Men who have sex with men blood donor controversy

The men who have sex with men blood donor controversy is the dispute over prohibitions on donations of blood or tissue for organ transplants from men who have sex with men (MSM), a classification of men who engage (or have engaged in the past) in sex with other men, regardless of whether they identify themselves as bisexual, gay, or otherwise. Opposition to the prohibition is frequently addressed in terms of bisexual and gay men. Restrictions on donors are sometimes called "deferrals", since blood donors who are found ineligible may be found eligible at a later date. Many deferrals are indefinite, however, meaning that these blood donors may or may not be accepted at any point in the future. The restrictions vary from country to country, and in many cases, men are deferred even though they always have protected sex or have not had sex with men for many years. The restrictions affect these men, and, in some cases, any female sex partners. They do not otherwise affect other women, including women who have sex with women. Opponents of many of the deferrals argue that these policies are not supported by medical science,[1][2] while the FDA asserts that "the 1 year deferral window is supported by the best available scientific evidence."[3]

Many LGBT organizations view the restrictions on donation as based on homophobia and not based on valid medical concern since donations are rigorously tested to rule out donors that are infected with known viruses such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They state the deferrals are based on stereotypes.[1] Proponents of the lifetime restriction defend it because of the risk of false negative test results[4] and because the MSM population in developed countries tends to have a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection.[5] The UK government advisory committee, SABTO, states that the risk of transfusion of HIV infected blood would increase if MSM were allowed to donate blood.[6] Opponents of prohibitions against MSM point out that screening of donors should focus on sexual behavior as well as safe sex practices since many MSM may always have protected sex, be monogamous, or be in other low risk categories.[1][6] Some groups in favor of lifting the restrictions support a waiting period after the blood is donated when the donor is considered to have had behavior considered higher risk, and before it is used, to match the blood bank's window of testing methods.[1] Depending on the testing method used, the window to detect HIV can be as short as 9 to 14 days (RNA testing), or as long as three months (serology testing method). However, there is a small percentage of the population at 3% who still will not test positive after 3 months with serology testing.[7]


In many developed countries HIV is more prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among the general population.[5]

In the United States in 2005, MSM, African Americans, and persons engaging in high-risk heterosexual behavior accounted for respectively 49%, 49%, and 32% of new HIV diagnoses.[8] In 2009 in the United States, African Americans accounted for 47.9% of new HIV diagnoses reported that year, but represented approximately only 12% of the population.[9]

Current situation

List of countries with their stand on MSM blood donors

Blood donation policies for men who have sex with men
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; no deferral
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; temporary deferral
  Men who have sex with men may not donate blood1
  No Data / Unknown
1No restriction in Israel, Belgium and the United States of America if last MSM activity was before 1977.
Blood donation policies for female sex partners of men who have sex with men
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; no deferral
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; temporary deferral
  No data

This list shows countries that had restrictions on blood donors.[10][11] Most national standards require direct questioning regarding a man's sexual history, but the length of deferral varies.

