List of Iranian dynasties and countries

The following is an incomplete list of historical dynasties which were at some time Iranian or the country they ruled were Iranian-speaking and of modern countries with significant Iranian populations or with an official Iranian language. The Iranians comprise the Persians, Medes, Scythians, Kurds, Bactrians, Pashtuns, Tajiks, Baloch, Parthians, Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetians, Cimerians, and much more.

Current states

Independent states

Federal subjects of Russia

Autonomous regions

Historical confederation of tribes and Iranian dynasties


Direct Iranian dynasties

Persianate or Turko-Persian states

Some Turko-Persian states were founded in Greater Iran.[5]

Former and defunct Iranian governments

See also


  1. Brook, Kevin Alan (27 September 2006). The Jews of Khazaria. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 1442203021. Retrieved 3 June 2015. Thus, the Bulgars were actually a tribal confederation of multiple Hunnic, Turkic, and Iranian groups mixed together.
  2. "Bulgar". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 3 June 2015. Although many scholars, including linguists, had posited that the Bulgars were derived from a Turkic tribe of Central Asia (perhaps with Iranian elements)
  3. Barthold, W., C.E. Bosworth "Shirwan Shah, Sharwan Shah. "Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2nd edition
  4. 1 2 C.E. Bosworth, "ŠERVĀNŠAHS" in Encyclopaedia Iranica. Excerpt 1: "ŠERVĀNŠAHS (Šarvānšāhs), the various lines of rulers, originally Arab in ethnos but speedily Persianized" Excerpt 2:" ). Just as an originally Arab family like the Rawwādids in Azerbaijan became Kurdicized from their Kurdish milieu, so the Šervānšāhs clearly became gradually Persianized, probably helped by intermarriage with the local families of eastern Transcaucasia; from the time of Manučehr b. Yazid (r. 418-25/1028-34), their names became almost entirely Persian rather than Arabic, with favored names from the heroic national Iranian past and with claims made to descent from such figures as Bahrām Gur".
  5. Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  6. 1 2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  7. Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  8. Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  9. K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  10. Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  11. 1 2 O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  12. Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, 29; "Even when the land of Rum became politically independent, it remained a colonial extension of Turco-Persian culture which had its centers in Iran and Central Asia","The literature of Seljuk Anatolia was almost entirely in Persian...".
  13. M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  14. Thackston 1996
  15. Findley 2005
  16. Saunders 1970, p.177
  17. "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  18. "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  19. Yarshater, Ehsan. 1988. The development of Iranian literatures. In Persian Literature, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, pp. 3—37. (Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies, no. 3.) Albany: Bibliotheca Persica and State University of New York, 15
  20. "Persian in service of the state: the role of Persophone historical writing in the development of an Ottoman imperial aesthetic", Studies on Persianate Societies 2, 2004, pp 145-163.
  21. Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3
  22. Richard N. Frye and Lewis V. Thomas. The United States and Turkey and Iran, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 217
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