Dattatreya painting by Raja Ravi Varma
Affiliation Avatar of Lord Vishnu/Trimurti
Abode Varies per interpretation
Artifacts Shankha, chakra, Trishula, Damaru

Dattatreya (IAST: Dattātreya, Sanskrit: दत्तात्रेय) or Dattā is a paradigmatic Sannyasi (monk) and one of the lords of Yoga in Hinduism.[1] In many regions of India and Nepal, he is considered a deity. In Maharashtra, he is a syncretistic deity, considered to be an avatar (incarnation) of the three Hindu gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, collectively known as Trimurti.[2] In other regions, and some versions of texts such as the Garuda Purana, Brahma Purana and Sattvata Samhita, he is an avatar of Vishnu.[3]

His iconography varies regionally. In western Maharashtra, for example, he is typically shown with three heads and six hands, one head each for Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, and one pair of hand holding the symbolic items associated with each of these gods: rosary and water pot of Brahma, conch and wheel of Visnu, trident and drum of Siva.[2] He is typically dressed as a simple monk or almost naked, situated in a forest or wilderness suggestive of his renunciation of worldly goods and pursuit of a meditative yogi lifestyle. In paintings and some large carvings, he is surrounded by four dogs and a cow, which is a symbolism for the four Vedas and mother earth that nourishes all living beings.[2][4] In the temples of southern Maharashtra, Varanasi and in the Himalayas, his iconography shows him with one head and two hands with four dogs and a cow.[5]

In the Nath tradition of Shaivism, Dattatreya is revered as the Adi-Guru (First Teacher) of the Adinath Sampradaya of the Nathas, the first "Lord of Yoga" with mastery of Tantra (techniques).[6][7] His pursuit of simple life, kindness to all, sharing of his knowledge and the meaning of life during his travels is reverentially mentioned in the poems by Tukaram, a saint-poet of the Bhakti movement.[2] Over time, Dattatreya has inspired many monastic movements in Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism, particularly in the Deccan region of India, south India, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Himalayan regions where Shiva tradition has been strong.[8]

Several Upanishads are dedicated to him, as are texts of the Advaita Vedanta-Yoga tradition in Hinduism.[9] One of the most important texts of Advaita Vedanta, namely Avadhuta Gita (literally, "song of the free") is attributed to Dattatreya.[10][11] In Maharashtra, an annual festival in the Hindu calendar month of Mārgaśīrṣa (November/December) reveres Dattatreya and this is called Datta Jayanti.[12]


The mythologies of Dattatreya are diverse and vary by region. In the Puranas, he was born in north Indian hermitage to Anusuya and her husband the Vedic sage Atri traditionally credited with making the largest contribution to the Rigveda.[13][14] Another states his father lived in southern India, in the western Deccan region.[14] A third claims he was born in Kashmir jungles near the sacred Amarnath.[15] A fourth legend states he was born along his brothers were Durvasas and Chandra, to an unwed mother named Anusuya, after sage Atri saw her bathing, fantasized about her which caused her to become pregnant.[1][16] In a fifth myth, sage Atri was very old when young Anusuya married him, and they sought the help of the trimurti gods for a child. The trinity were pleased with them for having brought light and knowledge to the world, simultaneously granted the boon, which led Dattatreya to be born with characteristics of all three.[17]

While his origins are unclear and trace to inconsistent mythologies, stories about his life are more consistent. He is described in the Mahabharata as a exceptional Rishi (sage) with extraordinary insights and knowledge, who is adored and raised to a Guru and an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranas.[18] Dattatreya is stated in these texts to having renounced the world and leaving his home at an early age to lead a monastic life. One myth claims he meditated immersed in water for a long time,[16] another has him wandering from childhood and the young Dattatreya footprints have been preserved on a lonely peak at Girnar (Junagadh, Gujarat). The Tripura-rahasya refers to the disciple Parasurama finding Dattatreya meditating on Gandhamadana mountain.[19]