Country Deferral for MSM Deferral for female
sex partners of MSM
 Algeria Indefinite
 Argentina No deferral No deferral [12][13][14][15]
 Australia 1 year 1 year [16]
 Austria Indefinite [17]
 Belgium Indefinite [18]
 Bhutan No deferral No deferral [19]
 Brazil 1 year 1 year [20]
 Bulgaria No deferral
 Canada 1 year 1 year [21][22][23][24]
 Chile No deferral No deferral [25][26][27][28][29]
 China Indefinite [30]
 Colombia No deferral No deferral [31]
 Costa Rica No deferral [32]
 Croatia Indefinite [33]
 Czech Republic 1 year 1 year [34]
 Denmark Indefinite [35]
 Estonia Indefinite [36]
 Finland 1 year [37]
 France 1 year [38]
 Germany Indefinite [39]
 Greece Indefinite
 Hong Kong Indefinite [40]
 Hungary 1 year [10]
 Iceland Indefinite
 Ireland Indefinite C [41][42][43][44]
 Israel No deferral, except for blood transfusions[45] A No deferral [46]
 Italy No deferral No deferral [10][47]
 Japan 6 months [48]
 Latvia No deferral No deferral [49]
 Lebanon Indefinite [50]
 Lithuania Indefinite [51]
 Malaysia Indefinite Indefinite [52]
 Malta Indefinite [53]
 Mexico No deferral No deferral [54]
 Netherlands 1 year 1 year [55][56]
 New Zealand 1 year 1 year [57]
 Norway Indefinite [58][59][60]
 Peru No deferral No deferral [61][62][63][64][65]
 Philippines Indefinite
 Poland No deferral No deferral [10][66][67][68]
 Portugal No deferral No deferral [69]
 Russia No deferral No deferral [70][71]
 San Marino No deferral No deferral
 Serbia 6 months
 Singapore Indefinite [72]
 South Africa No deferral No deferral [73]
 South Korea 1 year No deferral [74]
 Slovakia 1 year
 Slovenia Indefinite [75]
 Spain No deferral No deferral [10]
 Sweden 1 year 1 year [76][77]
  Switzerland Indefinite B [78]
 Thailand Indefinite Indefinite [79][80]
 Turkey Indefinite
 Ukraine No deferral
 United Kingdom (includes  Wales,  England,  Scotland and  Northern Ireland) 1 year 1 year [81][82][83][84][85]
 United States 1 year 1 year [86][87]
 Uruguay 1 year No deferral [88]
 Venezuela Indefinite No deferral


United States

In the US, the current guidance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is to defer any male donor who has had sex with another man (MSM) in the past year. This has been so since December 2015.[89]

Female sexual partners of MSM are deferred for one year since the last exposure. This is the same policy used for any sexual partner of someone in a high risk group.[90] The argument used to follow these policies is that blood should be collected from a population that is at low risk for disease, since the tests are not perfect and human error may lead to infected units not being properly discarded, and these population groups would be considered a high risk. The policy was first put in place in 1983 by the FDA, which regulates blood donations to profit and non-profit organizations.[91]

Donors of what the FDA calls "HCT/P's", a category that includes transplants (other than organs) and some reproductive tissue, notably anonymous semen donations, are ineligible for five years after the most recent contact.[92] UNOS policies for Organ donation require the hospital receiving the organ to be notified if the donor was an MSM within the past 5 years.[93] The organs are generally used unless there is a clear positive test for a disease. The one year deferral was approved by the FDA on December 21, 2015, replacing a lifetime ban on donations from MSM.[94]

History of calls to change the policy

European Union

Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Russia and Spain are the only European countries that don't discriminate when it comes to blood donation. The donation is allowed if the donor hasn't had a risky sexual encounter, but not depending on the sexual orientation of the donor.[105] The UK lifted its lifetime ban on MSM blood donation in September 2011 (2016 in Northern Ireland),[81] and changed the policy to simply restrict men who have had sex with another man within the previous 12 months.[106] The Advisory Committee on the Safety of Blood, Tissues and Organs recommended the policy change after a study concluded that a total ban may breach equality legislation and that the risk of HIV reaching the blood supply would only increase by approximately 2%.[107]

