List of Capsicum cultivars

Capsicum germplasm

Capsicum species

There are perhaps fifty thousand Capsicum cultivars grown worldwide.[1] The USDA-ARS GRIN seed collection contains 6,200 Capsicum accessions alone, which include 4000 Capsicum annuum accessions. The other Capsicum species in the USDA germplasm repository include: C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. cardenasii, C. chacoense, C. flexuosum, C. eximium, C. rhomboideum, C. galapagoense, and C. tovarii. [2]

There are five major species of cultivated Capsicum, C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and within those species are several "taxonomic varieties". Because of the ability of many of species to cross and generate inter-specific hybrids, albeit with low success, there are also what is referred to as "complexes" within the Capsicum genus of closely related and sexually compatible species.[3] This includes the Capsicum annuum complex, which consists of C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense.

Major species and their taxonomic varieties:[4]

Types of cultivars

The species and varieties include many economically important cultivars with different shapes, colors, and flavors that are grown for different purposes, such as spices, vegetables, and herbal medicines. Some confusion has resulted from the legal term "plant variety", which is used interchangeably with "cultivar" (not with "taxonomic variety"). The terminology around a cultivar also includes terms such as heirloom, open-pollinated, self-pollinated, and hybrid.[8]

Heirloom varieties are typically those that have been selected and grown historically with seed saved every year, and are still maintained today in similar fashion, such as the blocky-type California Wonder. Open-pollinated varieties are those that are maintained without strict barriers to prevent out-crossing and then seed is collected at and stored from each harvest such as the lamuyo-type Marconi Yellow. While open-pollinated varieties are typically true-to-type, there may be occasional out-crossing to other Capsicum varieties that may introduce some heterogeneity. Self-pollinated varieties are similar to open-pollinated varieties in that they are true-to-type and seed is collected at and stored from each harvest, but measures are taken to minimize out-crossing. This may involve placing a barrier such as a mesh bag or cage over the plant to prevent pollinators from reaching flowers, ensuring that the plant has "selfed". This is how much seed intended for home-garden use is produce, like the cultivar Early Jalapeno. These three types of cultivar seed production are all similar in that only one parent is used and the seed are produced generally through selfing.

Hybrid varieties take advantage of a phenomena called heterosis or hybrid vigor, which occurs in pepper. To generate a hybrid variety, two self-pollinated varieties are intentionally crossed, and all seed from this cross are collected. The new hybrid variety typically is more vigorous than either of the two parents contributing to traits such as higher yield.[8] Hybrid seed if saved will not produce a homogeneous set of plants the next generation, meaning that the two parents will need to be crossed again to generate more hybrid seed. This method is used to produce hybrid Capsicum cultivars such as the blocky-types Double-Up and Orange Blaze. Much of the commercial pepper production uses hybrid varieties for their improved traits.

Due to the large and changing number of cultivars, and the variation of cultivar namings in different regions, this list only gives a few examples of the estimated 50,000 pepper varieties that exist.

Capsicum annuum

Main article: Capsicum annuum

Capsicum annuum, native from southern North America through Central America to South America, has been cultivated worldwide for over 400 years.[9] Its forms are varied, from large to small, sweet to sour, and very hot/pungent to bland. Despite being a single species, C. annuum has many forms, with a variety of names, even in the same language. Official names aside, in American English, any variety lacking heat is colloquially known as a sweet pepper, and those sweet peppers that have a blocky-shape are referred to as bell peppers. A variety that produces capsaicin is colloquially known as a hot pepper or chili pepper. In British English, the sweet varieties are called "peppers"[10] and the hot varieties "chillies",[11] whereas in Australian English, the name "capsicum" is commonly used for bell peppers exclusively and "chilli" is often used to encompass the hotter varieties.

