Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
|Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
|Administrative centre||Jeddah, Saudi Arabia|
|Membership||57 member states|
|•||Secretary-General||Iyad bin Amin Madani|
|•||Charter signed||25 September 1969|
|•||2011 estimate||1.6 billion|
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; Arabic: منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; French: Organisation de la Coopération Islamique), is an international organization founded in 1969 consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.6 billion as of 2008. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony".
Since the 19th century, some Muslims had aspired to ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate after World War I left a vacuum for a pan-Islamic institution. Losing the Six-Day War in 1967 provided the incentive needed. The al-Aqsa fire is regarded as one of the catalysts for the formation of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in 1972. Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat to establish the OIC on 25 September 1969.
According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.
The emblem of the OIC (shown above) contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Kaaba, the Globe, and the Crescent.
On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.
In June 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, and good governance in all member states. The revisions also removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international law.
According to the UNHCR, OIC countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since then OIC members have absorbed refugees from other conflicts, including the uprising in Syria. In May 2012, the OIC addressed these concerns at the "Refugees in the Muslim World" conference in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
New name and emblem
On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM) in Astana, Kazakhstan the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference (Arabic: منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي; French: Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) to its current name. The OIC also changed its logo at this time.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are also member states of the United Nations. Some, especially in West Africa, are – though with large Muslim populations – not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India and Ethiopia, are not members.
The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.6 billion as of 2008.
On 27 June 2007, then-United States President George W. Bush announced that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values." As of June 2015, Arsalan Suleman is acting special envoy. He was appointed on 13 February 2015. In an investigation of the accuracy of a series of chain emails, Snopes.com reported that during the October 2003 – April 2004 session of the General Assembly, 17 individual members of the OIC voted against the United States 88% of the time.
The OIC supports a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The OIC has called for a boycott of Israeli products in effort to pressure Israel into ending the occupation of the Palestinian territories.
There was a meeting in Conakry in 2013. Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said that foreign ministers would discuss the possibility of cutting ties with any state that recognised Jerusalem as the capital of Israel or that moves its embassy to its environs.
Cartoons of Muhammad
Cartoons of Muhammad, published in a Danish newspaper in September 2005, were found offensive to a number of Muslims. Third Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference in December 2005 condemned publication of the cartoons, resulting in broader coverage of the issue by news media in Muslim countries. Subsequently, violent demonstrations throughout the Islamic world resulted in several deaths.
OIC created the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam. While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the UDHR, but rather complementary to it, Article 24 states that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah" and Article 25 follows with "the Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." Attempts to have it adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups. Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is "manipulation and hypocrisy," "designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law" and attempts to "circumvent these principles [of freedom and equality]."
Human Rights Watch says that OIC has “fought doggedly” and successfully within the United Nations Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to criticism of Israel. For example, when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the 2006 Lebanon War, “state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss Hezbollah’s as well.” OIC demands that the council “should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them.” HRW responds that this works with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity.
The OIC has been criticised for failing to discuss the treatment of ethnic minorities within member countries, such as the oppression of the Kurds in Syria, the Ahwaz in Iran, the Hazaras in Afghanistan, the 'Al-Akhdam' in Yemen, or the Berbers in Algeria.
Along with the revisions of the OIC’s charter in 2008, the member states created the Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC). The IPHRC is an advisory body, independent from the OIC, composed of eighteen individuals from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds. The IPHRC has the power to monitor human rights within the member states and facilitates the integration of human rights into all OIC mandates. The IPHRC also aids in the promotion of political, civil, and economic rights in all member states.
In March 2012, the United Nations Human Rights Council held its first discussion of discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, following the 2011 passage of a resolution supporting LGBT rights proposed by the Republic of South Africa. Pakistan's representative addressed the session on behalf of the OIC, denouncing the discussion and questioning the concept of sexual orientation, which he said was being used to promote "licentious behaviour ... against the fundamental teachings of various religions, including Islam". He stated that the council should not discuss the topic again. Most Arab countries and some African ones later walked out of the session.
