Skins (UK TV series)
|Theme music composer||Fat Segal|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
|No. of series||7|
|No. of episodes||61 (list of episodes)|
|Location(s)||Bristol, England, United Kingdom|
|Camera setup||Single camera|
|Running time||44–48 minutes|
Storm Dog Films
576i SDTV (2007) |
1080i HDTV (2008–2013)
|Original release||25 January 2007 – 5 August 2013|
|Related shows||Skins (US)|
Skins is a British teen comedy drama that followed the lives of a group of teenagers in Bristol, South West England, through the two years of sixth form. Its controversial storylines have explored issues such as dysfunctional families, mental illness (such as depression, eating disorders and bipolar disorder), adolescent sexuality, gender, substance abuse, death and bullying. Each episode generally focuses on a particular character and the struggles they face in their life. The episodes are named after the featured character. The show was created by father-and-son television writers Bryan Elsley and Jamie Brittain for Company Pictures, and premiered on E4 on 25 January 2007. The show went on to be a critical success as well as a ratings winner within its target demographic.
Over its initial six-year run, Skins proved to be atypical of ongoing drama series in that it replaced its primary cast every two years. Plans for a film spin-off were first discussed in 2009, but ultimately did not come to fruition. Instead, a specially-commissioned seventh and final series of the show was broadcast in 2013, featuring some of the cast from its 2007–10 run. The show's name comes from the cigarette rolling papers known as "skins".
Other ventures to expand the brand have included a short-lived U.S. remake, which aired on MTV in 2011 but was cancelled after one season after advertisers abandoned the series in response to low ratings and the significant controversy which arose over its depiction of teen sexuality.
Cast and characters
Tony Stonem (Nicholas Hoult) is an attractive, intelligent and popular boy. His manipulative ways often go unnoticed by many, and are a catalyst for the majority of the events in the series. Sid Jenkins (Mike Bailey) is Tony's best friend, but has an entirely opposite personality. He lacks confidence, is socially uneasy and struggles with school work. Tony's girlfriend is Michelle Richardson (April Pearson), a girl who can never stay angry at his mischievous behaviour for long. Outwardly, Michelle appears shallow, vain and conceited, but she works hard, has a strong interest in French and Spanish, and is very emotionally mature. She is friends with Cassie Ainsworth (Hannah Murray), an eccentric girl who suffers from an eating disorder. Cassie attempts to hide her own struggles with mental health while her flamboyant parents ignore her in favour of their new baby.
Chris Miles (Joe Dempsie) is the party animal of the group. He has a difficult home life; he lost his brother to a hereditary subarachnoid haemorrhage at a young age, and is living alone due to his ambivalent father and absent mother. He has a crush on his psychology teacher Angie (Siwan Morris). Jal Fazer (Larissa Wilson) is a sensible girl with a talent for playing the clarinet. Her runaway mother has left Jal with her famous musician father and aspiring rapper brothers. She is best friends with Michelle. Maxxie Oliver (Mitch Hewer) is openly gay and has a passion for dance. He is portrayed as attractive, seductive and talented, and is well accepted by most of his friends and family. His best friend Anwar Kharral (Dev Patel) has a slightly off-the-wall personality, and is known for his silly antics and sense of humour. While he takes a pick-and-choose approach to Islam, and has no qualms about indulging in premarital sex and usage of alcohol and drugs in spite of his religion's policies against them, he has some difficulty fully accepting Maxxie's sexuality. Appearing only in the second series, Lucy, better known as "Sketch" (Aimee-Ffion Edwards), is a quiet and scheming Welsh girl who is polite yet unnerving. Living two buildings over and having a clear view of his room, she develops an obsession for Maxxie and becomes his stalker. Without her father, she is a young carer for her mother Sheila, who suffers from multiple sclerosis.
As well as the regular cast, there are several important recurring characters. Effy Stonem (Kaya Scodelario) is Tony's younger sister, and shares many of her brother's qualities. She is mysterious and manipulative, and selectively mute during the first series; she regularly breaks the fourth wall. Abigail Stock (Georgina Moffat) is an upper class school girl with sociopathic tendencies, and one of Tony's many sexual conquests. "Posh" Kenneth (Daniel Kaluuya) goes to the same college as the main cast and often spends time with the boys. Madison "Mad" Twatter (Stephen Walters) features as Sid's emergency drug dealer, Doug (Giles Thomas) is a senior teacher at Roundview College, and British comedian and co-writer Josie Long appears as the college's careers counsellor.
The central cast's parents are often played by well-known British actors credited in a guest starring role. Harry Enfield and Morwenna Banks act as Tony and Effy's parents, Jim and Anthea Stonem. Peter Capaldi and Josie Lawrence act as Sid's parents, Mark and Liz Jenkins. Arabella Weir acts as Michelle's mother, Anna Richardson, and Danny Dyer as her stepfather, Malcolm. Neil Morrissey and Naomi Allisstone act as Cassie's parents, Marcus and Margeritte Ainsworth. Mark Moreno acts as Jal's father, Ronny Fazer, and (Josette Simon) as her estranged mother, Elaine. Inder Manocha and Nina Wadia act as Anwar's parents, Istiak and Bibi Kharral. Bill Bailey and Fiona Allen act as Maxxie's parents, Walter and Jackie Oliver. Mark Heap acts as Chris' estranged father, Graham Miles, and Sarah Lancashire as his stepmother, Mary.
Effy Stonem (Kaya Scodelario), Tony's younger sister, becomes the principal character in the second generation. Effy is pretty, popular, but also quiet and distant, attempting to keep her own troubles hidden. Pandora Moon (Lisa Backwell) is her friend, having appeared for the first time in a second series episode. She is innocent to the sexual and narcotic world in which Effy indulges, but is ready and willing to explore it. Thomas Tomone (Merveille Lukeba) is an immigrant from DR Congo, with a morally upright outlook and good-hearted nature, and his storyline sees him becoming romantically involved with Pandora.