In Ireland, any man who has ever had oral or anal sex with another man (MSM) is strictly banned from donating blood until 16 January 2017, when MSM donors will then have to abstain from oral or anal sex with other men for at least twelve months before donating blood. On 27 July 2015, Tomás Heneghan, a 23-year-old student and journalist from Galway began a legal challenge in the High Court against the permanent deferral imposed on MSM donors.[108][109] He argued that the questionnaire and interview process used by the IBTS does not adequately assess the risk of disease transmission posed by his donation. He claims this is in breach of EU law. He said that both failed to consider the length of time between a donor's last sexual experience and the end of a “window period” in which infections are sometimes not detected. Heneghan's previous sexual activity posed no risk of infection, according to HSE-approved advice and he said the service had no evidence upon which it could legitimately impose a life-long ban on him donating blood. Following several adjournments of the case to allow the blood service and Department of Health to examine and develop the donation policies, in late June 2016 the Irish Blood Transfusion Service recommended that the lifetime ban on MSM be reduced to a 12 month ban. Later that week the Minister for Health Simon Harris agreed to the recommendations and announced the reduction would take place. However no timeline was reported for the implementation of the new policies.[110] On 26th July 2016 Heneghan dropped his High Court challenge against the service as an end to the lifetime deferral on MSM blood donors had been announced in the interim.[111] Heneghan then wrote about his experiences of challenging the ban in a number of national media outlets.[112][113] He also appeared on TV3's Ireland AM show to speak about his case.[114] On 2 October 2016, it was reported that Minister Harris would implement the new policy from 16 January 2017, almost seven months after he announced the policy change.[115]

A similar policy exists in the rest of the European Union and is the prevailing interpretation of the European Union Directive 2004/33/EC article 2.1 on donor deferrals.[116] The policy, however, is not very specific and refers to "high risk sexual contact." The UK interprets the directive to include all forms of homosexual sex as falling within 2.2.2 of Annex III to the directive "Persons whose behaviour or activity places them at risk of acquiring infectious diseases that may be transmitted by blood", requiring a deferral based on the window period for the diseases involved, and sets this at 12 months, despite the Annex suggesting 6 months for risk of exposure to Hepatitis B. Hélder Trindade, President of the Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation (IPST), stated in 2015 that sexually abstinent homosexuals may give blood, but that MSM is definitely seen as a risk factor.[117]

In Finland, the parliamentary ombudsman launched an investigation on the possible unconstitutionality of the lifetime ban in January 2006. In June 2008, it was concluded that the ban was not unlawful in Finland as it is based on "appropriately reasoned epidemiological information" and because it is related to sexual behaviour rather than sexual orientation. The ombudsman added that people over the age of 65 and people who lived in Britain during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) outbreak are also screened out during blood donor interviews. In December 2013, the Finnish Red Cross blood service announced it was lifting the ban and introducing a one-year deferral instead.

Since July 10, 2016, France implemented a 1-year deferral period policy on all gay and bisexual men donating blood.[118]


Australia's individual states and territories each had their own policies on blood donations by MSM. Most previously had some form of the indefinite deferral, and they all changed to a 12-month deferral at different times between 1996 (SA) and 2000 (ACT, NSW).[10]

A comparison of confirmed HIV positive blood donations before and after the change did not see a statistically significant difference. In all of the cases of HIV positive donations associated with MSM after the 12-month deferral, the donors had lied about their medical history and would not have been eligible under either criterion.[10]

New Zealand

Since 2009, the New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) had deferred males who have had oral or anal intercourse, with or without protection, with another male for five years. From the formation of the NZBS in 1998 to 2009, the deferral period had been ten years, but reduced to five years following an independent review of blood donation criteria in 2007-8 which found no significant difference in risk to the blood supply for deferral periods of five years compared to ten years.[119]

In 2014, the NZBS dropped the ban period from 5 years to one year following the recommendation of Medsafe.[120] Their decision was mainly caused by recently gained facts about HIV transmission in Australia[121] which already had a one-year deferral. The new 1 year deferral has been in effect since 15 December 2014.

The one year deferral period for MSM is on par with the one year deferral period for persons engaging in prostitution outside of New Zealand and people who have resided in a country which has a high (1% or more) HIV prevalence. Females who engage in sexual intercourse with a male who has had sex with another male are also deferred for twelve months.[122]

Reasoning for the restrictions

Blood services first and foremost must ensure that all blood received for donation is safe for transfusion purposes. This is achieved by screening potential donors for high risk behaviors through questionnaires and interviews before blood is taken, and subsequent laboratory testing on samples of donated blood.