Self-education: the 24 Gurus of Dattatreya

The young Dattatreya is famous in the Hindu texts as the one who started with nothing and without teachers, yet reached self-awareness by observing nature during his Sannyasi wanderings, and treating these natural observations as his twenty four teachers.[20] This legend has been emblematic in the Hindu belief, particularly among artists and Yogis, that ideas, teachings and practices come from all sources, that self effort is a means to learning.[21][22] The 24 teachers of Dattatreya are:[20][23]

The 24 teachers from mother nature[20][23][24]
Guru Observation Dattatreya's learning
1. Earth Steadfastly productive, does its dharma, gets abused, heals and is steady in giving nourishment. forebearance, remain undisturbed even if oppressed, keep healing even if others injure you
2. Wind Passes through everything and everyone, unchanged, unattached, like Truth; sometimes becomes a gale, disturbs and changes the world, like Truth. be free like the wind, yet resolute true to your own force
3. Sky the highest has no boundaries, no limits, is unaffected even if clouds and thunderstorms come and go the highest within oneself, the Atman (self, soul) has no limits, it is undifferentiated nondual no matter what, let the clouds of materiality pass, be one with your soul and the Universal Self
4. Water serves all without pride, discrimination; is transparent to everyone; purifies and gives life to everyone it touches a saint discriminates against no one and is never arrogant, lets other give him impurity, yet he always remains pure and cleanses
5. Fire purifies and reforms everything it comes in contact with, its energy shapes things the heat of knowledge reforms everything it comes in contact with, to shape oneself one needs the energy of learning
6. Moon waxes and wanes but its oneness doesn't change birth, death, rebirth and the cycle of existence does not change the oneness of soul, like moon it is a continuous eternal reality
7. Sun source of light and gives its gift to all creatures as a sense of duty; in rain puddles it reflects and seems like distinct in each puddle, yet it is the same one Sun the soul may appear different in different bodies, yet everyone is connected and the soul is same in all; like Sun, one must share one's gifts as a sense of duty
8. Pigeons they suffer losses in the hands of violent hunters, warn against obsessive attachments to anyone or to material things in this world do not be obsessive, don't focus on transient things such as damage or personal loss, human life is a rare privilege to learn, discover one's soul and reach moksha
9. Python eats whatever comes its way, makes the most from what it consumes be content with what you have, make the most from life's gifts
10. Bumblebee active, works hard to build and create its reserve by directly visiting the flowers, but is selective and uses discretion, harmonious with flowers and never kills or over consumes be active, go directly to the sources of knowledge, seek wisdom from all sources but choose the nectar, be gentle, live harmoniously and leave others or other ideologies alone when you must
11. Beekeeper profits from honeybees don't crave for material pleasures or in piling up treasures, neither the body nor material wealth ever lasts
12. Hawk picks up a large chunk of food, but other birds harass him, when it drops its food other birds leave him alone take what you need, not more
13. Ocean lucid at the surface, but deep and undisturbed within; receives numerous rivers yet remains the same let rivers of sensory input not bother who you are deep inside, know your depths, seek self-knowledge, be unperturbed by life, equipoise
14. Moth is deceived by its senses, it runs to the fire in misunderstanding which kills it question your senses, question what others are telling you, question what you see, know senses can deceive, seek reason
15. Elephant is deceived by his lust, runs after the smell of a possible mate, and falls into a pit made by mahout's then fettered and used don't lust after something or someone, don't fall into traps of others or of sensory gratification
16. Deer is deceived by his fear, by hunters who beat drums and scare him into a waiting net fear not the noise, and do not succumb to pressure others design for you
17. Fish is deceived by bait and so lured to its death greed not the crumbs someone places before you, there are plenty of healthy opportunities everywhere
18. Courtesan exchanges transient pleasure with body, but feels dejected with meaningless life, ultimately moves on many prostitute their time, self-respect and principles for various reasons but feel dejected with their career and circumstances, seek meaning and spirituality in life, move on to doing things you love to do
19. Child lives a life of innocent bliss be a child, curious, innocent, blissful
20. Maiden she is poor yet tries her best to feed her family and guest, as she cooks she avoids attracting attention to her kitchen and poverty, by breaking all her bangles except one on each wrist don't seek attention, a yogi accomplishes and shares more through solitude
21. Snake lives in whatever hole that comes his way, willingly leaves bad skin and molts a yogi can live in any place, must be ready to molt old ideas and body for rebirth of his spirit
22. Arrowsmith the best one was so lost in his work that he failed to notice the king's procession that passed his way concentrate on what you love to do, intense concentration is the way to self-realization
23. Spider builds a beautiful web, destroys and abandons the web, then restarts again don't get entangled by your own web, be ready to abandon it, go with your Atman
24. Caterpillar starts out closed in a tiny nest but ultimately becomes a wasp long journeys start small, a disciple starts out as insignificant but ultimately becomes a spiritual master


