mainstream health organizations are critical of conversion therapy, and no mainstream medical organization endorses conversion therapy.[note 1]
The APA adopted a resolution in August 2009 stating that mental health professionals should avoid telling clients that they can change their sexual orientation through therapy or other treatments. The approval, by APA's governing Council of Representatives, came at APA's annual convention, during which a task force presented a report that in part examined the efficacy of so-called "reparative therapy", or sexual orientation change efforts.
The "Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts" also advises that parents, guardians, young people, and their families avoid sexual orientation treatments that portray homosexuality as a mental illness or developmental disorder and instead seek psychotherapy, social support, and educational services "that provide accurate information on sexual orientation and sexuality, increase family and school support, and reduce rejection of sexual minority youth."
The APA adopted a resolution stating that it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage and to all its attendant rights, benefits, and privileges. It also filed an amicus brief in the federal court case in which Judge Vaughn Walker struck down California's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. The APA later praised the decision and denied the existence of any "scientific justification" for a ban on same-sex marriage.
In August 2011, the APA clarified their support of same-sex marriage in light of continued research suggesting that the same community benefits accepted as result of heterosexual marriage apply to same-sex couples as well. Dr. Clinton Anderson, associate executive director of the APA and director of the Office on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Concerns, said that, prior to this research, "We knew that marriage benefits heterosexual people in very significant ways, but we didn't know if that would be true for same-sex couples". Anderson also put forward the APA's view that merely allowing same-sex civil unions is an inadequate option: "Anything other than marriage is, in essence, a stigmatization of same-sex couples. Stigma does have negative impacts on people."
APA internship crisis for graduate students
The APA is the main accrediting body for U.S. clinical and counseling psychology doctoral training programs and internship sites. APA-accredited Clinical Psychology PhD and PsyD programs typically require students to complete a one-year clinical internship in order to graduate (or a two-year part-time internship). However, there is currently an "internship crisis" as defined by the American Psychological Association, in that approximately 25% of clinical psychology doctoral students do not match for internship each year. This crisis has led many students (approximately 1,000 each year) to re-apply for internship, thus delaying graduation, or to complete an unaccredited internship, and often has many emotional and financial consequences. Students who do not complete an APA accredited internships in the U.S. are barred from certain employment settings, including VA Hospitals, the military, and cannot get licensed in some states, such as Utah and Mississippi. Additionally, some post-doctoral fellowships and other employment settings require or prefer an APA Accredited internship. The APA has been criticized for not addressing this crisis adequately and many psychologists and graduate students have petitioned for the APA to take action by regulating graduate training programs.
Warfare and the use of torture
A year after the establishment of the Human Resources Research Organization by the U.S. military in 1951, the CIA began funding numerous psychologists (and other scientists) in the development of psychological warfare methods under the supervision of APA treasurer Meredith Crawford. Donald O. Hebb, the APA president in 1960 who was awarded the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1961, defended the torture of research subjects, arguing that what was being studied was other nations' methods of brainwashing. Former APA president Martin Seligman spoke upon the invitation of the CIA on his animal experimentation where he shocked a dog unpredictably and repeatedly into total, helpless passivity. Former APA president Joseph Matarazzo designed a new CIA interrogation regimen and supervised the torture of Abu Zubaydah at a secret CIA detention site in Thailand. Former APA president Ronald F. Levant, upon visiting Guantanamo Bay, affirmed that psychologists were present during the torture of prisoners, arguing that their presence was to "add value and safeguards" to interrogations. Former APA president Gerald Koocher argued, referring to allegations of continuing systemic abuse by psychologists, that such allegations were originating from "opportunistic commentators masquerading as scholars".
The APA claims that it condemns the use of any of the following practices by military interrogators trying to elicit anti-terrorism information from detainees, on the ground that "there are no exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether induced by a state of war or threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, that may be invoked as a justification."