Blood services commonly justify their bans against MSM using the statistically higher prevalence of HIV and hepatitis of MSM in population studies.

In the earliest years of the AIDS epidemic, there were no reliable tests for the virus, which justified blanket bans on blood donations from groups at high risk of acquiring or having HIV, including MSM. These restrictions are similar to present-day restrictions in most countries on people residing in the United Kingdom during the BSE ("mad cow disease") epidemic of the 1980s and early-to-mid 1990s, due to the absence of a test for its human form, variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD).

In 1985, early tests using the ELISA method looked for antibodies, which are the immune system's response to the virus. However, there is a window period when using this method in which a person who has been infected with HIV is able to spread the disease but may test negative for the virus. This window period can be as long as three to six months,[123] with an average of 22 days.[124] Tests using the ELISA methods are often still used in developed countries because they are highly sensitive. In developing countries, these tests are often the only method used to screen donated blood for HIV. To cover the window period resultant from the use of these tests, donors are also screened for high risk behaviors, one of which is a history of same-sex sexual activity among male potential donors. Other groups with similar restrictions include commercial sex workers, injecting drug users, and people resident in countries with a high HIV prevalence (such as sub-Saharan Africa). Newer tests look for the virus itself, such as the p24 antigen test, which looks for a part on the surface of the virus, and Nucleic acid tests (NAT), which look for the genetic material of the virus. With these tests, the window period is shorter, with an average duration of 12 days.[124] Fourth generation combination HIV tests are conclusive at 3 months, and Hepatitis B tests are conclusive at 6 months.

Risks are also associated with a regular donor testing positive for HIV, which can have major implications as the donor's last donation could have been given within the window period for testing and could have entered the blood supply, potentially infecting blood product recipients. An incident in 2003 in New Zealand saw a regular donor testing positive for HIV and subsequently all blood products made with the donor's last blood donation had to be recalled. This included NZ$4 million worth of Factor VIII, a blood clotting factor used to treat haemophiliacs which is manufactured from large pools of donated plasma, and subsequently led to a nationwide shortage of Factor VIII and the deferral of non-emergency surgery on haemophiliac patients, costing the health sector millions of dollars more.[119] Screening out those at high risk of bloodborne diseases, including MSM, reduces the potential frequency and impact of such incidents.

Criticism of the restrictions

Objections to the restrictions, including those from the American Medical Association(indefinite deferral)[125] and Red Cross, are generally based on the idea that improvements in testing and other safeguards have reduced the risk from transfusion transmitted HIV to an acceptable level. Blood shortages are common, and opponents of the policies point out that excluding healthy donors only makes the problem worse. "Ideal" inventories are at least a three-day supply, but many blood centers struggle to meet this demand.

Further opposition stems from the fact that the ban is a blanket ban encompassing all men who have had sex with another man, even with protection and even if the HIV status of these men's partners is shown beyond doubt to be negative. Opponents point out that a promiscuous straight male is a higher-risk donor than a gay or bisexual man in a monogamous relationship, but the former will usually be allowed to donate blood. Furthermore, other high-risk activities such as having sexual contact with anyone who has used needles to take drugs not prescribed by their doctor have a set deferral period before the donor is allowed to donate blood, whereas in some countries MSM donors are deferred indefinitely. Female donors who have sexual contact with MSM are sometimes deferred temporarily.

Following a mass shooting targeting a gay nightclub in June 2016, there were reported expressions of frustration and disapproval by a number of gay and bisexual men who were forbidden to donate blood to victims, with LGBT activists across the country and a group of Democratic lawmakers[126] urging the ban to be lifted. The FDA later said it had no plans of changing the regulation and will reevaluate its policies "as new scientific information becomes available".[127][128][129]

