Timeline of reproductive rights legislation

Timeline of reproductive rights legislation, a chronological list of laws and legal decisions affecting human reproductive rights. Reproductive rights are a sub-set of human rights[1] pertaining to issues of reproduction and reproductive health.[2] These rights may include some or all of the following: the right to legal or safe abortion, the right to birth control, the right to access quality reproductive healthcare, and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.[3] Reproductive rights may also include the right to receive education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections, and freedom from coerced sterilization, abortion, and contraception, and protection from gender-based practices such as female genital cutting (FGC) and male genital mutilation (MGM).[1][2][3][4]

17th century to 19th century

1910s to 1960s

1970s to present

For such companies, the Court's majority directly struck down the contraceptive mandate, a regulation adopted by the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) requiring employers to cover certain contraceptives for their female employees, by a 5-4 vote.[50] The court said that the mandate was not the least restrictive way to ensure access to contraceptive care, noting that a less restrictive alternative was being provided for religious non-profits, until the Court issued an injunction 3 days later, effectively ending said alternative, replacing it with a government-sponsored alternative for any female employees of closely held corporations that do not wish to provide birth control.[51]

See also


  1. "Closely held" corporations are defined by the Internal Revenue Service as those which a) have more than 50% of the value of their outstanding stock owned (directly or indirectly) by 5 or fewer individuals at any time during the last half of the tax year; and b) are not personal service corporations. By this definition, approximately 90% of U.S. corporations are "closely held", and approximately 52% of the U.S. workforce is employed by "closely held" corporations. See Blake, Aaron (June 30, 2014). "A LOT of people could be affected by the Supreme Court's birth control decision – theoretically". The Washington Post.
  1. 1 2 Freedman, Lynn P.; Stephen L. Isaacs (Jan–Feb 1993). "Human Rights and Reproductive Choice". Studies in Family Planning. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1. 24 (1): 18–30. doi:10.2307/2939211. JSTOR 2939211. PMID 8475521.
  2. 1 2 Cook, Rebecca J.; Mahmoud F. Fathalla (September 1996). "Advancing Reproductive Rights Beyond Cairo and Beijing". International Family Planning Perspectives. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3. 22 (3): 115–121. doi:10.2307/2950752. JSTOR 2950752.
  3. 1 2 Amnesty International USA (2007). "Stop Violence Against Women: Reproductive rights". SVAW. Amnesty International USA. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
  4. Template
  5. William Blackstone, Commentaries, 1:120--41 (1765).
  6. Blackstone, William (1979) [1765]. "Amendment IX, Document 1". Commentaries on the Laws of England. 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 388.
  7. Lord Ellenborough’s Act." (1998). The Abortion Law Homepage. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  8. Keown, John (1988). Abortion, doctors, and the law: some aspects of the legal regulation of abortion in England from 1803 to 1982. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-521-89413-1. OCLC 49550035.
  9. 1 2 Status of abortion in Japan. (1967). IPPF Medical Bulletin, 1(6):3. Retrieved April 12, 2006.
  10. 1 2 Sixtus
  11. Kevles, Daniel J. (2001-07-22). "The Secret History of Birth Control". The New York Times. Retrieved 2006-10-21.
  12. Mohr, James C. (1978). Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy, 1800–1900. New York: Oxford University Press US.
  13. O'Beirne, Kate. (2005, January 8). "America's Earliest Feminists Opposed Abortion." Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 16, 2006.
  14. 1 2 "Biographical Note". The Margaret Sanger Papers. Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 1995. Retrieved 2006-10-21.
  15. "population". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
  16. Mexico rape
  17. "Rozporządzenie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej" (PDF) (in Polish). 1932-07-11. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
  18. Iceland
  19. Friedlander, Henry (1995). The origins of Nazi genocide: from euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-8078-4675-9. OCLC 60191622.
  20. Proctor, Robert E. (1989). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 366. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. OCLC 20760638. This emendation allowed abortion only if the woman granted permission, and only if the fetus was not old enough to survive outside the womb. It is unclear if either of these qualifications was enforced.