James Cook (Jack O'Connell), Freddie McClair (Luke Pasqualino) and JJ Jones (Ollie Barbieri) have been best friends since childhood. Though Cook is charismatic and sociable, he is also boisterous and not afraid of authority. His womanising drives many of the events in the series. By contrast, Freddie is an easy-going skater who likes to smoke weed, and as the more sensible and responsible friend, is often put out by Cook's behaviour. Cook and Freddie are both drawn to Effy, which drives a rift in their friendship. JJ's autism makes it difficult for him to fit in socially, but he has learnt to use magic tricks to make friends. His friends view him kindly but with a degree of amusement and sometimes irritation, but he knows Cook and Freddie will always take care of him. He is the kindest of the three, and by far the least worldly.
Katie (Megan Prescott) and Emily Fitch (Kathryn Prescott) are very different identical twin sisters. Katie thinks of herself as something of a WAG and wants to usurp Effy's place as queen bee of the group. Katie's homophobic attitudes cause problems between them, as Emily comes to terms with her homosexuality. The quieter of the two, Emily is used to being in her sister's shadow, and is sulky but perceptive. She tends to not stand out in a crowd due to her insecurities, but later grows out within the show. She is in love with Naomi Campbell (Lily Loveless), a fiery, politically charged and passionate young woman with idealistic views and an abundance of ambition. Emily also develops a good friendship with JJ, becoming close confidantes to one another.
Other characters include Klariza Clayton as Karen McClair, Freddie's older sister, who is desperate to become famous, Mackenzie Crook as Johnny White, a psychotic Bristol gangster, with comedians Jordan Long and Justin Edwards as his inept henchmen, and Ardal O'Hanlon as the gang's careless college tutor, Kieran MacFoeinaiugh (pronounced Mac-Phew). Chris Addison appears as Roundview College's new headmaster, David Blood, Will Young as a school counsellor, Pauline Quirke as the detective investigating Sophia's suicide, and Georgia Henshaw as Lara, JJ's new girlfriend.
As with the first generation, the central cast's parents are played by established British comedic actors. Harry Enfield and Morwenna Banks return as Effy's parents, Jim and Anthea Stonem, with Banks' real life partner David Baddiel appearing as Jim's colleague whom Anthea has an affair with. Sally Phillips acts as Pandora's mother, Angela Moon. Simon Day acts as Freddie's father, Leo McClair. Olivia Colman acts as Naomi's mother, Gina Campbell. Juliet Cowan and Douglas Hodge act as JJ's parents, Celia and Edward Jones. Ronni Ancona and John Bishop act as Katie and Emily's parents, Jenna and Rob Fitch. Matt King and Tanya Franks act as Cook's estranged parents, Cook Sr., and Ruth Byatt. Maureen Lipman also stars as Pandora's auntie, Elizabeth, and Dudley Sutton as Freddie's grandfather, Norman.
Franky Fitzgerald (Dakota Blue Richards) is seen as an outsider, having arrived to her first year at Roundview three weeks late upon moving to Bristol from Oxford. She is an intelligent and creative girl, but is seen by others as strange, and is ostracised largely due to her androgynous dress sense. Alo Creevey (Will Merrick), something of an optimist, loves his dog and his van foremost. He is best friends with Rich Hardbeck (Alex Arnold), a boy from a very middle-class home who immerses himself in heavy metal subculture. He uses musical elitism as a means to cover up his own shyness when, among other things, interacting with girls.
Mini McGuinness (Freya Mavor), Liv Malone (Laya Lewis), and Grace Blood (Jessica Sula) have been best friends since childhood. By the time Franky arrives, image-conscious Mini has already established herself as Roundview's new "queen bee". She obscures her own insecurities (such as her body image, and her virginity), and is cruel to Franky and others. Of her two friends, Liv is the more devoted to Mini, and is more worldly and sexually voracious. By contrast, Grace—sweet, kind, and positive in her outlook—begins to disassociate herself from Mini after seeing Franky's example, and in the first episode establishes a friendship with outsiders Franky, Alo and Rich. Mini's boyfriend is Nick Levan (Sean Teale). His popularity makes him something of a status symbol for Mini, but his feelings for her are shallow and uncomplicated. His brother Matty (Sebastian de Souza) has strained relationships with his family, engages in criminal behaviour, and lives rough following an altercation with their father. In series six, the group befriend Alex Henley (Sam Jackson), who is gay and in particular forms a close friendship with Liv.
Giles Thomas returns as Doug, Roundview's deputy headmaster as does comedian Chris Addison for a second and third year as headmaster David Blood. Josie Long returns in series six, once again as guidance counsellor Josie. Gordon Kennedy plays English teacher Alan Precopp, and Alistair McGowan plays Coach Pooter, Nick's South African rugby coach.
Episode one, 'Tony', is an ensemble piece that introduces the characters and the format. We meet the effortlessly attractive, popular and intelligent Tony as he arranges for his friends to attend a party held by upper-class girl Abigail Stock (Georgina Moffat). The second episode, 'Cassie', focuses on Cassie's final visit to an eating disorder clinic under the supervision of Abigail's mother Dr Stock. In her day-to-day life, she hallucinates messages instructing her to eat which seem to come from Sid, for whom she develops feelings. Jal's episode follows her attempt to win BBC Young Musician of the Year, and her strained relationship with her famous musician father. When a drug dealer 'Mad Twatter' smashes her clarinet as pay back for Sid not giving him money for drugs he bought, Jal's father sees to it he will not bother the gang again. In 'Chris', Chris' mother abandons him, leaving £1,000 in cash. He blows the money on a party, and is eventually helped into temporary student accommodation by his psychology teacher, Angie (Siwan Morris). Episode five, 'Sid', shows Sid's struggle with his parents' break-up while Tony organises a scheme to set him up with Michelle. A heartbroken and fragile Cassie attempts suicide by drug overdose.