Activism in favor of reform of MSM donor policies

Student and faculty activism on campuses

In Canada

In the United States

In the United Kingdom


In September 2015, a Welsh writer and poet, RJ Arkhipov, performed at a festival in Paris. Arkhipov exhibited a series of his poetry written in his own blood and concluded a spoken-word poetry performance with a poem ("Inkwell") intended to bring attention to the MSM blood donor controversy.[145]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 Schoettes, Scott (December 2012). "Blood Donations Questions". Adelante Magazine.
  2. Candidate, Li Zhou, MPA; Candidate, R.T. Winston Berkman, JD/MPA (2016-06-12). "Ban the ban: A scientific and cultural analysis of the FDA's ban on blood donations from men who have sex with men". Columbia Medical Review. 1 (1). doi:10.7916/D8HX1BST.
  3. "Gay and Bisexual Men Can Soon Donate Blood – but There's a Catch". US News & World Report. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
  4. Stier, Jeff (13 June 2007). "Blood for Sale"., Inc. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  5. 1 2 UNAIDS 2006 report on the global AIDS epidemic, Chapter 05, June 2006
  6. 1 2 "Homosexual men allowed to give blood but sex banned for decade". Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  7. "HIV Test Window Periods". San Francisco AIDS Foundation. San Francisco AIDS Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  8. CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2005.
  9. "HIV and AIDS in America".
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Seed, Clive R.; Kiely, Philip; Law, Mathew; Keller, Anthony J. (December 2010). "No evidence of a significantly increased risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in Australia subsequent to implementing a 12-month deferral for men who have had sex with men". Transfusion. AABB. 50: 2722–2730. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02793.x.
  11. "Mclaughlin Report on Risk Management for Canadian Blood Services" (PDF). McLaughlin Center for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa. 31 January 2007. p. 28. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  12. Matthew Corb (16 September 2015). "Health Ministry Removes Ban on Homosexual Blood Donors". The Argentina Independent.
  13. Stern, Mark Joseph (17 September 2015). "Argentina Abolishes Gay Blood Ban". Slate.
  14. "Nuevas normas para la donación de sangre" (in Spanish). 16 September 2015.
  15. Criterios para la selección de donantes de sangre (in Spanish)
  16. "FAQs - Who can give". Australian Red Cross Blood Service. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  17. "Rotes Kreuz: Wer darf Blutspenden?". Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  18. "Avis du CSH relatif a` la sécurisation maximale de la collecte et de la transfusion sanguine (CSH 8094)." (in French). Brussels: FPS Health Belgium. 18 February 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  19. "Who can be a blood donor?". Bhutan Medical and Health Council. June 14, 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  20. "Ordinance No. 2712 of November 12, 2013" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  21. Andreatta, David (22 May 2013). "Ban lifted on gay men giving blood, but tough restrictions remain". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  22. "Blood donation waiting period for men who have sex with men reduced to one year". News Releases. Canadian Blood Services. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  23. Services, Canadian Blood. "Recent Changes to Donation Criteria".
  24. Services, Canadian Blood. "Men Who Have Sex with Men".
  25. "Gays and lesbians in Chile now allowed to donate blood". Santiago Times. 25 April 2013.
  26. Chile drops blood donation ban for gays. Washington Blade
  27. Norma que regula el procedimiento de atención de donantes de sangre (in Spanish)
  28. Guía Criterios Selección Donantes de Sangre (in Spanish)
  29. Histórico: Termina prohibición a gays, lesbianas y bisexuales para donar sangre en Chile (in Spanish)
  30. "China says lesbians may donate blood, but not gay men — Latitude News". Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  31. "Homosexualidad no es impedimento para donar sangre: Corte Constitucional" (in Spanish). 28 May 2012.
  32. García, Sagal Davison; Murillo, Jason Hernández (27 July 2015). "La igualdad del sistema costarricense enfocado en la percepción de la población de mujeres y homosexuales" (in Spanish). Mi tinta es el alma.
