# Timeline of classical mechanics

Classical mechanics |
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Core topics |

**Timeline of classical mechanics**:

## Early Mechanics

- 4th century BC - Aristotle founds the system of Aristotelian physics
- 260 BC - Archimedes mathematically works out the principle of the lever and discovers the principle of buoyancy
- 60 AD - Hero of Alexandria writes
*Metrica, Mechanics,*and*Pneumatics* - 1021 - Al-Biruni realizes that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion
^{[1]} - 1000-1030 - Alhazen and Avicenna develop the concepts of inertia and momentum
- 1100-1138 - Avempace develops the concept of a reaction force
^{[2]} - 1100-1165 - Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi discovers that force is proportional to acceleration rather than speed, a fundamental law in classical mechanics
^{[3]} - 1121 - Al-Khazini publishes
*The Book of the Balance of Wisdom*, in which he develops the concepts of gravitational potential energy and gravity at-a-distance^{[4]} - 1340-1358 - Jean Buridan develops the theory of impetus
- 1490 - Leonardo da Vinci describes capillary action
- 1500-1528 - Al-Birjandi develops the theory of "circular inertia" to explain Earth's rotation
^{[5]} - 1581 - Galileo Galilei notices the timekeeping property of the pendulum
- 1589 - Galileo Galilei uses balls rolling on inclined planes to show that different weights fall with the same acceleration
- 1638 - Galileo Galilei publishes
*Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences* - 1658 - Christiaan Huygens experimentally discovers that balls placed anywhere inside an inverted cycloid reach the lowest point of the cycloid in the same time and thereby experimentally shows that the cycloid is the tautochrone
- 1668 - John Wallis suggests the law of conservation of momentum
- 1676-1689 - Gottfried Leibniz develops the concept of
*vis viva*, a limited theory of conservation of energy

## Formation of Classical Mechanics (sometimes referred to as Newtonian mechanics)

- 1687 - Isaac Newton publishes his
*Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica*, in which he formulates Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation - 1690 - James Bernoulli shows that the cycloid is the solution to the tautochrone problem
- 1691 - Johann Bernoulli shows that a chain freely suspended from two points will form a catenary
- 1691 - James Bernoulli shows that the catenary curve has the lowest center of gravity of any chain hung from two fixed points
- 1696 - Johann Bernoulli shows that the cycloid is the solution to the brachistochrone problem
- 1714 - Brook Taylor derives the fundamental frequency of a stretched vibrating string in terms of its tension and mass per unit length by solving an ordinary differential equation
- 1733 - Daniel Bernoulli derives the fundamental frequency and harmonics of a hanging chain by solving an ordinary differential equation
- 1734 - Daniel Bernoulli solves the ordinary differential equation for the vibrations of an elastic bar clamped at one end
- 1738 - Daniel Bernoulli examines fluid flow in Hydrodynamica
- 1739 - Leonhard Euler solves the ordinary differential equation for a forced harmonic oscillator and notices the resonance phenomenon
- 1742 - Colin Maclaurin discovers his uniformly rotating self-gravitating spheroids
- 1743 - Jean le Rond d'Alembert publishes his "Traite de Dynamique", in which he introduces the concept of generalized forces for accelerating systems and systems with constraints
- 1747 - Pierre Louis Maupertuis applies minimum principles to mechanics
- 1759 - Leonhard Euler solves the partial differential equation for the vibration of a rectangular drum
- 1764 - Leonhard Euler examines the partial differential equation for the vibration of a circular drum and finds one of the Bessel function solutions
- 1776 - John Smeaton publishes a paper on experiments relating power, work, momentum and kinetic energy, and supporting the conservation of energy
- 1788 - Joseph Louis Lagrange presents Lagrange's equations of motion in
*Mécanique Analytique* - 1789 - Antoine Lavoisier states the law of conservation of mass
- 1813 - Peter Ewart supports the idea of the conservation of energy in his paper
*On the measure of moving force* - 1821 - William Hamilton begins his analysis of Hamilton's characteristic function
- 1834 - Carl Jacobi discovers his uniformly rotating self-gravitating ellipsoids
- 1834 - John Russell observes a nondecaying solitary water wave (soliton) in the Union Canal near Edinburgh and uses a water tank to study the dependence of solitary water wave velocities on wave amplitude and water depth
- 1835 - William Hamilton states Hamilton's canonical equations of motion
- 1835 - Gaspard Coriolis examines theoretically the mechanical efficiency of waterwheels, and deduces the Coriolis effect.
- 1841 - Julius Robert von Mayer, an amateur scientist, writes a paper on the conservation of energy but his lack of academic training leads to its rejection.
- 1842 - Christian Doppler proposes the Doppler effect
- 1847 - Hermann von Helmholtz formally states the law of conservation of energy
- 1851 - Léon Foucault shows the Earth's rotation with a huge pendulum (Foucault pendulum)
- 1902 - James Jeans finds the length scale required for gravitational perturbations to grow in a static nearly homogeneous medium

## References

- ↑ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Biruni",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics archive*, University of St Andrews.:"One of the most important of al-Biruni's many texts is

*Shadows*which he is thought to have written around 1021. [...]*Shadows*is an extremely important source for our knowledge of the history of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. It also contains important ideas such as the idea that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion, using three rectangular coordinates to define a point in 3-space, and ideas that some see as anticipating the introduction of polar coordinates." - ↑ Shlomo Pines (1964), "La dynamique d’Ibn Bajja", in
*Mélanges Alexandre Koyré*, I, 442-468 [462, 468], Paris.

(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory",*Journal of the History of Ideas***64**(4), p. 521-546 [543]: "*Pines has also seen Avempace's idea of fatigue as a precursor to the Leibnizian idea of force which, according to him, underlies Newton's third law of motion and the concept of the "reaction" of forces.*") - ↑ Pines, Shlomo (1970). "Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī , Hibat Allah".
*Dictionary of Scientific Biography*.**1**. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 26–28. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.:

(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory",*Journal of the History of Ideas***64**(4), p. 521-546 [528]:*Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Bagdadi (c.1080- after 1164/65) extrapolated the theory for the case of falling bodies in an original way in his Kitab al-Mu'tabar (The Book of that Which is Established through Personal Reflection). [...] This idea is, according to Pines, "the oldest negation of Aristotle's fundamental dynamic law [namely, that a constant force produces a uniform motion]," and is thus an "anticipation in a vague fashion of the fundamental law of classical mechanics [namely, that a force applied continuously produces acceleration]."*) - ↑ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed.,
*Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science*, Vol. 2, p. 614-642 [621], Routledge, London and New York - ↑ F. Jamil Ragep (2001), "Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth's Motion in Context",
*Science in Context***14**(1-2), p. 145–163. Cambridge University Press.

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