"Maxxie and Anwar" focuses on the conflict between Anwar's Muslim faith and Maxxie's homosexuality. On a school trip to Russia, which Cassie does not attend as she is still in hospital, Tony tells Maxxie that he wants to 'try something new', and Michelle ultimately witnesses Tony cheating on her with Maxxie. In 'Michelle', Michelle faces up to Tony's manipulative and cheating ways. She begins to date Josh Stock (Abigail's brother, played by Ben Lloyd-Hughes) until Tony breaks them up by sending naked photos of Abigail from Josh's phone. In 'Effy', Josh seeks revenge on Tony and his younger sister Effy, by drugging her and effectively taking her for ransom. In the finale episode, 'Everyone', it is Anwar's birthday. Anwar and Maxxie are reconciled when Anwar's father welcomes Maxxie to the birthday party, accepting his homosexuality. Chris's relationship with Angie ends violently when her fiancé returns. Tony confesses to Michelle that he loves her and wants to change his manipulative ways (whilst on the phone), only to be hit by a bus, as Effy watches on from Sid's dad Mark's car. The characters begin to sing "Wild World" by Cat Stevens as Tony lies unconscious and Sid searches for Cassie.
The second series premiered on E4 on 11 February 2008, however the first episode was available in four parts to MySpace users prior to airing. 'Maxxie and Tony' starts the series, showcasing Tony's impairments following his accident and Maxxie's involvement to his recovery. The episode also reveals more about Maxxie's life; we learn of his ambitions to be a dancer, his surname, his difficulties with homophobic bullies, and encounter his parents (played by Bill Bailey and Fiona Allen). The second episode introduces a new character in Maxxie's stalker, young carer Lucy, also known as 'Sketch'. Sketch disrupts the school play organised by drama lecturer Bruce (Shane Richie) to steal a kiss from Maxxie. To spite Maxxie, Sketch begins a sexual relationship with Anwar. Episode three focuses on Sid's life, coping with Cassie's departure to Scotland, and he suspects her of cheating. Sid's Scottish relatives visit. Sid's father, Mark, stands up to his own father's abuse and ultimately reconciles his relationship with Sid; allowing for the unforeseen, peaceful death of Mark. Sid reconnects with brain-damaged Tony when he is able to open up to him about his father's death. For 'Michelle', the group go on a camping trip to a beach. Maxxie discovers Sketch having sex with Anwar, and Sid sleeps with Michelle, starting a relationship; he comes home to find Cassie waiting for him. In 'Chris', Chris agrees to start a job and Jal learns to start being more open to new things, and the two end up in a relationship. Chris cheats on her with Angie after Cassie tells Chris that Jal left him, but they move back in together, and Jal discovers she is pregnant.
'Tony', directed by recurring actor Harry Enfield, sees Tony Stonem attend a university open day not long after taking an ecstasy tablet that awakens elements of his old personality. In a visual metaphor for Jungian psychology, a mysterious girl who is a projection of Tony's subconscious helps him conquer his mental impairments. His old self again, he confronts Michelle and Sid and tells them their relationship is 'wrong'. With the Stonem parents unable to run the house, Effy takes over in episode seven. She starts a new private school and befriends weird girl Pandora Moon (Lisa Backwell), and resolves to solve her brother's and his friends' relationship problems. Cassie is hurting and turning to promiscuity, but through Effy's machinations, she and Sid get back together, as do Tony and Michelle. Actor Daniel Kaluuya wrote 'Jal', which sees her struggle with her pregnancy, while Chris is rushed to hospital with a Subarachnoid Haemorrhage. Meanwhile, Maxxie introduces his new boyfriend, James (Sean Verey). In 'Cassie', Jal tells Chris she is having an abortion. Cassie feels without her eating disorder and other problems, she is disempowered; she is traumatised when Chris dies in her arms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage and flees to New York City. In the series finale, the gang get their A Level results, collectively mourn Chris and eventually part ways, with Sid following Cassie to New York, Anwar moving with Maxxie and James to London, and Sketch left behind. The series ends with Effy in Tony's bed, revelling in the art work of emotions she has created as she claims her top place in their social world, and also as series' lead in the upcoming series.
We are introduced to the new cast on their first day at Roundview College in the series premiere, 'Everyone'. JJ Jones, James Cook and Freddie McClair are best friends to begin with; twins Katie and Emily Fitch know Naomi Campbell from school but are distant with her because Katie is homophobic and suspects her of being a lesbian. The gang meet Effy, and sidekick Pandora; Katie wants to become Effy's best friend, and both Cook and Freddie are instantly smitten. Cook passes the test set by Effy and begins a casual sexual relationship with her. Episode two focuses on Cook who invites the whole group over, but their friendships are not very strong yet; chaos ensues, and Cook angers local gangster Johnny White (Mackenzie Crook). Thomas Tomone is only introduced in the third episode. He is an immigrant from the Congo, and develops a crush on Pandora. He endears himself to the group when he is able to get Johnny White off their backs by besting him in a pepper-eating competition. However, despairing at his decadent life in Bristol, Mrs. Tomone brings Thomas back to the Congo. In 'Pandora', Pandora's innocent slumber party becomes an MDMA-fuelled rave after Katie spikes the brownies. Emily and Naomi kiss; Naomi denies being gay, but urges Emily to admit that she is, who also denies it. Pandora allows Cook to take her virginity, but regrets it when later Thomas returns from the Congo.
Freddie's episode shows his difficult relationship with his widower father (Simon Day) and his sister Karen (Klariza Clayton), who has ambitions to be a celebrity. His father converts Freddie's shed—his personal sanctuary—into a dance studio for Karen. He witnesses Effy's parents' break-up, discovers that Cook slept with his sister, gets punched in the face by his father, and when he goes to tell Effy how he feels about her discovers she is with Cook. In 'Naomi', Naomi runs against Cook for student president on the basis that if he wins she will have to sleep with him; when he wins however, he does not force her to take it further than kissing. She and Emily begin a sexual relationship, but Naomi is unwilling to accept the reality of its romantic nature. In 'JJ', Freddie and Cook's feud over Effy negatively affects JJ. At Emily's encouragement, he manages to confront them both about it, and later loses his virginity when Emily decides to have pity sex with him. Thomas discovers that Pandora has been cheating on him, and while high on JJ's medication, Cook reveals to Freddie that Effy loves Freddie and not him. In Effy's episode, she has nothing: her Queen Bee status has been usurped by Katie, sex with Cook means nothing, and her home life is a wreck. She finally feels something when she has sex with Freddie, but after being tormented by Katie, an intoxicated Effy hits her with a rock. Katie is recovering in 'Katie and Emily' but her relationship with her sister is falling apart. However, at the college ball, Emily is able to assert herself and Naomi confesses she loves Emily back. Thomas and Pandora also reunite. The finale episode sees Cook and Effy hiding out with Cook's father (Matt King). JJ tracks them down however, and forces Effy to confess it is Freddie that she loves, but Cook is adamant he loves her too. Freddie closes the series, asking 'What do we do now?'.
