A śrāmaṇerī (Sanskrit; Pāli: sāmaṇerī; traditional Chinese: 沙彌尼; ; pinyin: Shāmíní, Sinhala: සාමණේරී) is the term used for a novice nun in some (mostly South Asian) Buddhist traditions. Male novice monks are called śrāmaṇeras.
The word śrāmaṇerī is the feminine form of śrāmaṇera, which literally means "lesser śramaṇa".
A woman is to be ordained, according to the traditional vinayas, by both a monk and a nun, first as a śrāmaṇerī. Śrāmaṇeras and śrāmaṇerīs keep the Ten Precepts as their code of behaviour, and are devoted to the Buddhist religious life during a break from secular schooling, or in conjunction with it if devoted to formal ordination.
The Ten Precepts upheld by śrāmaṇerīs are:
- Refrain from killing living things.
- Refrain from stealing.
- Refrain from unchastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust).
- Refrain from lying.
- Refrain from taking intoxicants.
- Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon).
- Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances).
- Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
- Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds.
- Refrain from accepting money.
After a year or at the age of 20, she will be ordained as a full bhikṣuṇī (Pali: bhikkhuni).
|People of the Pāli Canon|
- Anagarika, a person preparing for ordination
- International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha
- World Buddhist Sangha Council
- The Bhikkhunis' Code of Discipline (Bhikkhuni Patimokkha) Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
- Buddhist Monastic Code II: Bhikkhunis
- the website of Bhante Sujato's Writings contains several (ancient and modern) texts on the role and ordination of women in Buddhism.
- Bhikkhuni committee of the ASA includes a large resource of articles regarding Bhikkhunis
- Monastic Resources - Training
- "Female Monks In Buddhism", by Dhammacaro (07/23/2005).
- "Vinaya Pitaka", brief description includes "Order of ordination for men and women...."