Dattatreya's iconography varies with region. Left: Icon with three heads; Right: with one head.

The appearance of Shri Dattatreya in pictures varies according to traditional beliefs. A typical icon for Dattatreya, particularly popular with Marathi-speaking people in India, has three heads corresponding to Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva, and six hands; the lowest two hands carry rosary (mala) and water pot (kamandalu), middle pair of hands hold hourglass mini-drum (damaru) and trident (trishul), and top two hands have conch (shankh) and spinning wheel (chakra).[2][25]

Many older medieval temples of Dattatreya show him with just one head, such as the one in Mahur and another in Pandharpur, both in southern Maharashtra.[26] Texts such as Agni Purana describe the architectural features for building murti, and for Dattatreya, it recommends him with one head and two hands.[27] In Varanasi, Nepal, north Himalayan foothill states of India, 15th-century Nath temples of Dattatreya show him with just one face. In western parts of Maharashtra, the syncretic six armed and three faced iconography is more common.[5]

He is the motif of the '"honey bee" Yogin who has realized advaita knowledge. Dattatreya as the archetypal model of syncretism:[2]

Furthermore, the unfolding of the Dattātreya icon illustrates the development of Yoga as a synthetic and inclusive body of ideologies and practices. Although fundamentally a jñāna-mūrti, Dattātreya is a "honey bee" Yogin: one whose character and teachings are developed by gathering varieties of Yoga's flowers. For all religious groups whose propensity it is to include ideas, practices, and teaching from the ocean of traditions, Dattātreya is truly a paradigm.

Antonio Rigopoulos, Dattātreya: the immortal guru, yogin, and avatāra[28]

Another distinctive aspect of Dattatreya iconography is that it includes four dogs and a cow. The four dogs represent the Vedas,[4] as trustworthy all weather friends, company and guardians, while the cow is a metaphor for mother earth who silently and always provides nourishment.[2][29]

Alternate iconography

Dattatreya's scupltures with alternate iconography have been identified in 1st millennium CE cave temples and archaeological sites related to Hinduism.[30] For example, in the Badami temple (Karnataka), Dattatreya is shown to be with single head and four hands like Vishnu, but seated in a serene Yoga posture (padmasana). Carved with him are the emblems (lañchana) of the Trimurti, namely the swan of Brahma, the Garuda of Vishnu and the Nandi of Shiva. The right earlobe jewelry and hair decoration in this art work of Dattatreya is of Shiva, but on his left the details are those of Vishnu.[31] Rigopoulos dates this Badami sculpture to be from the 10th to 12th-century.[30]