  33. Ministry of Health (Croatia) (16 December 1998). "Pravilnik o krvi i krvnim sastojcima" [Bylaw for blood and its contents] (in Croatian). Narodne novine. Retrieved 18 July 2011. E`lanak 16. Trajno se iskljue`uju kao davatelji krvi: [...] osobe sa homoseksualnim ponašanjem [...]
  34. "Doporučení Společnosti pro transfuzní lékařství ČLS JEP č. STL2007_03 ze dne 12. 4. 2007 verze 6 (2012_04)" (DOC) (in Czech). Společnost pro transfuzní lékařství ČLS JEP. p. 8. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  35. "Risikobetonet adfærd" (in Danish). Bloddonorerne i Danmark. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  36. "Vereloovutusest" (in Estonian). Tartu Ülikooli Kliinikumi Verekeskus. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  37. "Ban on donation of blood imposed following male-to-male sexual contact to become temporary". 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014.
  38. "After 30-year ban, gay men in France allowed to donate blood". france24. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  39. "Richtlinien zur Gewinnung von Blut und Blutbestandteilen und zur Anwendung von Blutprodukten (Hämotherapie)" [Guidelines for the collection of blood and blood components and the use of blood products (haemotherapy)] (PDF). German Medical Association. 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  40. "What should you know about the Health history Enquiry in Blood Donation?" (PDF) (in Chinese and English). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service. 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  42. McNamee, Michael Sheils. "Lifting of blood ban welcome - but system will still discriminate against gay men in relationships".
  43. "Ireland lifts ban on gay men donating blood -".
  44. "Lifelong ban on gay men donating blood to be lifted".
  46. "Blood Donation". Magen David Adom.
  47. Administrator. "GAY E DONAZIONE DEL SANGUE". Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  48. "エイズ、肝炎などのウイルス保有者、またはそれと疑われる方" (in Japanese). Japanese Red Cross Society. Retrieved 2016-06-14. ... 輸血を必要とする患者さんへの感染を防ぐため、過去6カ月間に下記に該当する方は、献血をご遠慮いただいています。... 男性どうしの性的接触があった。 (Translation: To prevent infecting patients requiring blood transfusion, those who match any of the following within the last six months should refrain from donating blood. ... Sexual contact between two males.)
  49. "Donora anketa" (in Latvian). Valsts asinsdonoru centrs. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
  50. "Criteria for blood donor selection" (pdf). Lebanese Committee of Blood Transfusion. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  51. "Questionnaire for Donors of Blood and Blood Products" (pdf). VšĮ „Nacionalinis kraujo centras“. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
  52. "Kriteria Penderma Darah" (in Burmese). Retrieved 2016-05-06.
  53. Reid-Smith, Tris (21 October 2013). "Malta keeps gay blood ban but prepares for same-sex weddings". Gay Star News. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  54. Roberts, Scott (27 December 2012). "Mexico lifts ban on gay men donating blood".
  55. TFE, (1 July 2013). "Bloed geven - Risicofactoren hiv mannen" [Giving Blood - Risk Factors of HIV for men] (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2015-04-06.
  56. TFE, (1 July 2013). "Bloed geven - Risicofactoren hiv vrouwen" [Giving Blood - Risk Factors of HIV for women] (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2015-04-06.
  57. "Detailed eligibility criteria". New Zealand Blood Service. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  58. "What is it like to be LGBTI in... Norway? - Gay Star News". Gay Star News. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  59. "Norwegian Labour Party says yes to gay men donating blood |". Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  60. "We won our struggle for gay blood donors! |". Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  61. "Atención: En el Perú las personas LGBT sí pueden donar sangre" (in Spanish). 2015-07-08.
  62. "Mujer no pudo donar sangre por ser lesbiana: esto dice la ley" (in Spanish). 2015-07-08.
  63. Programa Nacional de Hemoterapia y Bancos de Sangre (in Spanish)
  64. Resolución Ministerial Nº 614-2004/MINSA “Aprueban el Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad del PRONAHEBAS”. (in Spanish)
  65. EG05 - TB05 Requisitos de calificación del donante. Ministerio de Salud (in Spanish)
  66. "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych" (in Polish). 2005-05-24.
  67. Slezak, Klaudiusz (2008-05-09). "Narodowe Centrum Krwi: Nie będziemy dyskryminować homoseksualistów" (in Polish).
  68. "Honorowe krwiodawstwo mężczyzn homo- i biseksualnych. Fakty i mity" [Honorable blood donation by gay and bisexual men. Facts and Myths] (in Polish). 2009-09-23.