Nonetheless, OIC members Albania, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, and Sierra Leone have signed a UN Declaration supporting LGBT rights in the General Assembly.
In May 2016, 57 countries including Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation requested the removal of LGBT associations from 2016 High Level Meeting on Ending AIDS sparked protests by the United States, Canada, the European Union and LGBT communities.
In 1999, OIC adopted the OIC Convention on Combatting International Terrorism. Human Rights Watch has noted that the definition of terrorism in article 1 describes "any act or threat of violence carried out with the aim of, among other things, imperiling people’s honour, occupying or seizing public or private property, or threatening the stability, territorial integrity, political unity or sovereignty of a state." HRW views this as vague, ill-defined and including much that is outside the generally accepted understandings of the concept of terrorism. In HRW's view, it labels, or could easily be used to label, as terrorist actions, acts of peaceful expression, association, and assembly.
Legal scholar Ben Saul of University of Sydney argues that the definition is subjective and ambiguous and concludes that there is "serious danger of the abusive use of terrorist prosecutions against political opponents" and others.
Furthermore, HRW is concerned by OIC's apparent unwillingness to recognise as terrorism acts that serve causes endorsed by their member states. Article 2 reads: "Peoples' struggle including armed struggle against foreign occupation, aggression, colonialism, and hegemony, aimed at liberation and self-determination." HRW has suggested to OIC that they embrace "longstanding and universally recognised international human rights standards", a request that has as yet not led to any results.
During a meeting in Malaysia in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, any description of the Palestinian fight with Israel as terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif (Jerusalem) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed intifada." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism" in their war with the Palestinian people.
At the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM), an OIC section, in May 2007, the foreign ministers termed Islamophobia "the worst form of terrorism".
Dispute with Thailand
Thailand has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Muslim majority provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005, secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places". He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence.
On 18–19 April 2009, the exiled Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see Patani United Liberation Organisation) was invited to the OIC to speak about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims living in the socioeconomically neglected south, that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand in 1902. Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included obtaining the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. He also suggested that Thailand give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand already have, citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand and that it is a matter of political will. He also criticised the Thai government’s escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens.
Thailand responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thai foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, said: "We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace." The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC’s criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. "If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand, the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims and Thai Buddhists." HRW and Amnesty International have echoed the same concerns as OIC, rebuffing Thailand's attempts to dismiss the issue.
Dispute with India
India has pushed against the OIC for referring to disputed areas of Kashmir as "occupied by India". Although 13.4% of India's population is Muslim, it has pushed for the OIC to make an exception to accept India as a member, arguing that about 11% (roughly 172 million) of the Muslims live in India. Pakistan opposes India's entry into the OIC.
The notion for Pakistan's refusal for India to enter the Organization of Islamic Cooperation is due to the human rights issues and problems faced by the Kashmiri people in Indian-held Kashmir (IHK). The Muslim world has always supported Pakistan rather than India, however the role of the OIC concerning the Kashmir issue is that India has the largest Muslim minority and those people have shown desire to join the OIC. While the First Islamic Summit did not have the issue of the Kashmir people, granting the 60 million Muslims living in India membership in the OIC was discussed. While General Yayha Kahn of Pakistan did agree, he showed his extreme displeasure at the fact that at induction of Muslim representative Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad, he took a seat, which caused major controversy. Meanwhile, there were Muslims killed in anti-Muslim riots in Ahmedabad. Pakistan rejected this development and demanded the expulsion of India from the summit.
A number of OIC meetings have attracted global attention.