A sculpture similar to Badami, but with some differences, has been discovered in Ajmer (Rajasthan). The Ajmer art work is a free statue where Dattatreya is standing, has one head and four hands. In his various hands, he carries a Trishula of Shiva, a Chakra of Vishnu, a Kamandalu of Brahma, and a rosary common to all three.[32] Like the Badami relief work, the Ajmer iconography of Dattatreya shows the swan of Brahma, the Garuda of Vishnu and the Nandi of Shiva carved on the pedestal with him.[32]

Some scholars such as James Harle and TA Gopinatha Rao consider iconography that presents Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva together as Hari Hara Pitamaha to be synonymous with or equivalent to Dattatreya.[33][34] Antonio Rigopoulos questions this identification, and suggests that Harihara Pitamaha iconography may have been a prelude to and something that evolved into Dattatreya iconography.[30]


Always be learning

The investigators of the true nature of the world are uplifted by their own efforts in this world. The self is the infallible guide of the self: through direct perception and through analogy one can work out one's salvation.

— Dattatreya, Bhagavata Purana XI.7.19
Translated by Klaus Klostermaier[22]

The historic Indian literature has interpreted the representation of Dattatreya symbolically. His three heads are symbols of the Gunas (qualities in Samkhya school of Hinduism). The three Gunas are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The six hands have ethical symbolism, namely Yamas, Niyama, Sama, Dama, Daya and Shanti (axiology in Yoga and Vedanta school of Hinduism).[35]

The Kamadhenu cow is symbolic Panchabutas, the four dogs are inner forces of a human being: Iccha, Vasana, Asha and Trishna. In these interpretations, Dattatreya is that yogi Guru (teacher) who has perfected all these, rules them rather than is ruled by them, and is thus the Guru Dattatreya is beyond them.[35]


The Dattatreya Upanishad (tantra-focussed), Darshana Upanishad (yoga-focussed) and particularly the Avadhuta Upanishad (advaita-focussed) present the philosophy of the Dattatreya tradition.[36][37] Dattatreya is also mentioned in the classic text on Yoga, the Shandilya Upanishad.[38]

Other Upanishads where Dattatreya's name appears in lists of ancient Hindu monks revered for their insights on renunciation are Jabala Upanishad, Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad, Bhikshuka Upanishad and Yajnavalkya Upanishad.[39][40] Of these, his mention in the Jabala Upanishad is chronologically significant because this ancient text is dated to have been complete between 3rd-century BCE and 3rd-century CE.[41]


Dattatreya is mentioned in the Mahabharata[42] and the Ramayana.

Pancaratra texts

Dattatreya is mentioned in the ancient chapter 9 of the Sattvata Samhita and chapter 5 of the Ahirbudhnya Samhita, both among the oldest layer of texts in the Vaishnava Agama tradition (Pancaratra).[43] Schrader states these texts and the chronology of Dattatreya are older than the Mahabharata, but Rigopoulos disagrees with him on the chronology.[43]

Avadhuta Gita

In the Hindu tradition, Dattatreya is the author of Avadhuta Gita, or the "Song of the free".[44][45] The text's poetry is based on the principles of Advaita Vedanta, one of the subschools of Hindu philosophy.[10][11][46]

The extant manuscripts have been dated to approximately the 9th or 10th century,[47] but it may have existed earlier as part of an oral tradition.[48] It consists of 289 shlokas (metered verses), divided into eight chapters.[44][49]

Dattatreya traditions

Several Hindu monastic and yoga traditions are linked to Dattatreya:[50]

Dattatreya in Maharashtra


Numerous Datta temples exists in Maharashtra. Ek Mukhi Datta of Narayanpur features Dattatreya. There is a temple of Lord Dattatreya in Devgad (deogad)[63] of Ahmednagar district.

There is a temple of lord Dattatreya, amidst the serene and quiet natural surroundings of Vanki river, at the village Pathari, 7 km from Valsad city (dist valsad) Gujarat, and 3 km from the Dharampur road highway.