When it emerged that psychologists, as part of the Behavioral Science Consultation Team, were advising interrogators in Guantánamo and other U.S. facilities on improving the effectiveness of the "enhanced interrogation techniques", the APA called on the U.S. government to prohibit the use of unethical interrogation techniques and labeled specific techniques as torture. Critics pointed out that the APA declined to advise its members not to participate in such interrogations. One group of psychologists in particular, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, has been very harsh in its criticism of the APA stance on its refusal to categorically prohibit members from participating in any phase of military interrogations. They recently stated their continuing disagreement with APA leadership in an open letter posted on their website on October 31, 2012, in which they reiterated their condemnation of torture and enhanced interrogation techniques, and called for the APA to require its members to refuse participation in military conducted interrogations of any kind. The diluted directive by the APA was in contrast to the American Psychiatric Association ban in May 2006 of all direct participation in interrogations by psychiatrists, and the American Medical Association ban in June 2006 of the direct participation in interrogations by physicians. In addition, an independent panel of medical, military, ethics, education, public health, and legal professionals issued a comprehensive report in November 2013 that "charged that U.S. military and intelligence agencies directed doctors and psychologists working in U.S. military detention centers to violate standard ethical principles and medical standards to avoid infliction of harm".
In September 2008, the APA's members passed a resolution stating that psychologists may not work in settings where "persons are held outside of, or in violation of, either International Law (e.g., the UN Convention Against Torture and the Geneva Conventions) or the U.S. Constitution (where appropriate), unless they are working directly for the persons being detained or for an independent third party working to protect human rights." The resolution became official APA policy in February 2009. However, the APA has refused to sanction those members known to have participated in and, in some cases, designed abusive interrogation techniques used in Guantanamo Bay, Iraq, and Afghanistan interrogation centers.
Amending the Ethics Code
In February 2010, the APA's Council of Representatives voted to amend the association's Ethics Code to make clear that its standards can never be interpreted to justify or defend violating human rights. Following are the two relevant ethical standards from the Ethics Code, with the newly adopted language shown in bold:
1.02, Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority
If psychologists' ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances may this standard be used to justify or defend violating human rights.
1.03, Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands
If the demands of an organization with which psychologists are affiliated or for whom they are working are in conflict with this Ethics Code, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances may this standard be used to justify or defend violating human rights.
In November 2014, the APA ordered an independent review into whether it cooperated with the government's use of torture of prisoners during the George W. Bush administration, naming Chicago attorney David H. Hoffman to conduct the review. On July 2, 2015, a 542-page report was issued to the special committee of the board of directors of the APA relating to ethics guidelines, national security interrogations, and torture. The report concluded that the APA secretly collaborated with the Bush administration to bolster a legal and ethical justification for the torture of prisoners. Furthermore, the report stated that the association's ethics director Stephen Behnke and others had "colluded with important Department of Defense officials to have the APA issue loose, high-level ethical guidelines that did not constrain" the interrogation of terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay. The association's "principal motive in doing so was to align APA and curry favor with DOD." An APA official said that ethics director Stephen Behnke had been "removed from his position as a result of the report" and indicated that other firings or sanctions might follow.
On July 14, 2015, the APA announced the retirement of its CEO, Norman B. Anderson, effective the end of 2015, and of Deputy Chief Executive Officer Michael Honaker, effective August 15, 2015, and the resignation of Rhea K. Farberman, APA's executive director for public and member communication. Anderson had been CEO since 2003.
Ban on involvement
For at least a decade, dissident psychologists within and outside the APA, including the group WithholdAPAdues, had protested the involvement of psychologists "in interrogations at CIA black sites and Guantánamo". Prior to the release of the Hoffman report, which undermined the APA's repeated denials and showed that some APA leaders were complicit in torture, the dissidents were ignored or ridiculed.
On August 7, 2015, just weeks following the release of the Hoffman report, the APA council of representatives met at the association's 123rd annual convention in Toronto, Ontario. At that meeting, the APA council passed Resolution 23B, which implemented the 2008 membership vote to remove psychologists from settings that operate outside of international law, and banning the participation of psychologists in unlawful interrogations. With 156 votes in favor and only one vote against, the resolution passed with the near unanimous approval of council members. The adoption of Resolution 23B aligned the APA's policy with that of the American Psychiatric Association and that of the American Medical Association by prohibiting psychologists from participating in interrogations deemed illegal by the Geneva Conventions and the United Nations Convention against Torture.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2008 MEMBERSHIP VOTE TO REMOVE PSYCHOLOGISTS FROM ALL SETTINGS THAT OPERATE OUTSIDE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (NBI #23B)
Council is asked to approve the substitute main motion below that includes a revised resolution with a new title, Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings. This resolution further aligns the APA policy definition for "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment" (in the 2006 and 2013 Council resolutions) with the United Nations (UN) Convention Against Torture and ensures that the definition applies broadly to all individuals and settings; offers APA as a supportive resource for ethical practice for psychologists, including those in military and national security roles; prohibits psychologists from participating in national security interrogations; clarifies the intended application of the 2008 petition resolution... and calls for APA letters to be sent to federal officials to inform them of these policy changes and clarifications of existing APA policy.