Series four begins with the suicide of a girl named Sophia (Amberley Gridley) while she is high on MDMA at a club Thomas works at. A police inspector (Pauline Quirke) questions the entire gang, and Thomas is expelled by the new headmaster (Chris Addison) for his unseemly connection to the incident. Thomas gives into temptation and sleeps with another girl, resulting in the break-up of him and Pandora. In 'Emily', Emily's mother (Ronni Ancona) warns her to take her relationship more slowly and cautiously. Emily discovers Naomi had slept with Sophia and is the one who sold her the MDMA, leaving their relationship fraught. In 'Cook', Cook is in trouble for an assault and, to be a better influence on his younger brother, accepts a prison sentence for dealing the drugs that led to Sophia's death, covering for Naomi. When Katie loses her job and discovers she has premature menopause, she cannot confide in her mother at first because of the stress of their bankruptcy and homelessness; the Fitches are forced to move into Naomi's house.
Freddie worries over Effy's psychological state in his centric episode, as she is developing a psychotic depression that resembles what his mother had before she committed suicide. He is able to save Effy after an attempt on her life; she is hospitalised and he is left desolate. JJ's episode sees him fall in love with a single mother called Lara (Georgia Henshaw), through whom he finds a new-found confidence and begins to doubt whether he really needed to be so highly medicated his whole life. In the penultimate episode, Effy's psychiatric counsellor Dr John Foster (Hugo Speer) uses unorthodox hypnotic methods to cure Effy's depression, making her forget and want to abandon her old friends. After an incident at the spot of Tony's accident where she nearly commits suicide again, her psychosis comes back and Freddie insists Dr Foster cease treating Effy. Later, Foster lures Freddie to discuss Effy, and brutally murders Freddie with a baseball bat. In the finale episode, everyone deals with Freddie's absence, thinking that he has left of his own volition. Naomi and Emily finally repair their damaged relationship, scorched by cheating, and Naomi confesses she loved Emily since they first met; Thomas and Pandora are thrown back together by chance when they both get into Harvard College; a mostly-recovered Effy holds Freddie's birthday party in his shed, knowing that he loved her and pining for his return. Cook, who is on the run from the police after breaking out of prison, uncovers Dr Foster's killing and after confronting him, furiously lunges at Foster. The series ends here in freeze-frame leaving both Cook's and John Foster's fates unknown.
The series begins by introducing unconventional newcomer Franky, to whom secretly insecure popular girl Mini takes a dislike; Mini ingratiates Franky into her group only to disown her. Franky is on the verge of breakdown, her adoptive father's air revolver in hand, when mysterious stranger Matty convinces her of her self-worth. Mini's sweet friend Grace establishes new friendships with Franky and the school's other outsiders, metalhead Rich and farmhand Alo. In episode two, 'Rich', Grace finds herself drawn to Rich. She attempts to help him win over an elusive girl, and eventually he gets past his shyness to realise his attraction to her too. After Mini's fashion show in 'Mini', the two agree to begin dating. Mini, however, feels pressured to have sex with boyfriend Nick, who does not know she is a virgin. Mini's cruelty to Grace and her new friends backfires when her fashion show goes completely awry. When she realises that her best friend Liv has slept with Nick, she forces herself to have sex with him, which is disappointing. She is devastated to see the parallel between her and her promiscuous mother (Clare Grogan) as they encounter one another on their walks of shame. The affair between Nick and Liv continues, though they both suspect Mini knows when she unifies the two groups of friends under Liv's roof for a party, in 'Liv'. Because she cannot handle the stress of her family life or Mini's scheme, Liv leaves the house. In town, she meets drifter Matty, and the pair embark on a drug-fuelled bender. Back at her house, she discovers that Matty is in fact Nick's brother, and Liv's affair with Nick comes out in the open. The brothers reconcile, however, and Matty comes home again.
In 'Nick', Matty is re-enlisted at Roundview, but his relationship with Liv causes a new love triangle to form—between him, Liv and Franky. Having lost both Mini and Liv, and now living in Matty's shadow, Nick has a nervous breakdown and smashes up his house with a golf club. Through Matty, however, Nick comes to see his father Leon (Dorian Lough) and his parenting in a more negative light and the two brothers take a stand. In his episode, Alo's parents take him out of sixth form to work on the farm, and after he causes an explosion they sell all of his belongings. In protest, he throws a massive party and when he confronts his parents, his father suffers a heart attack. Rather than burden his friend Rich, who has just proudly had sex for the first time with Grace, he goes home and attempts to repair things with his parents. In 'Grace', Grace introduces Rich to her parents; Rich is shocked to discover that her father is headmaster David Blood (Addison). Blood schemes to have Grace's grades slip on her drama assessment, a staging of 'Twelfth Night', so that he can justify removing her from Roundview. Grace sees her dilemma, as peacemaker, through 'Hamlet''s sea of troubles soliloquy; she uses 'Twelfth Night' to bring the love triangle between Matty, Liv and Franky to a head, and ultimately receives an A. After Blood still forces Grace to change schools, Rich is inspired by 'Romeo and Juliet' and proposes to her. In the series finale, the two attempt to marry in secret with the gang as witnesses, though Alo's van breaks down. Mini begins to recognise her attraction to Franky, and becomes very protective of her. After an attempt at sex with Matty, Franky has a panic attack, charges through a forest, and accidentally falls over a ledge. After being rescued by Mini, Matty and Liv, Franky reveals more to her friends about her insecurities. Though Blood intervenes and Grace and Rich do not marry, they are happily allowed to continue dating and the gang, solidified as friends, party together at a local fête.
