A typical NATO patch.
Original author(s) 0f0003 Maschinenkunst
Developer(s) Netochka Nezvanova
Initial release 1999 (1999)
Stable release
NATO.0+55+3d.modular / 2001 (2001)
Development status Discontinued
Operating system Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9
Type interdisciplinary m9ndfukc
License Proprietary
Website (archive)

NATO.0+55+3d was an application software for realtime video and graphics, released by 0f0003 Maschinenkunst in 1999 for the classic Mac OS operating system.

Being one of the earliest applications to allow realtime video manipulation and display, it was used by artists for a large variety of purposes, prominently for live performance, VJing and interactive installation.


Running in the framework of Max (a visual programming interface for rapid prototyping and developing of audio software), NATO.0+55+3d extended Max by allowing to access and manipulate all the media types that QuickTime supports (films, images, 3D models, QuickTime VR, etc.).[1] The functionalities included image generation, image processing, control over MIDI and numerical data, integration with Internet, 3D, text and sound.


At the time of its release (the summer of 1999[2]), NATO.0+55+3d was in demand as it appeared several years before other similar infrastructures such as GEM and Jitter (released by the makers of Max/MSP in October 2002). Earlier software such as Image/ine developed in 1997 at STEIM was drawing in a similar direction,[3] but the fact that NATO.0+55+3d was operating inside the Max/MSP framework, using its "visual programming" protocol, provided at the same time greater ease of use and more flexibility,[4] allowing the user to create his own applications and tools. It gained popularity among video artists and performers, who were using it for a large variety of purposes, prominently for live performance and interactive installation.

The last version of NATO.0+55+3d modular was released in November 2000, while additional NATO objects were developed until June 2001.[5]

Version history

Name Release date Release information
NATO.0+55 June 1999 Initial release
NATO.0+55+3d July 1999 Adds control of 3d models
NATO.0+55+3d modular (first distribution) March 2000 Features 80 objects
NATO.0+55+3d modular (second distribution) July 2000 Features 112 objects
NATO.0+55+3d modular (last distribution) November 2000 Features 126 objects


Artists used the software to "manipulate video for live performance and installations" (Mieszkowski 2002). The flexibility of the interface provided artists with "a uniquely suitable environment for the creation of new synesthesiac applications and experiences" (Meta 2001) and "opened up tremendous possibillities for working with realtime video" (Gilje 2005).

As NATO was distributed with a software development kit,[6] several artists and programmers created third party extensions (e.g. the PeRColate[7] and Auvi[8] object libraries), or developed entire applications based on NATO.

NATO.0+55 pilots

Some of the most prominent users of NATO.0+55:


Significant workshops centered on the use of NATO.0+55+3d were held 2000-2002 at many locations including: Bergen (BEK, August 2000[17]), Paris (IRCAM, October 2000), Rotterdam (DEAF_00 festival, November 2000[18]), Sheffield (Lovebytes festival, March 2001), New York (Harvestworks, April 2001[19]), Leipzig (HGB, Mai 2001), Amsterdam (STEIM, Mai and December 2001, April 2002), Barcelona (Hangar, June 2001), Stralsund (Garage, August 2001[20]), Paris (Betaville, August 2001[21]), Helsinki (Avanto, November 2001[9]), Fukuoka/Japan (Kyushu Institute of Design, November 2001), Stuttgart (XML, January 2002), Paris (Villette Numérique, September 2002[22]), Berlin (Underscan, September 2002), Newcastle/Australia (Electrofringe, October 2002).


  1. Meta 2001: 151
  2. Gilje 2005
  3. Kosnik, Marko (2 February 2002). "an open letter to imag/ine and nato users and developers". 55 mailing-list. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
  4. "Jitter is far more complicated and more made for engineers/programmers than Nato, which was basically a video object library for max/msp, and more fun - it seemed always so fragile, and easy to lose." - Mia Makela, aka SOLU, in: "Solu Dot Org : VJ Interview". 2005. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  5. announcement of 242.nasdaq on the nettime mailing list, June 2001.
  6. Bernstein, Jeremy (2001). "A discussion of NATO.0+55+3d modular". Retrieved 2011-09-12.
  7. Trueman, Dan; DuBois, R. Luke (2001). "PeRColate - A collection of synthesis, signal processing, and image processing objects" (PDF). Columbia University. Retrieved 2011-09-12.
  8. Ralske, Kurt. "Description of the Auvi Objects". Retrieved 2011-09-12.
  9. 1 2 "Avanto Akatemia 2001". 2001. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  10. Makela, Mia; Brusadin, Vanni (2001). "Small is Beautiful a packet switching conversation". Subsol. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  11. Morey, Jeff (8 December 2000). "Xtravaganza avec nato @ Guggenheim". MaxMSP Mailing-list. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  12. Bacalzo, Dan (25 April 2002). "Xtravaganza". Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  13. Masserey, Michel (9 April 2004). "De l'OTAN à NATO". Le Temps. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  14. "Beekman & Bruce Gremo – route: inter-routing audio and visual improvisation using MAX/MSP and nato". 2000. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  15. " sound & image #3". 2001. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  16. " sound & image #3". 2001. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
  17. "BEK Nato Workshop website". 2000. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  18. "DEAF_00 Festival Program". Retrieved 2011-09-12.
  19. "Listen In: NATO Event". 2001. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  20. "Max/Nato workshop at Garage Festival, Stralsund". 2001. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  21. "Max/Nato workshop at Betaville , Paris". 2001. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  22. "Villette Numérique festival program" (RTF). 2002. Retrieved 2007-08-30.


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