Ninth meeting of PUOICM
The ninth meeting of Parliamentary Union of the OIC member states (PUOICM) was held on 15 and 16 February 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The speaker of Malaysia's House of Representatives, Ramli bin Ngah Talib, delivered a speech at the beginning of the inaugural ceremony. OIC secretary-general Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said prior to the meeting that one main agenda item was stopping Israel from continuing its excavation at the Western Wall near the Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam's third holiest site. The OIC also discussed how it might send peacekeeping troops to Muslim states, as well as the possibility of a change in the name of the body and its charter. Additionally, return of the sovereignty right to the Iraqi people along with withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq was another one of the main issues on the agenda.
Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri told reporters on 14 February 2007 that the secretary general of OIC and foreign ministers of seven "like-minded Muslim countries" would meet in Islamabad on 25 February 2007 following meetings of President Musharraf with heads of key Muslim countries to discuss "a new initiative" for the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Kasuri said this would be a meeting of foreign ministers of key Muslim countries to discuss and prepare for a summit in Makkah Al Mukarramah to seek the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
IPHRC Trip to Washington DC
In December 2012, the IPHRC met in Washington, DC for the first time. The IPHRC held meetings at the National Press Club, Capitol Hill and Freedom House discussing the issues of human rights defense in the OIC member states. During their roundtable discussion with Freedom House the IPHRC emphasised the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the rejection of the Cairo Declaration by the OIC.
Observer Status dispute
The September 2014's high-level Summit of the OIC, in New York, ended without adopting any resolutions or conclusions, for the first time in several years in the modern history of the organization, due to a dispute regarding the status of one of its Observer states. Egypt, Iran and the United Arab Emirates have demanded that the OIC remove the term ‘Turkish Cypriot State’ in reference to the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has observer status within the organization. Egypt’s president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi insisted that any reference to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus or Turkish Cypriot State" was unacceptable and was ultimately the reason for the OIC not adopting any resolutions or conclusions in the 2014 summit.
Structure and organisation
The OIC system consists of:
The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years.The Islamic Summit takes policy decisions and provide guidance on all issues pertaining to the realisation of the objectives as provided for in the Charter and consider other issues of concern to the Member States and the Ummah.
Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers
Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.
The Secretary General is elected by the Council of Foreign Ministers for a period of five years, renewable once. The Secretary-General is elected from among nationals of the Member States in accordance with the principles of equitable geographical distribution, rotation and equal opportunity for all Member States with due consideration to competence, integrity and experience.
The Permanent Secretariat is the executive organ of the Organisation, entrusted with the implementation of the decisions of the two preceding bodies, and is located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The Secretary General of this international organisation is Iyad Bin Amin Madani from Mecca, Saudi Arabia, since 31 January 2014.
- The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries, in Ankara, Turkey.
- The Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
- The Islamic University of Technology, located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
- The Islamic Centre for the Development of Trade, located in Casablanca, Morocco.
- The Islamic Fiqh Academy, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- The Islamsate Islamic network, located at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
- The Executive Bureau of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and its Waqf, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- The Islamic University in Niger, located in Say, Niger.
- The Islamic University in Uganda, located in Mbale, Uganda.
- The Tabriz Islamic Arts University, located in Tabriz, Iran.
- The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO), located in Rabat, Morocco.
- The Islamic States Broadcasting Organisation (ISBO) and the International Islamic News Agency (IINA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
- Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI), located in Karachi, Pakistan.
- World Islamic Economic Forum (WIEF), located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Organisation of Islamic Capitals and Cities (OICC), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- Sports Federation of Islamic Solidarity Games, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
- Islamic Committee of the International Crescent (ICIC), located in Benghazi, Libya.
- Islamic Shipowners Association (ISA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- World Federation of International Arab-Islamic Schools, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- International Association of Islamic Banks (IAIB), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation (ICYF-DC), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
- General Council for Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions (CIBAFI), located in Manama, Bahrain.