Series 6 starts with the gang on holiday in Morocco; Franky has lost her virginity to Matty but is already becoming bored, and is tempted by wealthy drug dealer Luke (played by Joe Cole). Mini also decides to take Alo's virginity and swears him to secrecy. Matty pursues Luke and Franky which quickly escalates into a car chase; his truck overturns, putting Grace in a critical condition, and he runs away to avoid being arrested for the possession of the marijuana and ketamine Luke placed inside his vehicle. Back in Bristol, Franky struggles to cope with her guilt and Rich is prevented by her father from seeing Grace in hospital, where she lies in a coma, in 'Rich'. When Mr Blood takes Grace for treatment in Switzerland, Rich squats in the Bloods' home for some time, convinced that Grace is still alive, but after a party at the house a mournful David Blood informs him that Grace has subsequently died. In 'Alex', new kid Alex, who is a little strange, arrives while the gang are at odds still mourning Grace; Liv in particular develops feelings for him, only for him to disclose to her that he is in fact gay. Nevertheless, they form a close in bond, particularly as Mini remains distant from Liv. In her episode, Franky, overwhelmed with guilt, escapes to 'bad boy' Luke for companionship and excitement. Her actions are negatively viewed, and she quickly becomes alienated. She turns against authoritative figures at school and at home, pushing her to get more involved in her violent and destructive relationship with Luke. During a full-blown fight at a bar, Nick saves Franky and quietly confesses he loves her. After Luke gets rough with her, Franky escapes to a park near home where her father meets her; he is there to fend Luke away when he returns in an attempt to win Franky back. Subsequently, in 'Mini', Mini continues to distance herself from her friends after Grace's death, while continuing her 'no-strings-attached' relationship with Alo, but is hit further by the revelation that she is pregnant with Alo's baby. To get away from it, she clings to her deadbeat dad, Gregory, who she is convinced has changed. Though he abandons her, with the support of Franky she is able to accept her pregnancy.
In 'Nick', Nick struggles to find money to pay for Russian gangsters to smuggle Matty back into England, all the while struggling with his feelings for Franky. After emotionally pouring his heart out to her during an argument in a nightclub toilet, he subsequently blows the deal. But, to his happiness, Franky finally reciprocates his feelings, and they form a relationship. In 'Alo', Alo is finally forced to grow up when, in his effort to put his failed relationship with Mini behind him, he has sex with a girl named Poppy Champion (Holly Earl) who he did not initially know to be underage. Poppy reports him to the police when he breaks up with her. Although charges are eventually dropped, he and Mini are forced further apart than ever before. 'Liv' focuses on Liv's isolation. Since meeting Alex, she has been 'dealing' with Grace's death by going out, partying, drinking, and staying at Alex's house instead of her own home. Alex leaves Bristol one weekend, and Liv finds that—aside from her sister Maude—she has truly drifted from her friends, and Mini in particular. Moreover, she begins to have intense pains and feels a large lump on her side, which she worries might be ovarian cancer. Ultimately however, the lump turns out to be a grief-induced hallucination; responding to this, Liv takes a step towards dealing with Grace's death by placing flowers next to her tombstone alongside Rich, Doug, and Maude. While Mini's mum tries to convince her to give her child for adoption once it is born, and Franky is conflicted after Matty returns to Bristol, in 'Franky & Mini', both girls decide to leave everything behind and abscond. Soon, however, Mini wishes to return home, despite Franky's insistence. Alo learns of Mini's pregnancy and to her surprise—in the end—vows to take care of her no matter what. In the finale, Franky attempts to track down her mother, but instead finds her biological sister who declares their mother has died. At Alex's house party to celebrate leaving Bristol behind, she tells both Matty and Nick she loves them but cannot be with them. In the conclusion, Mini goes into labour, while Franky's sister takes her to see her mother—who is not dead after all. Nick and Matty bond once again, and the latter turns himself in to the police. In the final scene, playing in parallel, Alex leaves Bristol for Thailand; Alo and Liv are beside Mini as she gives birth; Franky lays eyes on her mother; and Rich, outside the room where Mini is giving birth, looks at the camera and says 'bye'.
The seventh series, titled 'Skins Redux', aired on 1 July 2013. It saw the return of former 'Skins' stars Hannah Murray as Cassie, Jack O'Connell as Cook and Kaya Scodelario as Effy in three individual stories. Lily Loveless as Naomi and Kathryn Prescott as Emily also starred in guest roles. The three stories have their own titles: 'Skins Fire' (Effy), 'Skins Pure' (Cassie) and 'Skins Rise' (Cook). The six-part series began filming on 22 October 2012 and concluded at the end of January 2013.
Skins Fire depicts Effy as a 21-year-old hedge fund receptionist. She lives with Naomi, who is drifting through life with vague ambitions of being a stand-up comedian. Effy is much more serious and driven than in the past, and impresses her bosses enough to win a shot at being a stock trader. In her attempts to succeed in her career, she becomes embroiled in an insider trading scandal, as well as romantically involved with her boss (Kayvan Novak). To spare her lovelorn friend Dom (Craig Roberts) from jail time for his part in the crime, she makes a full confession to the Financial Services Authority of hers and Jake's activities. Meanwhile, Naomi reveals she is struggling with cancer, and pleas with Effy to not tell Emily, who is in New York on an internship. Dom and Effy support Naomi until it is clear her condition is terminal; Emily returns to London, hurt and betrayed, and comforts Naomi while Effy is prosecuted.
Skins Pure catches up with Cassie at 23, living a solitary existence in London and waitressing after breaking up with an ex-boyfriend in America. The new Cassie no longer does drugs, and has recovered from her eating disorder. After discovering someone has been secretly taking artistic photos of her and uploading them to the Internet, she tracks down her stalker, and discovering it to be the cook at her café, Jakob (Olly Alexander). After realising Jakob's attention gives her confidence, she allows him to continue photographing her on her terms, in an explicitly non-sexual friendship. While trying to support her depressed father and little brother after the death of her mother, her friendship with Jakob slowly comes apart as his jealousy grows irrational, particularly when Cassie models for a professional shoot. Ultimately, Cassie chooses to leave behind her friendship with Jakob and another man who had been pursuing her romantically (Daniel Ben Zenou) to focus on raising her little brother while her father recuperates in Italy.