The ban will not "prohibit psychologists from working with the police or prisons in criminal law enforcement interrogations".
- American Board of Professional Psychology
- American Psychoanalytic Association
- Association for Psychological Science
- Association of Psychological and Social Studies
- Canadian Psychological Association
- European Federation of Psychologists' Associations
- Peace psychology
- Psychonomic Society
- Society of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
- ↑ Mainstream health organizations critical of conversion therapy include the American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, the American Counseling Association, the National Association of Social Workers, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Association of School Administrators, the American Federation of Teachers, the National Association of School Psychologists, the American Academy of Physician Assistants, and the National Education Association.
- 1 2 "About APA". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- ↑ "APA Reports". APA.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "Divisions of the APA". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- ↑ "Council Policy Manual". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- ↑ "APA Governance". APA.org. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- 1 2 "Good Governance Project". APA.org. 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- 1 2 "Good Governance Project Recommended Changes to Maximize Organizational Effectiveness of APA Governance" (PDF). American Psychological Association. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- ↑ "Education Directorate of the American Psychological Association". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- ↑ "APA Practice Directorate". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- ↑ "Public Interest Directorate". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- ↑ "Public and Member Communications". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- ↑ "Science Directorate". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- ↑ "Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- ↑ "Division Officers Handbook". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ↑ http://www.apa.org/convention/future.aspx
- ↑ "About APA Publications and Databases". APA.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "American Psychological Association Publications Search". Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- ↑ A search of the Library of Congress catalog on 24 September 2014 for books published by the American Psychological Association returned 1583 results, but some of these results are other media that are misclassified as books.
- ↑ Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA. 2010 . ISBN 9781433805592. OCLC 316736612.
- ↑ Concise Rules of APA Style (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA. 2010. ISBN 9781433805608. OCLC 317697841.
- ↑ VandenBos, Gary R., ed. (2007). APA Dictionary of Psychology (1st ed.). Washington, DC: APA. ISBN 9781591473800. OCLC 65407150.
- ↑ Kazdin, Alan E., ed. (2000). Encyclopedia of Psychology. Washington, DC; Oxford; New York: APA; Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781557981875. OCLC 42692282.
- ↑ Cardeña, Etzel; Lynn, Steven Jay; Krippner, Stanley, eds. (2014) . Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: APA. ISBN 9781433815294. OCLC 843454608.
- ↑ "Publications & Databases". APA.org. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- ↑ "Psychologically Healthy Workplace Program". APApracticecentral.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "APA Style". APAstyle.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "APA Formatting and Style Guide". Purdue OWL. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
- ↑ "APA Databases & Electronic Resources". APA.org. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- ↑ "American Psychological Association (APA) - Information for CAUL". Council of Australian University Librarians. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- ↑ "PsycNET". University of San Francisco: Gleeson Library. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- ↑ "PsycINFO Journal Coverage List". APA.org. January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- ↑ "APA History and Archives". APA.org. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- ↑ "State and Provincial Psychological Associations". APA.org. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- ↑ "Noted psychologist Theodore Blau". St. Petersburg Times. February 1, 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ↑ "Answers to your questions for a better understanding of sexual orientation and homosexuality". APA.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ Spitzer, R. L. (1981). "The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues". American Journal of Psychiatry. 138 (2): 210–15. doi:10.1176/ajp.138.2.210. PMID 7457641.
- ↑ "An instant cure". Time Magazine. 103 (13). 1 April 1974. p. 59.
- 1 2 "Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel". American Academy of Pediatrics, American Counseling Association, American Association of School Administrators, American Federation of Teachers, American Psychological Association, American School Health Association, The Interfaith Alliance, National Association of School Psychologists, National Association of Social Workers, National Education Association. 1999. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- ↑ "American Medical Association policy regarding sexual orientation". American Medical Association. 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ↑ Committee on Adolescence (1993). "Homosexuality and Adolescence" (PDF). Pediatrics, Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. 92 (4): 631–634. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- ↑ "Physician Assistants vote on retail clinics, reparative therapy". SpiritIndia.com. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ Glassgold, Judith M.; Beckstead, Lee; Drescher, Jack; Greene, Beverly; Miller, Robin Lin; Worthington, Roger L.; Anderson, Clinton W. (2009-09-28). "Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). APA.org. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- ↑ "Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts". APA.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "Brief of the American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy as amici curiae in support of plaintiff-appellees - Appeal from United States District Court for the Northern District of California Civil Case No. 09-CV-2292 VRW (Honorable Vaughn R. Walker)" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-05.