- Standards and Metrology Institute for Islamic Countries (SMIIC), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
|No.||Name||Country of origin||Took office||Left office|
|1||Tunku Abdul Rahman||Malaysia||1970||1974|
|3||Amadou Karim Gaye||Senegal||1975||1979|
|5||Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada||Pakistan||1984||1988|
|10||Iyad bin Amin Madani||Saudi Arabia||2014||2016|
|11||Youssef Bin Al Ottaimeen||Saudi Arabia||2016||Incumbent|
|1st||22–25 September 1969||Morocco||Rabat|
|2nd||22–24 February 1974||Pakistan||Lahore|
|3rd||25–29 January 1981||Saudi Arabia||Mecca and Ta’if|
|4th||16–19 January 1984||Morocco||Casablanca|
|5th||26–29 January 1987||Kuwait||Kuwait City|
|6th||9–11 December 1991||Senegal||Dakar|
|7th||13–15 December 1994||Morocco||Casablanca|
|1st Extraordinary||23–24 March 1997||Pakistan||Islamabad|
|8th||9–11 December 1997||Iran||Tehran|
|9th||12–13 November 2000||Qatar||Doha|
|2nd Extraordinary||4–5 March 2003||Qatar||Doha|
|10th||16–17 October 2003||Malaysia||Putrajaya|
|3rd Extraordinary||7–8 December 2005||Saudi Arabia||Mecca|
|11th||13–14 March 2008||Senegal||Dakar|
|4th Extraordinary||14–15 August 2012||Saudi Arabia||Mecca|
|12th||6–7 February 2013||Egypt||Cairo|
|5th Extraordinary||6–7 March 2016||Indonesia||Jakarta|
|13th||10–15 April 2016||Turkey||Istanbul|
- Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
- List of largest cities in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries
- List of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member states by population
- Developing 8 Countries
- Pakistan-OIC relations
- Islamic University of Technology
- Flag of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
- Islamic Reporting Initiative
- About OIC. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2014-11-07.
- Esposito, 1998, p.164.
- "Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 5 August 1990, U.N. GAOR, World Conf. on Hum. Rts., 4th Sess., Agenda Item 5, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/PC/62/Add.18 (1993) [English translation]". University of Minnesota. 5 August 1990. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "OIC Charter". Ch 1, Art 1, Sect 7. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "OIC to hold conference on refugees in Muslim world in Turkmenistan". Zaman. 24 April 2012.
- OIC changes name, emblem Pakistan Observer
- "وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna". Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Feller, Ben (2 June 2007). "Bush to Name Envoy to Islamic Conference". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007.
- "Arsalan Suleman". US Department of State. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "United Condemnations". Snopes. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Muslims condemn Dutch lawmaker's film". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "OIC supports military action in Yemen". Arab News. 27 March 2015.
- "OIC calls for ban on Israeli products".
- "islamic office for the boycott of israel" (PDF).
- "Middle East Monitor".
- Howden, Daniel; Hardaker, David; Castle, Stephen (10 February 2006). "How a meeting of leaders in Mecca set off the cartoon wars around the world". The Independent. London. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Human Rights Brief" United Nations Update Accessed 10 March 2009.
- Fatema Mernissi: Islam and Democracy, Cambridge 2002, Perseus Books, p. 67.
- Ann Mayer, "An Assessment of Human Rights Schemes," in Islam and Human Rights, p. 175. Westview 1999, Westview Press.
- Robert Carle: "Revealing and Concealing: Islamist Discourse on Human Rights," Human rights review, vol:6, No 3 April–June 2005.
- How to Put U.N. Rights Council Back on Track Human Rights Watch, 2 November 2006.
- The UN Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch Testimony Delivered to the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 25 July 2007.