Skins Rise follows Cook (now somewhere in his early 20s) who is on the run and living alone in Manchester. In an introductory voiceover, Cook explains his thoughts and alludes towards a murder he may have committed; it is implied but not outright stated that he is avoiding capture after killing John Foster a few years back. He is now a drug dealer and has a semi-serious relationship with a woman named Emma (Esther Smith), but becomes mesmerised by Charlie (Hannah Britland), the girlfriend of local drug lord Louis (Liam Boyle) after he is asked to watch over her for a few days. After Louis brutally kills a man named Jason (Lucien Laviscount) for having an affair with Charlie, Cook flees Manchester, taking Emma with him. En route, Charlie calls Cook and begs him to take her with them. The three end up at Emma's family's old country home, in a remote part of the country. Not long after though, Louis arrives, explaining that he tracked their car. After Charlie refuses to go with him, the three leave the house and find Emma's parents' car abandoned, indicating they have been killed. The trio are stranded in the woods, where Louis catches up with and murders Emma. Seeing this, Cook decides he is done running, confronting Louise and beating him to a pulp. He declares, I'm Cook. You thought you could kill me? I'm fucking Cook. He helps Charlie escape and alerting the police, while a voiceover indicates he is pondering the significance of life and death.
Although Skins aired in the United States on BBC America (only series 1–3 aired and the rights cleared only for those series for purchase of DVDs or online viewing in the US), albeit in an edited form (strong language bleeped out and some more graphic scenes of violence and sex cut out), MTV announced that they would be adapting the show into an American version set in Baltimore, Maryland. With Bryan Elsley as executive producer, the series began filming in February 2010 in Toronto, Canada. The first episode of the US series is almost a shot-for-shot copy of the first episode of the UK series, but it deviates from the original plot in following episodes such that there are significant differences between the US and UK versions. Characters are also similar, and some names have been changed; Sid has been renamed Stanley, Cassie renamed Cadie and Jal renamed Daisy. In addition, Tony's younger sister Effy, who becomes a main character in Generation Two of UK Skins, was renamed Eura. However, the biggest change comes in the form of Tea, a lesbian cheerleader who replaces the UK gay character Maxxie who was a professional dancer.
The show's cancellation was announced by MTV on 10 June 2011. The Parents Television Council, an advocacy group, criticised the show, calling it one of the worst shows a child could watch. Reasons cited for its cancellation included loss of advertising sponsors and a shrinking audience, with fewer people tuning in for each subsequent episode. Pre-adult teens ("minors" under US law), who are MTV's core demographic audience, were at the centre of the argument for those who disapproved of the program, even with MTV's self-imposed restrictive broadcaster-like standards and practices.
The show's writing team has an average age of 21, and includes several "teenage consultants". Elsley said, "It's all about the writing. [...] We're about letting our audience feel they are not alone. [...] We're always having people miss [writing] meetings because they've got A-levels or even GCSEs".
In January 2011, Brittain announced a writing competition open to the public to help with the developing and writing of Series 6. According to Brittain, the winner will receive "a four-month placement in the Skins writers' room, where you'd be invited to attend at least 10 of our top secret meetings, working with [Brittain] and the other Skins writers," as well as monetary compensation. The winners of the 2011 competition were Sophie Boyce (18) and Joe Hampson (21). The winner of the 2008 competition, Dan Lovett, went on to become an official member of the Skins writing team.
The show is filmed almost entirely in Bristol; scenes at Roundview College were shot at Henbury School for series four, having formerly been set at the John Cabot Academy and SGS WISE Campus. and multiple scenes are located around College Green. Special locations for individual episodes have included the Gower Peninsula, Sharpness Docks, the University of Exeter and New York City. The series was shot entirely in High Definition, using Sony HDW-750P cameras for the first two series, and Sony HDW-F900R thereafter, both supplied by Panavision. It was edited at BBC Studios and Post Production in Bristol, using Autodesk Lustre and Autodesk Smoke. "The trip to Russia" episode was actually shot in Lithuania, near the capital Vilnius. This episode was shot in co-operation with Lithuanian Film Studios and professional Lithuanian actors.
It was announced in April 2008 that all of the original cast (except Kaya Scodelario and Lisa Backwell) would be replaced for series 3. Creator Bryan Elsley said: "There are risks associated with dumping a cast, but we just did it. There was some disquiet at the channel, but then they told us just to go with it." Speaking at Broadcast's television drama conference, he also confirmed the show would stick to its pattern of introducing college-age characters, moving them on in the next series, then letting them go. "The first year is about getting to know the kids, and the second gives us the advantage of being able to explore their psyches a little more," said Elsley. Brittain said that the new cast would be quite different from the original characters, although people may still spot some similarities. Open auditions for the second generation of cast members were held in Bristol, which attracted 1,500 16- to 18-year-olds, followed by a further two days of auditions in London.
A variety of videos have been released on the Skins website, including character profiles, and "Unseen Skins" mini-episodes that interweave with every aired episode. In addition to character profiles on the official E4 website, accounts for the lead Skins characters are maintained on popular social networking website MySpace. Each series is launched on MySpace, with previews of the first episodes a few days before they are aired on television. There is also an official Skins Internet bot for Windows Live Messenger, which allows users to receive automated messages throughout the airing of each episode with music credits, trivia, and behind-the-scenes gossip.
|Australia||Fox8, SBS2, Channel V|
|Brazil||MTV, HBO, Multishow, VH1|
|México||HBO Plus (West/East), MTV|
|The Netherlands||TLC Netherlands|
|United States||BBC America|
The first series received positive reviews, although some critics complained that the series depicts teenagers unrealistically and stereotypically. Others criticised the excessive promotion of the show (specifically in the UK) and having relatively mediocre writing in comparison to other similarly themed shows. Actor Nicholas Hoult defended the extreme storylines, saying they would not reflect "everyone's teenage life", adding "it is maybe heightened for entertainment but all of it is believable."