The plant is a tender perennial subshrub, with a densely branched stem. The plant reaches 0.51.5 m (2060 in). Single white flowers develop into the fruit, which is typically green when unripe, but may lack chlorophyll causing a white color, changing usually to red, although some varieties may ripen to yellow, orange, peach, brown, or purple . The species are grown in temperate climates as an annual, but they are especially productive in warm and dry climates.[12]

Capsicum types

There are several different general types typically based on shape, intended use and pungency level. Some general types include:

Capsicum annuum
Image Name Type Origin Heat Pod Size Description
Aci Sivri[13] Turkey 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in)
Afghan Short Afghanistan 5,000–30,000 SR 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) Grown in Afghanistan.
Albino Bullnose[13] Sweet
Aleppo Syria and Turkey 15,000 SR Grown in Syria and Turkey and used, in coarsely ground, dried form, as a spice that is also called aleppo pepper
Alma Paprika[13] Hungary 10,000 SR A Hungarian pepper often pickled or dried and ground to make spicy paprika
Anaheim[13] Anaheim United States 500–2,500 SR 15 cm (5.9 in) A mild variety of New Mexico chile. It was later brought to California from New Mexico by Emilio Ortega in the 1900s. Often it is used for chile relleno. When mature, it takes on a red color and is referred to as a colorado.
Ancient Sweet 0 SR 250–300 mm (10–12 in) long by 38–51 mm (1 12–2 in) wide Medium tall plant produce heavy loads of extra sweet red in color fruits, plant have white flowers & thin flesh. This variety sets the record for the sweetest pepper with 1.5 times the sweetness of a ripe red bell pepper.
Banana Waxy 0–500 SR 15 cm (5.9 in) Often it is pickled and used as an ingredient in sandwiches; its piquancy is not very hot. Its shape and color resemble a banana.
Barkers Hot
Beaver Dam[13] United States
Bird's Eye Small hot Southeast Asia 50,000–100,000[14] SR 4 cm (1.6 in) A Southeast Asian cultivar known by many local names, but generally it is called Thai chili in the United States. It has thin fruit with a pointed tip.
Black Cuban[15]
Black Hungarian Shape of a jalapeño. Deep, dark purple in color.
Black Pearl Ornamental United States Ornamental plant. Winner of the All-America Selections (AAS) Flower Award in 2006.[16] Dark leaves with berry-shaped fruit.
Black Prince Ornamental Ornamental.
Brigadier Blocky Europe 0 SR 12.5 cm (4.9 in) Large red blocky hybrid variety with good texture that has disease resistance to Bacterial Leaf Spot and Potato Virus Y. It is adapted to cooler, wetter climates.
Bulgarian Carrot Bulgaria 12,000 SR 76 mm (3 in)
Bulgarian Ratund 0 SR 64 mm (2.5 in)
Bullnose Long Sweet United States 0 SR
California Wonder[15] Blocky United States 0 SR
Canary Bell Blocky United States 0 SR
Cascabel Mexico 3,000 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) The small, round fruit are usually dried, and have a distinct, nutty flavor. The name, Spanish for "rattle" or "jingle bell", derives from the rattling noise made by the seeds inside the dried pod.
Cayenne (Red)[15] Cayenne French Guiana 30,000–50,000 SR 12.5 cm (4.9 in) This long, thin fruit was transported by the Portuguese to China and India, where it is used widely. Often it is dried and ground into powder.
Charleston Belle Bell United States The first nematode-resistant bell pepper. Created in Charleston, South Carolina by the USDA.[17]
Cherry Pimiento 3,500 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) Named for the fruit it resembles, this cultivar's fruit is small, red, and round. It is typically used fresh, or pickled and jarred, and is often used to stuff green olives. It is also called pimento.
Chervena Chuska Bulgarian 0 SR 150 mm (6 in) Also spelled "Chushka". Very sweet.
Chilaca Pasilla 1,000–2,000 SR 15 cm (5.9 in) Popular in Mexican cuisine, it is almost always encountered dried; in this state, it is referred to as a pasilla. The pasilla has a dark brown color and a smoky flavor.
Chile Rama Nicaragua
Chiltepin[15] Chiltepin 50,000–100,000 SR 0.5 cm (0.20 in) This small, hot fruit is often eaten by birds. The plant is thought to be the ancestor of the cultivated C. annuum peppers. Evidence indicates it has been consumed by humans as far back as 7,500 BC.[18]
Chimayo United States 4,000–6,000 SR
Chinese Five-Color 5,000–30,000 SR 3.5 cm (1.4 in) The fruit starts out purple, then changes to white, yellow, orange, and red. Similar to Bolivian rainbow pepper and 'NuMex Twilight' pepper, it is also called Chinese multicolor pepper.
Chiltoma Grande de Ometepe Nicaragua
Chocolate Beauty Blocky 0 SR