  69. "AR aprova diploma que permite a homossexuais dar sangue". (in Portuguese). 2010-04-08.
  70. "Приказ Минздравсоцразвития России от 16.04.2008 N 175н" (in Russian). Российская газета. 24 May 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  71. Россиянам вольют "голубую кровь" (in Russian). Полит.ру. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  72. "About AIDS and HIV - When Not To Donate". Retrieved 2016-05-06.
  73. DeBarros, Luiz (20 May 2014). "SA finally ends gay blood donation ban". Mamba Online. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  74. "FAQ". Korean Red Cross Blood Services.
  75. "The Republic of Slovenia Institute for Transfusion: Who cannot donate blood". Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  76. Gallagher, James (8 September 2011). "Gay men blood donor ban to be lifted". BBC News Online.
  77. "Krav på blodgivares lämplighet" [Regulations on blood donation from the National Board of Health and Welfare, SOSFS 2009:28 Appendix 5 Section B:3] (pdf) (in Swedish).
  78. 1 2 "Ban on gay men giving blood in Switzerland set to be lifted". 21 June 2016.
  79. "thai red cross reverses ban on gay blood donors - Gay News Asia". 15 Apr 2008.
  80. "Gay men launch online attack on Thai Red Cross over ban on gay blood donors".
  81. 1 2 "Donor selection criteria review". Department of Health and SaBTO, Blood Donor Selection Steering Group. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  82. "Blood donation (giving blood) - Who can donate - NHS Choices". Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  83. "Gay blood donation: Lifetime ban in NI on gay men donating blood is to be lifted". 2 June 2016 via
  84. "Gay Men Can Now Donate Blood In Northern Ireland - VICE - United Kingdom". 1 September 2016.
  85. Connolly, Marie-Louise (31 August 2016). "Gay blood donation: Lifetime ban in NI on gay men donating blood lifted" via
  86. "FDA updates blood donor deferral policy". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  87. "Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products - Questions and Answers". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  88. "Analizan cambiar norma que impide donar sangre a gays". El Observador (in Spanish). 10 July 2016.
  89. 1 2 "Health Index". ABC News.
  90. 1992 Recommendations for the prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products Archived 29 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  91. "Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men Questions and Answers (published: August 19th, 2013)". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  92. FDA/CBER - Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) Archived 19 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  93. "OPTN/UNOS POLICY 4" (PDF). Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  94. "FDA: Gay men can once again donate blood in U.S., if they haven't had sex for a year".
  95. "Meeting of Blood Products Advisory Committee" (133MB). Food and Drug Administration. 9 March 2006. p. 66. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  96. "Ending the Federal Ban on Gay Blood Donations". California Progress Report. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  97. "Legislative and Community Report". New York: New York City Council. 30 April 2010. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  98. "A Resolution 18-486 : In the Council of the District of Columbia". 1 June 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  99. "American Osteopathic Association Calls for Removing FDA's Blood Donor Ban". 20 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  100. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (May 2015). "Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  101. Sabrina Tavernise (23 December 2014). "F.D.A. Easing Ban on Gays, to Let Some Give Blood". New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  102. "Eligibility Criteria by Topic".
  103. "Blood Donor History Questionnaires".
