Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
A. Schmidt, 1855

Subdivision ranks

clade Elasmognatha
clade Orthurethra
informal group Sigmurethra

about 20,500 species
Helix aspersa (Common Garden Snail)

Stylommatophora is a taxon of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This taxon is considered to be a clade. It used to be regarded as an infraorder (also sometimes was considered to be an order). This taxon includes the majority of land snails and slugs.

The two strong synapomorphies of Stylommatophora are a long pedal gland placed beneath a membrane and two pairs of retractile tentacles (Dayrat & Tillier).

Several families in this group contain species of snails and slugs that create love darts.

Stylommatophora are known from the Cretaceous to the Recent periods.[3]

2005 taxonomy

According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) based on evolutionary ancestry is the clade Stylommatophora in clade Eupulmonata within informal group Pulmonata. It uses unranked clades for taxa above the rank of superfamily (replacing the ranks suborder, order, superorder and subclass) and the traditional Linnaean approach for all taxa below the rank of superfamily.

The clade Stylommatophora contains the subclades Elasmognatha, Orthurethra and the informal group Sigmurethra. The term "informal group" has been used to indicate whenever monophyly has not been tested, or where a traditional taxon of gastropods has now been discovered to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic.

clade Elasmognatha

clade Orthurethra

informal group Sigmurethra

"limacoid clade" (within the Sigmurethra)

(not in limacoid clade, but is within the Sigmurethra)

Previous taxonomy


  1. Solem A. (1978). Classification of the land Mollusca. In: Fretter V. & Peake J. (eds). Pulmonates, Vol. 2A. London, Academic Press, 49–97.
  2. Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  3. (Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R. (1996). Základy zoopaleontologie. Olomouc, 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stylommatophora.
Wikispecies has information related to: Stylommatophora
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 7/24/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.