Ciliegia Piccante Italy
Coban Red Pimiento Pimiento Guatemala
Corne De Chevre Italian Spain
Corno di Toro Giallo Italian Italy 0 SR
Corno di Toro Rosso Italian Italy
Costeno Amarillo[15]
Cowhorn Italian 0–500 SR 200 mm (8 in) Plant produces good yields of 200 mm (8 in) long sweet pepper. Pepper are very sweet and have excellent flavor! Peppers turn from green to red when mature. One of the largest non-bell stuffing peppers around
Criolla De Cocina Pepper Nicaragua
Cubanelle 1–1,000 SR 130 mm (5 in) Medium in thickness, the tapered fruit is green when unripe, but turns red when mature. Often it is fried in Italian cooking.
De árbol[15] Mexico 15,000–30,000 SR 8 cm (3.1 in) This slender-fruited cultivar is grown primarily in Mexico, its name is Spanish for "from a tree".
Doux D'Espagne Lamuyo 0 SR Also known as a Spanish Mammoth Pepper.
Early Jalapeño[15] Jalapeno United States 1,000–3,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) This variety is one of the most popular home-gardening varieties. It matures faster than many jalapenos, and although it may have small jalapenos, it produces high yields.
Elephant Trunk 5,000–10,000 SR 150 to 250 mm (6 to 10 in) long by 25 mm (1 in) wide Plant produces good yields of 6" to 10" long by 1" wide tapered and wrinkled hot peppers. Pepper resemble an elephant's trunk. They are mild and turn from green to red when mature. Plant has green stems, green leaves, and white flowers. Can be used green or red. A variety from India. Plant Height: 50" tall
Emerald Giant 0 SR
Espanola Improved[19] United States 2,000–4,000 SR
Estaceno United States 250 mm (10 in) New Mexican-style chili pepper.
Ethiopian Brown
Etuida Poland
Facing Heaven Pimiento China
Filius Blue Ornamental Ornamental, multi-colored pepper plant.
Fish Pepper 5,000–30,000 SR
Floral Gem[15]
Fresno Fresno United States 2,500–10,000 SR 9 cm (3.5 in) Similar to the jalapeño, but with thinner walls, it is generally used ripe, and has a higher vitamin content. Frequently it is used in ceviche, and is one of the most frequently used chilis in salsa.
Friariello di Napoli Italy 0 SR
Fushimi Japan 0 SR 150 mm (6 in)
Georgescu Chocolate Romania 0 SR 130 mm (5 in)
Goat Horn Lamuyo
Golden Cal Wonder Blocky 0 SR
Golden Cayenne Cayenne 100–150 mm (4–6 in)
Golden Marconi Italy 0 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Golden Treasures Italian 0 SR
Guntur Sannam 35,000–40,000 SR It is well known as a commercial crop used as a condiment, culinary supplement, or vegetable.
Hinkelhatz United States 25–51 mm (1–2 in) Also known as Hinkel Hatz or Hinklehatz.
Hole Mole United States 700 SR 180–230 mm (7–9 in) 2007 All-America Selection.
Hontaka[15] Asian heirloom.
Horizon Bell Blocky 0 SR Medium green to orange-yellow at maturity.
Hungarian Wax Waxy 2,500–8,000 SR This wide, medium-hot variety is used in Hungarian cuisine, frequently pickled. Also it is commonly dried, ground, and presented as "paprika".
Italian Sweet Long Sweet Italy Used in Spanish cuisine
Jalapeño Jalapeno Mexico 2,500–8,000 SR 9 cm (3.5 in) Very popular, especially in the United States, it is often pickled or canned. A smoke-dried ripe jalapeño is referred to as a chipotle.
Japones 15,000–35,000 SR Usually found dried. Flatter and thicker than arbol chilis.
Jigsaw[15] Ornamental.
Jimmy Nardello Italian Italy 0 SR
Joe's Long Cayenne Cayenne 200–250 mm (8–10 in)
Jupiter[15] Blocky 0 SR
Jwala India 20,000–30,000 SR 100 mm (4 in) Also known as Pusa Jwala.
King of the North Blocky 0 SR 25–51 mm (1–2 in) Works well for short-season growers. Productive in northern climates.
Korean Dark Green Small Hot 76–102 mm (3–4 in)
Krimzon Lee 200 mm (8 in)
Large Red Antigua Guatemala 0 SR Also known as the Large Sweet Antigua.
Leutschauer Paprika Hungary
Lilac Bell 0 SR
Lipstick Lamuyo 0 SR 100 mm (4 in)
Lumbre United States 9,000–10,000 SR 130 mm (5 in)
Macho Mexico
Mammi Huber's Stuffing United States 0 SR
Marta Polka Poland 0 SR
Maule's Red Hot United States 250–300 mm (10–12 in)
Medusa Ornamental It is a sweet, ornamental chili pepper which grows upright and has brightly colored fruit.
Melrose Lamuyo Italy 0 SR 100 mm (4 in)
Midnight Dreams Bell Blocky 0 SR Black ebony-colored bell pepper.
Miniature Bell Blocky United States 0 SR
Mirasol Mexico 2,000–5,000[20] SR Its dried form is called guajillo,[15][21] and is used to make a red sauce used for tamales.
Mora A small chili about 130 mm (5 in) long and 51 mm (2 in) wide, and purple, it is always used dry. It is extremely spicy, and is used as a substitute for chipotle when more powerful spice is needed.
Morita Morita: A variety of the chipotle style of chiles (dried smoked jalapeños).