Marieke Hardy expressed admiration for the show, and particularly enjoyed the fact that the show was "beautiful and sad and poignant and perfectly hurtful", while also managing to give impression of being drama that is "edgy, funny and rude". However, she did state that she was unsure whether the show was meant for teenagers or not. Stewart Lee has remarked during an interview on the BBC4 programme Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe that he feels lucky for having been a teenager watching TV for teenagers in the 1970s and not the 2000s as "there was something really comforting for nerds and weirdos about programmes like Children of the Stones and The Changes." He said that watching Skins as a teenager today would make him feel lonelier than he already would have been. However, Brooker himself gave the programme a positive review in his Guardian column "Screen Burn", and specifically stated that "the series had wrong-footed me", comparing his initial expectation of Skins as a shallow show to after he had finished watching the series.
In his book Doctor Who: The Writer's Tale, Russell T Davies and his co-author, Benjamin Cook, discuss Skins at length, with Davies praising the show's innovation in a genre that was fast becoming tired and out of date. They are critical of some elements of the first series, such as the believability of Tony's character, or episode 6 which is described as "Carry On Russia", but give high praise to the second series as a whole, highlighting the death of Sid's dad as a superb moment, and calling the finale "perfect". Davies, creator of the award-winning Queer as Folk, also praised the handling of the show's homosexuality-related storylines, saying that he knew a boy very like Maxxie in the 1980s. The Age called it a "refreshing, entertaining and worthy series" and wrote it was "compulsory viewing for parents of teenagers as much as for teens." Similarly, the "Naomily" storyline of Series 3 and 4 proved popular with lesbian viewers; a poll conducted by American lesbian's' media website AfterEllen.com ranked Naomi and Emily as the top two fictional lesbian and bisexual characters.
- The show won the Best Drama prize at the 2008 Rose d'Or ceremony, and also won the Best Production Design (Drama) for Amelia Shankland's work on "Cassie", at the Royal Television Society Awards 2007, in addition to being nominated for Best Photography (Drama).
- Tal Rosner's graphics for Skins won a BAFTA for Best Title Sequence at the British Academy Television Craft Awards in May 2008.
- In March 2008, the show was nominated for Best Drama Series in the British Academy Television Awards 2008.
- The show's innovative marketing was awarded Best Advertising Campaign at the MediaGuardian Awards for Innovation in 2008.
- The viral marketing preluding the second series won the Entertainment category at the Interactive Marketing and Advertising Awards 2008.
- Skins won the Philips Audience Award at the BAFTAs 2009.
- Skins won the Switch's turn on at the BBC Switch Live Awards 2009.
- The series' Director of Photography, Nick Dance, was nominated for a BAFTA and an RTS Award for Photography and Lighting for his work on the series.
- In 2010, Skins was nominated for a GLAAD Media Award for "Outstanding Drama Series" during the 21st GLAAD Media Awards.
- In 2011, the series won Best TV Show at the NME Awards 2011.
The pilot episode of Skins averaged 1.5 million viewers. The ratings for the second series which launched peaked at 884,000 viewers, which gave it 5.9% audience share and taking 60% of the 16–24 demographic, however this was still more than 500,000 viewers down on its series one premiere. The series finale attracted an audience of 740,000 on E4, equating to a 4.65% share of the audience. The start of the third series drew in 877,000 viewers, proving popular with its key audience demographic of younger people—56.2% of viewers were aged between 16 and 34. Series 4 premiered with 1.5 million viewers across E4 and E4+1, the highest rated episode since series 1.
The programme has given rise to the term 'Skins party', referring to a debauched night of heavy drinking and recreational drug use. During the 2007 Easter holidays, a girl in County Durham threw a house party; it was advertised on her Myspace profile as "Skins Unofficial Party," referring to the party in the first series' trailer, with the subtitle "Let's trash the average family-sized house disco party." Two hundred people turned up, breaking into the house and causing over £20,000 of seemingly deliberate damage. She claimed that her account was hacked and someone else placed the ad. Similar incidents have taken place in the Republic of Ireland, with major household damage and theft of personal property being reported in Firhouse, Bray and Drogheda. Although these attacks have not been conclusively linked to the show, news outlets have reported that they are called Skins parties. Club nights marketed as 'Skins Secret Parties' have also taken shape in Leicester and Brighton. Following this, a series of parties were run by Company Pictures in spring 2008.
|Series||Release Dates||Ep #||Additional Information|
|Region 1||Region 2||Region 4|
|1||13 January 2009||24 September 2007||20 February 2008||9||This three-disc box set includes all nine episodes from series one. Bonus features include nine unaired online-only unseen Skins episodes, the music video for "Standing in the Way of Control", and extended trailers. Much of the popular music used in the original broadcasts is not found on this DVD due to the high cost of licensing. Of particular note to R1 audiences is that the cast ensemble performance of "Wild World" that appeared at the end of the series is completely missing from the release.|
|2||14 April 2009||5 May 2008||20 August 2008||10||This three-disc box set includes all ten episodes from series two. Bonus features include the six accompanying unseen Skins episodes, interviews with cast and crew, and short behind the scenes documentaries. Much of the popular music used in the original broadcasts is not found on this DVD due to the high cost of licensing.|
|3||7 September 2010||6 April 2009||9 September 2009||10||This three-disc box set includes all ten episodes from series three. Bonus features include four editions of Unseen Skins, ten character video diaries, and behind the scenes featurettes from the episodes, trailers and auditions. Much of the popular music used in the original broadcasts is not found on this DVD due to the high cost of licensing.|
|4||11 January 2011||22 March 2010||18 August 2010||8||This three-disc box set includes all eight episodes from series four. Bonus features include: Bonus Skins stories, Animated feature, Behind the scenes videos, and Commentaries with the show's writers and directors.|
|5||TBA||21 March 2011||30 November 2011||8||This three-disc box set includes all eight episodes from series five, behind-the-scenes of the entire series, and audio commentaries of writers, directors and actors (Alexander Arnold) of episode 2 and episode 6.|
|6||TBA||23 April 2012||3 July 2013||10||This box set includes all episodes from series six.|
|7||TBA||12 August 2013||6 November 2013||6||This box set includes all episodes from series seven.|
|1–7||TBA||12 August 2013||6 November 2013||61||This box set includes all episodes from series one to seven.|
In May 2009, E4 confirmed that Film4 and Company Pictures were in "preliminary talks" about a movie spin-off. In March 2010, Jack Thorne revealed to The Guardian that the Skins motion picture was in pre-production.