  21. Arnot, Margaret; Cornelie Usborne (1999). Gender and Crime in Modern Europe. New York City: Routledge. p. 241. ISBN 1-85728-745-2. OCLC 249726924.
  22. Facing History and Ourselves. (n.d.). Timeline: Hitler's Notion of Building a Racial State. Retrieved June 22, 2006.
  23. Proctor, Robert E. (1989). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. OCLC 20760638. Abortion, in other words, could be allowed if it was in the interest of racial hygiene… the Nazis did allow (and in some cases even required) abortions for women deemed racially inferior… On November 10, 1938, a Luneberg court declared abortion legal for Jews.
  24. Tierney, Helen (1999). Women's studies encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 589. ISBN 0-313-31072-6. OCLC 38504469. In 1939, it was announced that Jewish women could seek abortions, but non-Jewish women could not.
  25. 1 2 United Nations (2002). Abortion Policies: A Global Review: Oman to Zimbabwe. New York City: United Nations Publications. p. 50. ISBN 92-1-151365-0. OCLC 84347959. In its decree of 23 November 1955, the government of the former USSR repealed the general prohibition on the performance of abortions contained in the 1936 Decree.
  26. "Homosexuals: Victims of the Nazi Era". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
  27. (Romanian) Scarlat, Sandra. "'Decreţeii': produsele unei epoci care a îmbolnăvit România" ("'Scions of the Decree': Products of an Era that Sickened Romania"), Evenimentul Zilei, May 17, 2005.
  28. US Office of Population Affairs – Legislation
  29. OPA: PUBLIC LAW 91-572-DEC. 24, 1970
  30. Aggrawal, Anil (2006). Self Assessment and Review of Forensic Medicine. Pee Pee Publishers. pp. 235–239. ISBN 81-88867-85-3.
  31. "Facts About Pregnancy Discrimination". Eeoc.gov. 2008-09-08. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
  32. da Silva, Pascal Rocha (2006). "La politique de l'enfant unique en République populaire de Chine" ("The politics of one child in the People's Republic of China"). Université de Genève (University of Geneva). p. 22-8. (French)
  33. Irving, Helen (2008). Gender and the constitution: equity and agency in comparative constitutional design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-88108-0. OCLC 180577386.
  34. nytimes.com
  35. Associated Press (2007-03-10). "Portugal: Parliament Liberalizes Abortion". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
  36. Timeline: Portugal, a chronicle of key events, BBC News
  37. Mexican Supreme Court upholds legalized abortion law, 28 August 2008, Los Angeles Times
  38. Greenhouse, Linda (April 19, 2007). "Justices Back Ban on Method of Abortion". New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
  39. 10/Oct/2008 Abortion decriminalised in Victoria smh.com.au
  40. Kingstone, Steve (26 September 2009). "Spain unveils abortion law change". BBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  41. http://www.med.uchile.cl/2010/4009-presidenta-bachelet-promulga-ley-de-pildora-del-dia-despues.html
  42. ABC News, "Birth Control Free for All: New Insurance Rules Affect Millions of Women", Aug 1, 2011
  43. Reuters, "U.S. says insurers must fully cover birth control", Aug 1, 2011
  44. Maila Ager (December 19, 2012). "RH Bill passes bicam". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  45. Karl John Reyes; Lira Dalangin Fernandez (December 19, 2012). "Senate, House ratify bicameral panel version of RH Bill". TV5. InterAKSYON. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  46. "Uruguay Senate Approves First-Trimester Abortions". NY Times. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  47. Willis, David (Jun 30, 2014). "Hobby Lobby case: Court curbs contraception mandate". BBC News. Retrieved Jun 30, 2014.
  48. O'Donoghue, Amy Joi (Jul 5, 2014). "Group protests Hobby Lobby decision on birth control". Deseret News. Retrieved Jul 30, 2014.
  49. Haberkorn, Jennifer; Gerstein, Josh (Jun 30, 2014). "Supreme Court sides with Hobby Lobby on contraception mandate". Politico. Retrieved Jun 30, 2014.
  50. See:
  51. See:
  52. Liptak, Adam (March 23, 2016). "Justices Seem Split in Case on Birth Control Mandate". The New York Times.
  53. Zubik v. Burwell, No. 14–1418, 578 U.S. ___, slip op. at 3, 5 (2016) (per curiam).
  54. Zubik, slip op. at 3-4.
  55. Zubik, slip op. at 4.
  56. Zubik, slip op. at 2-3 (Sotomayor, J., concurring).
  57. Green, Emma (November 13, 2015). "A New Supreme Court Challenge: The Erosion of Abortion Access in Texas". Atlantic. Retrieved January 26, 2016.

External links

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