The morita is typically made from a certain type of Jalapeños fully ripened purplish color (hence the name "mora =berry") and only dried just when they are leathery but still shiny. Also called "Chipotle Colorado," "Mora Chile," but usually smaller about 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) after drying. Usually spicier than the typical chipotle. []

Mulato[15] Poblano Mexico 2,500–3,000 SR 10 cm (3.9 in) Grown in Mexico, the mulato is a mild to medium chili pepper,

closely related to the poblano (ancho), and usually sold dried.

Moshi Tanzania 51 mm (2 in)
New Mexico No. 6[19] United States
New Mexico 6-4[19] United States
New Mexico No. 9[19] United States
Nippon Taka Japan
NuMex April Fool's Day[15] United States Ornamental chili plant with long thin pods, fruits mature from purple to red.
NuMex Bailey Piquin[19] Ornamental United States 97,000 SR
NuMex Barker's X-Hot United States 9,000–15,000 SR 130 mm (5 in)
NuMex Big Jim[19] United States 2,000–4,000 SR
NuMex Centennial[19] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods. Colour transitions from purple to yellow, orange and finally red.
NuMex Chinese New Year[15] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with bullet shaped fruits that grow in clusters. Fruits mature from light green to red.
NuMex Christmas[19] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods. Colour transitions from green to bright red.
NuMex Cinco de Mayo[15] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with long thin pods, fruits mature from yellow to red.
NuMex Conquistador[19] United States
NuMex Earth Day United States
NuMex Easter[15] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods, fruits turning purple - white - red while ripening.
NuMex Eclipse[19] United States
NuMex Garnet[19] Anaheim United States 0 SR
NuMex Halloween[19] Ornamental United States 20,000–30,000 SR 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) Ornamental chili plant with small upright bullet shaped black pods, fruits turning orange while ripening.
NuMex Heritage 6-4[19] United States 3,000–5,000 SR
NuMex Heritage Big Jim[19] United States
NuMex Jalmundo[15] Jalapeno United States 17,000 SR 130 mm (5 in)
NuMex Joe E. Parker[19] Anaheim United States 2,000–4,000 SR
NuMex Las Cruces Cayenne Cayenne United States A well yield cayenne cultivar with virus resistance to Beet curly top virus.
NuMex Memorial Day[19] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with small upright bullet shaped pods, colour transitions from pale ivory to yellow.
NuMex Mirasol[19] United States Used for cooking in a ground powder and as an ornamental on wreaths.
NuMex Nematador[19] United States
NuMex Piñata[19] Ornamental United States
NuMex Primavera[19] United States
NuMex R. Naky[19] Anaheim United States 260 SR A great mild paprika cultivar.
NuMex Sandia Hot United States 7,000–9,000 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Picture of NuMex Sandia Select [22] NuMex Sandia Select[19] United States
NuMex St. Patrick's Day[19] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods. Colour transitions from green to orange.
NuMex Sunburst[19] Ornamental United States
NuMex Sunflare[19] Ornamental United States
NuMex Sunglo[19] Ornamental United States
NuMex Sunrise[19] Ornamental United States
NuMex Sunset[19] United States
NuMex Sweet[19] United States 0 SR
NuMex Thanksgiving[19] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods. Colour transitions from pale ivory to orange.
NuMex Twilight[19] Ornamental United States 30,000–50,000 SR Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods. Colour transitions from purple to yellow, orange and finally red.
NuMex Valentine's Day[19] Ornamental United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped pods. Colour transitions from pale ivory to red.
NuMex Vaquero[19] Jalapeno United States
NuMex Veteran's Day United States Ornamental chili plant with upright bullet shaped fruits that grow in clusters. Fruits turn from dark violet to dark orange while ripening.
Oda 0 SR
Onza[15] Pasilla Mexico Usually dried for sauces and soups.
Orange Bell Pepper Blocky 0 SR
Ostra-Cyklon Poland 110 mm (4.5 in)
Ozark Giant 0 SR
Padrón Pasilla Spain 0 SR 25–38 mm (1–1.5 in) An heirloom variety usually dried and used as spcices in traditional Spanish dishes.
Paradicsom Alaku Sarga Szentes Hungary Pumpkin-shaped fruit.
Pasilla Bajio Pasilla Mexico 1,000–2,000 SR
Peperone di Cuneo Italy 0 SR
Peruvian Purple Peru 25 mm (1 in)
Peter Pepper Ornamental United States and Mexico 5,000–30,000 SR 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) Rare, heirloom-type hot pepper cultivated for its unique shape.
Pepperoncini (peperoncini) Waxy Italy 100–500 SR 8 cm (3.1 in) Sweet-tasting and mild, used extensively in Italian and Greek cuisine, very frequently pickled.
Pequin Small Hot United States and Mexico 100,000–140,000 SR Also spelled piquín
Piment d'Espelette[15] Pimiento Basque Country (French part) 1,500 - 2,500 SR Fresh fruits, plants and seeds are known as "Gorria", dried fruits are called "Piment d'Espelette". "Gorria" is the Basque word for "red".