- Kymlicka, Will (2007). Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-19-928040-7. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- CISMAS, I. (2011). Statute of the OIC independent permanent human rights commission, introductory note. International Legal Materials, 50(6), pp. 1148-1160. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5305/intelegamate.50.6.1148
- List of Panel Discussions to take place during 19th session http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session19/PanelDiscussionsHRC19.pdf
- Evans, Robert (8 March 2012). "Islamic states, Africans walk out on UN gay panel". Reuters. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- Solash, Richard (7 March 2012). "Historic UN Session On Gay Rights Marked By Arab Walkout". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- South Africa leads United Nations on gay rights | News | National | Mail & Guardian. Mg.co.za (2012-03-09). Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Over 80 Nations Support Statement at Human Rights Council on LGBT Rights » US Mission Geneva. Geneva.usmission.gov. Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
- James Rothwell. "Muslim countries ban gay and transgender reps from United Nations meeting on Aids". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- Nichols, Michelle (2013-04-04). "Muslim states block gay groups from U.N. AIDS meeting; U.S. protests". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- "OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism". OICUN. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Organisation of the Islamic Conference: Improve and Strengthen the 1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism Human Rights Watch 11 March 2008.
- Ben Saul: Branding Enemies: Regional Legal Responses to Terrorism in Asia ‘’Asia-Pacific Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 2008’’ Sydney Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08/127, October 2008.
- Patrick Goodenough: UN Anti-Terror Effort Bogged Down Over Terrorism Definition CNSNew, 2 September 2008. Archived 7 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- The OIC's blind eye to terror The Japan Times 9 April 2002.
- ‘Islamophobia Worst Form of Terrorism’ Arab News 17 May 2007.
- "Ihsanoglu urges OIC Member States to accord greater attention to Muslim minority issues". Patanipost.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "Welcome to Patani Post! PULO President invited to speak at OIC meeting 18–19 April 2009". Patani Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "Thailand". Amnesty International. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Archived 23 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "OIC Resolution". Patani Post. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "Thailand". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Wahab, Siraj (30 June 2011). "OIC urged to press India on Kashmir issue". Arab News. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Chickrie, Raymond (23 January 2011). "Eight Countries Seek OIC Membership". Caribbean Muslims. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "'Pak will match India weapons'". The Indian Express. 3 July 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- Orakzai, S. (2010). Organisation of The Islamic Conference and Conflict Resolution: Case Study of the Kashmir Dispute. Pakistan Horizon, 63(2), 83. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24711087
- Orakzai, S. (2010). Organisation of The Islamic Conference and Conflict Resolution: Case Study of the Kashmir Dispute. Pakistan Horizon, 63(2), 88. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24711087
- Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Malaysian National News Agency". Bernama. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived 7 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Upcoming Event: Roundtable Discussion with the OIC's Human Rights Commission". Freedom House. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- The World Bulletin news: Egypt's Sisi demands Turkish Cypriots removed from OIC
- Egypt's Sisi tells Turks to get out of Cyprus
- OIC says «NO» to «Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus»
- Welcome to Organisation of Islamic Cooperation official website. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
- Welcome to Organisation of Islamic Cooperation official website. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
- "About SMIIC". Standards and Metrology Institute for Islamic Countries. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Former Secretaries-General–OIC.
- "Second Islamic summit conference" (PDF). Formun. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Mecca Declaration". JANG. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Resolution of the Fifth Islamic Summit Conference". IRCICA. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Dakar Declaration" (PDF). IFRC. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- Darwish, Adel (1 April 2003). "OIC meet in Doha: mudslinging dominated the OIC conference in Qatar". Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Shah, S. Mudassir Ali (12 March 2008). "Karzai flies to Senegal for 11th OIC summit". Pajhwok Afghan News. Kabul. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Knipp, Kersten (15 August 2012). "Islamic group hopes to limit Syrian conflict". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Arrott, Elizabeth (6 February 2013). "Islamic Summit Leaders Urge Action on Mali, Syria". Voice of America. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- Karensa, Edo (6 March 2016). "OIC Extraordinary Summit on Palestine Kicks Off in Jakarta". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Ankerl, Guy Coexisting Contemporary Civilisations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INUPress, 2000, ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
- Al-Huda, Qamar. "Organisation of the Islamic Conference." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1 p. 394, 20 April 2008.
- Media related to Organisation of Islamic Cooperation at Wikimedia Commons