  105. Waygood, James (8 September 2011). "UK Government lifts lifetime ban on gay blood donation". So So Gay. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  106. "Homosexual men allowed to give blood but sex banned for decade". Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  109. "IBTS votes to end ban on gay men donating blood". Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  110. "Gay man drops challenge to blood donation ban after change in policy announced by Health Minister -". Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  111. "Tomás Heneghan on his High Court case: Why was I shaming the family? Why was my sex life being opened up to public scrutiny? -". Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  112. Heneghan, Tomás. "'They openly debated what sort of sex I had': What it was like being at the centre of the blood-ban case". Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  113. "Ireland AM - Friday, 29 July 2016". 3player. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  115. "Commission Directive 2004/33/EC of 22 March 2004" (PDF). Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  116. "Homosexuals may give blood if they abstain from sex (Homossexuais só podem dar sangue em abstinência sexual)" (in Portuguese). tvi24. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015. The President of the Institute of Blood explains that "sexual contact by men with other men is definitely (seen) as a risk factor" (Presidente do Instituto do Sangue explica que "contacto sexual de homens com outros homens é definido como fator de risco")
  117. "France to Lift Ban on Gay Men Donating Blood". New York Times. November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  118. 1 2 "Behavioural Donor Deferral Criteria Review - Final Report to the New Zealand Blood Service" (PDF). April 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  119. "New one year blood ban now in place". 15 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  120. "New Zealand: New one-year blood ban now in place". San Diego Gay and Lesbian News. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  121. "Detailed Eligibility Criteria". New Zealand Blood Service. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  122. "San Francisco AIDS Foundation: HIV Testing". Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  123. 1 2 FDA Approves First Nucleic Acid Test (Nat) System To Screen Whole Blood Donors For Infections With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) And Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv) Archived 21 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  124. url=
  125. Barron-Lopez, Laura (June 13, 2016). "Democrats Call On FDA To End Ban On Blood Donations From Gay Men". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  126. Levin, Sam (June 14, 2016). "Activists urge US to end ban on gay men donating blood after Orlando massacre". The Guardian. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 'The FDA has examined the possibility of eliminating all deferrals for HIV and simply relying on testing of donated blood or reducing the deferral window; however, scientifically robust data are not available to show that this would not lead to decreased safety of the blood supply,' the agency said in a statement to the Guardian.
  127. Margolin, Emma (June 15, 2016). "Blood Donations Skyrocket, but Gay Men Left Out". NBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  128. McKenzie, Sheena (June 14, 2016). "Gay men outraged over continued ban on blood donation". CNN. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  129. "Blood clinic ban on campus upheld due to policy on gay men". CBC News. 10 July 2012.
  130. Ken Picard (April 18, 2008). "Queer Community Seeing Red Over Blood-Donation Policy". Seven Days.
  131. UVM student government rejects ban on Red Cross blood drives, Associated Press (October 18, 2007).
  132. Kevin Newman (February 26, 2007). "LETTER: Political correctness may cripple blood drive turnout". Iowa State Daily.
  133. Carolyn Potts (February 6, 2008). "College protests blood drives". Badger Herald.
  134. President's Message: Campus Blood Drives, Office of the President, San Jose State University (January 29, 2008).
  135. Norton, Laura (March 8, 2008). "Battle over blood". Press Democrat.
  136. Sonoma State faculty senate OKs resolution opposing blood drives, Bay City News Service (April 25, 2008).
  137. SSU faculty backs blood drive ban, says federal policy biased, Press Democrat (April 25, 2008).
  138. "Students protest discriminatory blood donor rule". Keene Sentinel. February 17, 2016.
  139. "Queens College Academic Senate Bans Discriminatory Blood Drives" (Press release). April 14, 2011.
  140. "Minutes of the Academic Senate Of Queens College" (PDF). April 14, 2011.
  141. "Blood Battle at the University of Michigan".
  142. Betsy Gast & Chelsea Fournier (October 21, 2013). "Viewpoint: Ending a discriminatory blood policy". The Michigan Daily.
  143. "Editorial: The battle for donor equality". The Michigan Daily. October 22, 2013.
  144. "RJ Arkhipov Works With His Own Blood to Protest Ban on Gay Donors". Out. 25 September 2015.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/17/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.