Grown in Espelette since ca. 1650.

Pimiento De Padrón Pimiento Spain
Poblano[15] Poblano Mexico 1,000–2,000 SR 13 cm (5.1 in) The large, heart-shaped, dark green fruit is extremely popular in Mexico, often to make chile relleno. When dried, it is referred to as an ancho or mulato.
Polostra-Rokita Pepper 30,000–50,000 SR
Prik Kee Nu Small Hot Thailand 50,000–100,000 SR 3 cm (1.2 in) One of many cultivars called Thai pepper, it has very short fruit, and is very hot.[6] Thai: พริกขี้หนู, rtgs: phrik khi nu, IPA: [pʰrík kʰîː nǔː], literal: Mouse/rat dropping chili.
Purple Flash Ornamental Ornamental
Purple Jalapeño Jalapeno Jalapeño-like pepper that turns purple before ripening and becoming red.
Puya Mexico 5,000 SR[23] Capsicum annuum L.,[24] hot, medium-size, green to red, and tapered[25] Also known as a 'Pulla'.
Purple Beauty Blocky United States 0 SR
Quadrato d'Asti Rosso Blocky Italy 0 SR
Ram Horn Fireboy Lamuyo Hungary 35,000 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Red Belgian Belgium 89 mm (3.5 in)
Red Cheese Long sweet 0 SR
Red Marconi Long Sweet Italy 0 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Red Mini Bell Blocky 38 mm (1.5 in)
Rezha Macedonian Macedonia The name means "engraved".
Ring of Fire 50,000 SR
Rio Grande 21[19] United States
Rooster Spur 51 mm (2 in)
Santa Fe Grande[15] Fresno The Santa Fe Grande is a very prolific variety used in the Southwestern United States. The conical, blunt fruits ripen from greenish-yellow, to orange-yellow to red. The peppers grow upright on 24-in plants. Santa Fe Grande has a slightly sweet taste and is fairly mild in pungency.
Sandia[19] United States
Santaka[15] Heirloom Asian chili.
Serrano[15] Serrano Mexico 10,000–23,000 SR 5 cm (2.0 in) The thin, tapered fruit turns red when mature. Due to its thin skin, it does not need to be peeled before use.
Serrano Tampiqueño Serrano United States 15,000–25,000 SR 57 mm (2.25 in)
Sheepnose Pimento Pimiento United States 0 SR
Shishito Japan
Sigaretta di Bergamo Italy 0 SR
Siling Mahaba Philippines A chili pepper grown in the Philippines, and a popular ingredient in Filipino Cuisine
Spanish Piquillo[15] Spain
Sport Pepper United States 300–500 SR 4 cm (1.6 in) Superficially resembling both Tabasco and serrano peppers, the sport pepper is its own distinct cultivar[26][27] that is much milder than either of those. It is commonly pickled and used in Southern cooking and on Chicago-style hot dogs.
Super Chili[28] 40,000–50,000 SR Long and thin. Grows from green to red.
Sweet Chocolate 0 SR
Sweet Red Stuffing Pepper Long Sweet United States 0 SR 25–51 mm (1–2 in)
Sweet Yellow Stuffing Pepper Long Sweet United States 0 SR 25–51 mm (1–2 in)
Syrian Goat Horn 180–200 mm (7–8 in)
Syrian Three Sided Syria 150–200 mm (6–8 in)
Tangerine Dream 76 mm (3 in)
Tam Jalapeño Jalapneo 1,000–1,500 SR Similar to a jalapeño, but with significantly less heat.
Tequila 0 SR Purple bell variety, not to be confused with the Tequila Sunrise, which is yellow.
Tequila Sunrise Pepper 1000–5000 SR 150–170 mm (6–6.5 in) Pastel orange in color.
Tiburon Pepper 2,000 SR Hybrid improvement of the poblano pepper. Resistant to bacterial spot and tobacco mosaic virus.
Topepo Rosso 0 SR
Thai Yellow Chili Small Hot Golden yellow version of the Bird's Eye (Thai) chili.
Tunisian Baklouti Tunisia
Tien Tsin China 50,000–75,000 SR Grown and used in China
Thai Bird Small Hot Thailand 3,000- 7,000 SR Open-pollinated variety with long, thin erect fruit that mature to red. Used especially in thai dishes. Can be used fresh or dried. Exceptional flavor and spiciness.
Violet Sparkle 0 SR
White Cloud Blocky United States 0 SR An heirloom ivory colored bell pepper when immature, that matures to red-orange. It has a sweet, mild flavor that bears fruit on an upright, compact plant.
White Lakes Pepper Russia 0 SR
Yellow Monster Blocky 200 mm (8 in)
Yolo Wonder Blocky