On 31 May 2011, after many whisperings about whether the movie would go ahead or not, Kaya Scodelario announced on Twitter "I genuinely don't know anything about that, have no idea if it's even happening." Scodelario continued by saying, "I would still love to do the Skins movie" and that she would enjoy working with the cast again.
In September 2009, Company Pictures announced that the Skins brand has been licensed to Crystal Entertainment. The plan is to help creator Bryan Elsley expand the brand into areas such as film, fashion and music. They described Skins as "the most authentic teen brand on TV".
In January 2010, Hodder & Stoughton published Skins: The Novel, a short novel by Ali Cronin that describes events taking place between series 3 and 4, and in March 2011, they published Skins: v. 2: Summer Holiday, a short novel by Jess Britain which centres around the series 5 cast.
- Azboro, C. M.. "Skins News/ US Edition." Skins News. Cambridge INC., 12 May 2007. Web. 3 February 2013. <www.skinsnews.com>.
- "Skins 3". Company Pictures. January 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- Johns, Ian (7 June 2007). "Spaced out with the Skins generation". The Times. London. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- "'Skins' to bow out with final series in 2013, former stars to return". Digital Spy. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Karen Mclair's a firecracker with big dreams of being famous". Skins. E4. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "The Office's Mackenzie Crook finally gets to play the tough guy". Mirror.co.uk TV Land. Trinity Mirror plc. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Emily Woodrow (6 December 2009). "Skins star Georgia Henshaw won't let family watch sex scenes".
- Dan French (11 December 2009). "Writer: 'Will Young amazing on Skins'".
- Mayer Nissim (18 November 2009). "Chris Addison records part in 'Skins'".
- Dan French (10 December 2009). "2010 TV Preview: 'Skins' series 4".
- "MTV to remake Skins for the US". Now Magazine. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- Pop Watch
- Szalai, Georg. "PTC Calls MTV's 'Skins' the 'Most Dangerous Show for Teens'". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Armstrong, Stephen (11 May 2009). "Loyalty points". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- "Skins writing competition 2011". E4. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Bristol's real life Skins". Bristol Evening Post. 18 September 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "Anwar". E4. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- Dance, Nick (24 March 2009). "Making of the C4 drama series Skins". Sony. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- "BBC Post Production uses Lustre and Smoke to give Channel 4 beautiful Skins". Autodesk. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- Wilkes, Neil (10 April 2008). "'Skins' creator talks finale, new series". Digital Spy. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- Holmwood, Leigh (28 March 2008). "Skins 3: the hunt for the new Tony begins". Organ Grinder. London. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- "Unseen Skins". E4. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- Ramsay, Fiona (30 January 2008). "Channel 4 to debut Skin's online". MediaWeek. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- Forde, Steve (27 February 2009). "Skins on Windows Live Messenger". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- Mangan, Lucy (26 January 2007). "Last night's TV". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- Holmwood, Leigh (30 January 2008). "Skins series 2: The countdown begins...". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- Hardy, Marieke (31 January 2008). "Kids these days get under your skin". The Age. Melbourne.
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- Lee, Stewart. "Stewart Lee on Skins". Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe. BBC Four. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- Brooker, Charlie (9 February 2008). "Charlie Brooker's screen burn". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- Russell T Davies and Benjamin Cook, Doctor Who: The Writer's Tale (BBC Books, 2008), passim
- Farrer, Gordon (4 February 2008). "Skins Review". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- "AfterEllen.com's Top 50 Lesbian and Bisexual Characters". AfterEllen.com. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- "Skins among Rose d'Or TV winners". BBC News. 7 May 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- Krieger, Candice (22 January 2009). "Tal Rosner is awarded a Bafta for his hard graft on Skins". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Gibson, Owen (19 March 2008). "Cranford wins three Bafta nominations". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- "Skins and Radiohead win Guardian awards". The Guardian. London. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- "Winners 2008: Skins II". Interactive Marketing and Advertising Awards. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- "21st Annual GLAAD Media Awards – English Language Nominees". Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- "Shockwaves NME Awards 2011 Winners – What Do You Think?". NME. 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Holmwood, Leigh (7 January 2008). "Celebrity Hijack hoists E4 ratings". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- West, Dave (12 February 2009). "'Skins' return pulls more than 'Pulling'". Digital Spy. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- 'Skins' finale draws 740,000 for E4. Digital Spy. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
- "Weekly Top 10 Programmes". Barb.co.uk. 5 September 2010. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- Rogers, Jon (23 January 2009). "Skins returns with 665,000". Broadcast Now. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Tryhorn, Chris (29 January 2010). "TV ratings – 28 January: Skins storms back with nearly 1 million viewers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- French, Dan. "Television – News – 'Skins' series four opens to 1.1 million". Digital Spy. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- "Britain Pushes Gossip Girl Envelope With Skins". Parentstv.org. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
- Police arrest MySpace party girl, The Telegraph, 14 April 2007
- House trash party girl: "I'm sorry", Sunderland Echo, 15 April 2007
- Filthy party-crashing craze is blamed on teen TV show Skins, The Herald, 7 November 2008
- "Leicester rock gigs – live music in Leicester". Artsinleicestershire.co.uk. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- "SkinsLife – SkinsLive Tour".
- "Amazon.com "Skins" Series 1 DVD". Retrieved 2 July 2009.
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- "Skins – Series 5 (DVD)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
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- "Skins – Series 7 (DVD)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
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- Holmwood, Leigh (11 May 2009). "Skins: Channel 4 plans movie spin-off". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- Rosser, Michael (2 September 2009). "Skins going global with 'Brand Beckham' exec". Broadcast Now. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- Cronin, Ali (7 January 2010). Skins: The Novel. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 1-4449-0004-8.
- Britain, Jess (17 March 2011). Skins: v. 2: Summer Holiday. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9781444903096.
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