- ↑ "APA Praises Prop 8 Decision as Victory for Science, Human Dignity". APA.org. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ↑ Alden Mahler Levine, CNN. "Psychological association calls for legalization of same-sex marriage". CNN.com. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ↑ "About Accreditation". APA.org. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ↑ "Doctoral Internships in Professional Psychology". APA.org. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "2011 APPIC Match Statistics - Phase I". http://www.appic.org. Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers. February 25, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2013. External link in
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- ↑ Smith Bailey, Deborah (April 2004). "Why accreditation matters: Accreditation guidelines set the standard for your education—and can ease your way to licensure". gradPSYCH Magazine.
- ↑ Chalquist, Craig. "Why I Am Not a Member of the American Psychological Association". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- ↑ Koocher, Gerald (February 2006). "Speaking against torture". Monitor on Psychology. 37 (2): 5.
- 1 2 "Policy Related to Psychologists' Work in National Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment". APA.org. 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "American Psychological Association calls on U.S. government to prohibit the use of unethical interrogation techniques". APA.org. 20 August 2007. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007.
- ↑ "Psychologists and Guantanamo". NPR.org. 19 August 2008. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "American Psychological Association Sees No Evil". ACLU.org. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "Open Letter" (PDF). Coalition for an Ethical Psychology. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- ↑ "Position Statement on Psychiatric Participation in Interrogation of Detainees" (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. May 2006. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "Opinion 2.068 - Physician Participation in Interrogation". American Medical Association Ethics Group. November 2006. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "Interrogation/Torture and Dual Loyalty". Institute on Medicine as a Profession. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- ↑ Ackerman, Spencer (22 January 2014). "US psychology body declines to rebuke member in Guantánamo torture case". The Guardian.
- ↑ "A Call for Annulment of the APA's PENS Report". Coalition for an Ethical Psychology. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- ↑ Reisner, Steve; Eidelson, Roy; Soldz, Stephen; Olson, Brad; Arrigo, Jean Maria; Bond, Trudy (11 February 2014). "APA Fails to Sanction Psychologist in Guantanamo Torture Case". Counterpunch.org. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- ↑ "American Psychological Association amends ethics code to address potential conflicts among professional ethics, legal authority and organizational demands". APA.org. 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
- ↑ "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct". APA.org. 2010. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- ↑ "American Psychological Association Bolstered C.I.A. Torture Program, Report Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
- ↑ July 2, 2015 report to the special committee of the board of directors of the American Psychological Association
- ↑ Outside Psychologists Shielded U.S. Torture Program, Report Finds, By James Risen, New York Times, July 10, 2015
- 1 2 "Inquiry: Psychologists group colluded with Pentagon, CIA on interrogations" by Greg Miller The Washington Post, July 10, 2015
- ↑ Ackerman, Spencer (July 14, 2015). "Three senior officials lose their jobs at APA after US torture scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- ↑ "APA Announces Retirements and Resignation of Senior Leaders" (Press release). American Psychological Association. July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- ↑ The Sphinx: A site for inquiry and innovation in psychoanalysis, Withholding APA Dues in Protest over Policy on Torture
- ↑ The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, Volume 1, By Daniel J. Christie, Wiley-Blackwell, December 2011, pp 580-581, ISBN 1405196440
- 1 2 No More Torture: World's Largest Group of Psychologists Bans Role in National Security Interrogations, Democracy Now, August 10, 2015
- 1 2 Psychologists Approve Ban on Role in National Security Interrogations, By James Risen, New York Times, August 7, 2015
- ↑ "IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2008 MEMBERSHIP VOTE TO REMOVE PSYCHOLOGISTS FROM ALL SETTINGS THAT OPERATE OUTSIDE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (NBI #23B)" (PDF). APA.org. 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- Official website
- American Psychological Association Rejects Blanket Ban on Participation in Interrogation of U.S. Detainees
- Psychologists for Social Responsibility