Capsicum baccatum

Main article: Capsicum baccatum

These have a distinctive, fruity flavor, and are commonly ground into colorful powders for use in cooking, each identified by its color.

Capsicum baccatum
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
Ají Amarillo
Ají Brazilian Red Pumpkin
Ají Criolla Sella Bolivia 30,000 - 40,000 SR 51–76 mm (2–3 in) Thin yellow fruits.
Ají Crystal Chile 2.5–9 cm (0.98–3.54 in)
Ají Omnicolor[15] 50,000 SR This multi-colored plant produces orange, red, purple and ivory chilis.
Ají Pineapple
Atomic Starfish
Bishop's Crown 10,000–30,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) C. baccatum strain from Barbados. Medium hot pods have a unique shape which resembles the hat of a Bishop. Sturdy plants, can be grown as perennials. Also known as bishops hat, orchid, ají flor, monks hat.
Christmas Bell[15]
Lemon Drop 30,000–50,000 SR 4 cm (1.6 in) Very productive C. baccatum variety. Pods are thin walled and have a fruity taste with medium heat.
Piquanté 1,000–2,000 SR 2 cm (0.79 in) Mild, sweet and tangy flavour, usable in many dishes

Capsicum chinense

Main article: Capsicum chinense

Capsicum chinense or "Chinese capsicum" is a misnomer since all Capsicum species originated in the New World. Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin (1727–1817), a Dutch botanist, named the species in that way in 1776 because he believed they originated in China. Most of the peppers of this species have a distinctive flavor and are similar in flavor to each other.

