A ceiling // is an overhead interior surface that covers the upper limits of a room. It is not generally considered a structural element, but a finished surface concealing the underside of the roof structure or the floor of a storey above. Ceilings can be decorated to taste, and there are many fine examples of frescoes and artwork on ceilings especially in religious buildings.
The most common type of ceiling is the dropped ceiling which is suspended from structural elements above. Pipework or ducts can be run in the gap above the ceiling, and insulation and fireproofing material can be placed here. Other types of ceiling include the cathedral ceiling, the concave or barrel-shaped ceiling, the stretched ceiling and the coffered ceiling. Coving often links the ceiling to the surrounding walls. Ceilings can play a part in reducing fire hazard, and a system is available for rating the fire resistance of dropped ceilings.
Ceilings are classified according to their appearance or construction. A cathedral ceiling is any tall ceiling area similar to those in a church. A dropped ceiling is one in which the finished surface is constructed anywhere from a few inches or centimetres to several feet or a few metres below the structure above it. This may be done for aesthetic purposes, such as achieving a desirable ceiling height; or practical purposes such as acoustic damping or providing a space for HVAC or piping. An inverse of this would be a raised floor. A concave or barrel-shaped ceiling is curved or rounded upward, usually for visual or acoustical value, while a coffered ceiling is divided into a grid of recessed square or octagonal panels, also called a "lacunar ceiling". A cove ceiling uses a curved plaster transition between wall and ceiling; it is named for cove molding, a molding with a concave curve. A stretched ceiling (or stretch ceiling) uses a number of individual panels using material such as PVC fixed to a permieter rail.
Ceilings have frequently been decorated with fresco painting, mosaic tiles and other surface treatments. While hard to execute (at least in place) a decorated ceiling has the advantage that it is largely protected from damage by fingers and dust. In the past, however, this was more than compensated for by the damage from smoke from candles or a fireplace. Many historic buildings have celebrated ceilings. Perhaps the most famous is the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo.
Fire-resistance rated ceilings
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The most common ceiling that contributes to fire-resistance ratings in commercial and residential construction is the dropped ceiling. In the case of a dropped ceiling, the rating is achieved by the entire system, which is both the structure above, from which the ceilings is suspended, which could be a concrete floor or a timber floor, as well as the suspension mechanism and, finally the lowest membrane or dropped ceiling. Between the structure that the dropped ceiling is suspended from and the dropped membrane, such as a T-bar ceiling or a layer of drywall, there is often some room for mechanical and electrical piping, wiring and ducting to run.
An independent ceiling, however, can be constructed such that it has a stand-alone fire-resistance rating. Such systems must be tested without the benefit of being suspended from a slab above in order to prove that the resulting system is capable of holding itself up. This type of ceiling would be installed to protect items above from fire.
- An unrestrained non-loadbearing ceiling undergoing a 4-hour fire test. Deflection is measured off the I-beam.
- Durasteel ceiling after successful fire test, being raised from the furnace and readied for an optional 45PSI (3.1 bar) hose-stream test.
- Stretched ceiling
- Ceiling paintings of Einsiedeln Abbey in Switzerland
- demonstrative reconstruction of a Roman suspended ceiling in an Imperial palace of c. AD 306 at Trier
- Ceiling at the United States Library of Congress
- The interior of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City in Rome, showing the ceiling in relation to the other frescoes.
- Ceiling of Arc de Triomphe, Paris
- Beam ceiling
- Hammerbeam roof
- Hollow-core slab
- Moulding (decorative)
- Popcorn ceiling
- Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings
- Tin ceiling
- Passive fire protection
- Fire test
- https://web.archive.org/web/20080929160228/http://www.manleylabs.com/galleria/casaratas/casaratas52.html. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008. Missing or empty
- Corky Binggeli (2011). Interior Graphic Standards: Student Edition. John Wiley & Sons. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-118-09935-3.
- Meyers‐Levy, Joan; Zhu, Rui (Juliet) (August 2007). "The Influence of Ceiling Height: The Effect of Priming on the Type of Processing That People Use". Journal of Consumer Research. 34 (2): 174–186. doi:10.1086/519146. JSTOR 10.1086/519146.
|Look up ceiling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Media related to Ceilings at Wikimedia Commons
- "Ceiling". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911.
- "Ceiling". New International Encyclopedia. 1904.
- Merriam-Webster ceiling definition
- Diydata.com treatise on lath & plasterboard ceilings
- Virtualmuseum.ca treatise on ceiling construction