Capsicum chinense
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
7 Pod Douglah Trinidad 923,000–1,853,396 SR
7 Pot Trinidad 1,000,000 SR
7 Pot Jonah Trinidad Turns from green to red as it ripens.
7 Pot Jonah Yellow Trinidad Yellow color and a more fruity flavor than the normal 7 Pot Jonah.
7 Pot Long Longer and larger than normal seven pot peppers.
7 Pot Primo Grows red.
7 Pot Primo Yellow Australia Grows yellow.
Adjuma 100,000–500,000 SR Very hot, originally cultivated in Suriname
Ají Dulce 0–50 SR
Aribibi Gusano Bolivia 10,000 - 30,000 SR 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) Small wrinkled pods, the colour turns from light green to ivory or pale yellow while ripening. Very fruity taste. Also known as Arivivi Gusano or Caterpillar Pepper.
Bahamian Goat Pepper Bahamas
Bhut Jolokia[15] Up to 1,500,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) This cultivar originated in Northeast India, and was once confirmed by Guinness World Records to be the hottest pepper. It is an interspecific hybrid, largely C. chinense with some C. frutescens genes. It is also known as naga jolokia and Ghost Pepper.
Caribbean Red[15] Mexico 445,000 SR
Carolina Reaper United States 1,569,300–2,200,000[29] SR Extremely hot pepper, currently the Guinness book of world records holder as of August 7, 2013.[30]
Chocolate Habanero 300,000–425,000 SR Brown variety of the classic Habanero, but much hotter.
Datil[15] 100,000–300,000 SR A very hot chili; primarily grown in Florida
Devil's Tongue Red 250,000–500,000 SR
Devil's Tongue Yellow United States 125,000–325,000 SR
Dorset Naga England 1,000,000–1,500,000 SR
Fatalii 125,000–325,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) Native to central and southern Africa, it is very similar in appearance to and often confused with the devil's tongue habanero.
Habanero[15] 100,000–350,000 SR 5 cm (2.0 in) Once considered to be the hottest chili pepper, the habanero has been surpassed by other hot varieties, but it is nonetheless hotter than most commonly available cultivars. The habanero has a subtle, fruity flavour and a floral aroma. It is closely related to many of the other very hot peppers, including the bhut jolokia from India, and the Scotch bonnet, Trinidad Scorpion Butch T, and Trinidad Moruga Scorpion peppers from the Caribbean. Disseminated to China over 500 years ago by Spanish and Portuguese explorers, it became so much a part of Chinese cuisine, botanists who found it in China thought it was native to the area and thus named this species Capsicum chinense, based on the habaneros from China.
Hainan Yellow Lantern 300,000 SR 5 cm × 3.12 cm (1.97 in × 1.23 in) Also known as the yellow emperor chili, it grows only in Hainan, China.
Infinity chili 1,176,182 SR[note 1]
Lemon Yellow Habanero
Madame Jeanette 100,000–350,000 SR Originally cultivated in Suriname
Mustard Habanero United States Habanero variety, the colour is mustard yellow.
Naga Morich Bangladesh and India 1,000,000 SR
Naga Viper England 1,382,118 SR[note 1]
NuMex Suave Orange[15] United States 800 SR Very little heat, yet with a habanero taste.
NuMex Suave Red[15] United States 800 SR Similar to a habanero in taste, yet with very little heat.
Peach Habanero Peach coloured variety of the classic habanero.
Red Savina United States 200,000–580,000 SR
Scotch Bonnet 150,000–325,000 SR 5 cm (2.0 in) Named because of its resemblance to a Tam o' Shanter, this fruit is closely related to the habanero and is similarly hot. Due to its heat and distinct flavour, it is often used in Caribbean cuisine.
Trinidad Moruga Scorpion[15] Up to 2,000,000 SR former World-record holder for hottest chili as of 2012
Trinidad Scorpion[15]
Trinidad Scorpion 'Butch T' Up to 1,400,000 SR Former world-record hottest chili.
White Habanero 25–51 mm (1–2 in) Also known as the Peruvian White Habanero Pepper.
Yucatán White Habanero Mexico 200,000–500,000 SR

Capsicum pubescens

Main article: Capsicum pubescens

Capsicum pubescens is among the oldest of domesticated peppers, and was grown as long as 5000 years ago. It is probably related to undomesticated plants that still grow in South America (C. cardenasii, C. eximium, and others).

Capsicum pubescens
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
Canário Peru 30,000–50,000 SR 6.5 cm (2.6 in) Canário is a medium hot C. pubescens variety. Thick walled pods are dark yellow, when fully ripe and have the size of a small apple. This South American strain trives well under cool growing conditions and can be grown as a perennial.
Rocoto Peru, Bolivia 30,000–100,000[32] SR Also known as a Manzano pepper,[33] although there are a lot of other Rocoto varieties. Rocoto Manzano is only one of them. "Manzano" is the Spanish word for "apple", it describes the fruits' shape.

Sometimes Rocoto is known as "Locoto".

Capsicum frutescens

Main article: Capsicum frutescens

Sometimes considered to be the same species as C. annuum

Capsicum frutescens
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
African Birdseye 50,000–175,000 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) Also known as piri piri, it is common in Portuguese, Mozambican, and Angolan cuisines.
Kambuzi Malawi Kambuzi is a small, round chili pepper cultivar that is indigenous to the central region in Malawi, a landlocked country in southeast Africa.
Siling Labuyo 80,000–100,000 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) A small, cone-shaped chili pepper cultivar native to the Philippines.
Tabasco 30,000–50,000 SR 4 cm (1.6 in) Used in Tabasco sauce. The fruit is only used when it is a particular red color measured with “le petit bâton rouge”.[34]

See also


  1. 1 2 Contested as being the result of testing a single specimen and thus not establishing a consistent result for a cultivar.[31]


  1. "introducing the capsicum to the world". World Of Chillies. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  2. USDA-ARS GRIN pepper seed collection, Experiment, Georgia
  3. Jarret, Robert L. "DNA Barcoding in a Crop Genebank: The Capsicum annuum Species Complex". The Open Biology Journal. 1 (1): 35–42. doi:10.2174/1874196700801010035.
  4. "The Plant List".
  5. 1 2 Redwood City Seed Company Catalog of Ecoseeds, Pepper descriptions.
  6. 1 2 Dave DeWitt and Paul W. Bosland (2009). The Complete Chile Pepper Book: A Gardener's Guide to Choosing, Growing, Preserving, and Cooking. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881929201.
  7. "Capsicum frutescens L.". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 Jul 2015.
  8. 1 2 "How are hybrid and open-pollinated vegetables different? | Oregon State University Extension Service | Gardening". Retrieved 2016-04-01.
  9. Jr, Alfred W. Crosby (2003-04-30). The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, 30th Anniversary Edition. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313095399.
  10. "Pepper - Glossary - Cooking libraries - Cooking and recipes - Food & drink". Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  11. "Chilli - Glossary - Cooking libraries - Cooking and recipes - Food & drink". Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  12. Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United (1990-01-01). Protected Cultivation in the Mediterranean Climate. Food & Agriculture Org. ISBN 9789251027196.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 "Vegetable Varieties for Gardeners". Vegetable Varieties for Gardeners. Cornell University. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  14. "Bird's Eye Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 "The Chile Pepper Institute Merchandise Catalog" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institue. New Mexico State University. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  16. "New Ornamental Pepper Wins Prestigious Award". The United States National Arboretum. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  17. "Charleston Belle Pepper". Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  18. Gil-Jurado, A. T., Il senso del chile e del piccante: dalla traduzione culturale alla rappresentazione visiva in (G. Manetti, ed.), Semiofood: Communication and Culture of Meal, Centro Scientifico Editore, Torino, Italy, 2006:34–58
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 "The Chile Cultivars of New Mexico State University" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute. New Mexico State University. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  20. "Mirasol Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  21. Jean Andrews (2005). The Peppers Cookbook: 200 Recipes from the Pepper Lady's Kitchen. University of North Texas Press. p. 14. ISBN 9781574411935.
  23. "The Scoville Heat Measurement Chart". Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  24. "Selective Enzyme-Mediated Extraction of Capsaicinoids and Carotenoids from Chili Guajillo Puya (Capsicum annuum L.) Using Ethanol as Solvent". Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  25. "Salsa Garden cubit: Salsa Garden Pepper Database: Puya, Capsicum annuum (Hot Pepper)". 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  26. "What Are Sport Peppers?". Retrieved 2013-08-12.
  27. "SPORT". Tomato Growers Supply Company. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
  28. "Super Chili Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  29. Hallock, Betty. "World's hottest pepper hits 2.2 million Scoville heat units". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  30. "Hottest chili". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  31. Paul Adams (7 July 2011). "FYI: What is the Hottest Pepper in the World?". Popular Science. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  32. "Which Chile Peppers are Which?". About Travel. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  33. "Rocoto Chili Peppers". Chile Pepper Madness. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  34. "How We Make Original Red Sauce | TABASCO® Products |". Retrieved 2016-04-01.

Further reading

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