15th-century Dattatreya temple in Bhaktapur Nepal. Vishnu's conch, Shiva's trident and other iconography at its entrance. Inside is Dattatreya icon with one face and two hands, revered on Maha Shivaratri and considered as the healing deity. The square is surrounded by Hindu monasteries.[5]

Other temples of Dattatreya include:

  1. Sri Kalagnishamana Datta - Mysuru, Karnataka
  2. Sri Yogiraja Vallabha Datta - Prodduturu, Andhra Pradesh
  3. Sri Yogiraja Vallabha Datta - Bangalore, Karnataka
  4. Sri Gnana Sagara Datta - Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh
  5. Sri Syama Kamala Lochana Datta - Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh
  6. Sri Atrivarada Datta - Machalipattanam, Andhra Pradesh
  7. Sri Sivaroopa Datta - Jayalakshmipuram, Andhra Pradesh
  8. Sri Adiguru Datta - Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  9. Sri Digambara Datta - Rishikesh, Uttarakand
  10. Sri Viswambara Avadhoota Datta - Akiveedu, Andhra Pradesh
  11. Sri Deva Deva Datta - Nuzivedu, Andhra Pradesh
  12. Sri Avadhoota Datta - Hyderabad, Telangana
  13. Sri Digambara Datta - Gandigunta, Andhra Pradesh
  14. Sri Siddaraja datta - Cochin, Kerala
  15. Sri Mayamukta Avadhoota Datta - Acharapakkam, Tamil Nadu
  16. Sri Leela Viswambarava Datta - Surat, Gujrat

See also


  1. 1 2 James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Maxine Berntsen (1988). The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. State University of New York Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-88706-662-7.
  3. Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 42-43.
  4. 1 2 Werness, Hope B. (2004). The Continuum encyclopedia of animal symbolism in art. Illustrated edition. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1525-3, ISBN 978-0-8264-1525-7. Source: (accessed: Thursday February 11, 2010), p.138
  5. 1 2 3 Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 224-226.
  6. Rigopoulos (1998), p. 77.
  7. Harper & Brown (2002), p. 155.
  8. Maxine Berntsen (1988). The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. State University of New York Press. pp. 96–106. ISBN 978-0-88706-662-7.
  9. Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 57–68. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.
  10. 1 2 Dalal 2010, p. 50.
  11. 1 2 K P Gietz 1992, p. 58 note 318.
  12. Gudrun Buhnemann (1988),Puja: A study in Smarta Ritual, University of Vienna, Be Nobili, Editor: G Oberhammer, page 126
  13. Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 73.
  14. 1 2 Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.
  15. Mandeep (March 2013). "Who is Lord Dattatreya".
  16. 1 2 Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.
  17. Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.
  18. Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara. State University of New York Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.
  19. Mahendranath, Shri Gurudev. "The Pathless Path to Immortality: The Wisdom of Bhagavan Dattatreya" in The Scrolls of Mahendranath, International Nath Order, 2002. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
  20. 1 2 3 Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 40–57. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.
  21. Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.
  22. 1 2 Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. p. 478. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.
  23. 1 2 Martin Haig (2007), Sri Dattatreya’s 24 Gurus: Learning from the World in Hindu Tradition, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. 12, pages 131-135
  24. YH Yadav (1991), Glimpses of Greatness, 3rd Edition, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pages 33-55
  25. मालाकमंडलुरधः करपद्मयुग्मे, मध्यस्थ पाणियुगुले डमरूत्रिशूले | यस्यस्त उर्ध्वकरयोः शुभशंखचक्रे वंदे तमत्रिवरदं भुजषटकयुक्तम
  26. 1 2 Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 223-224.
  27. Rigopoulos 1998, p. 224.
  28. Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998), Dattātreya: the immortal guru, yogin, and avatāra : a study of the transformative and inclusive character of a multi-faceted Hindu deity, State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3695-0 (accessed: Saturday February 6, 2010)
  29. Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. xiv, 228–237. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.
  30. 1 2 3 Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 227-228.
  31. T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 252–255. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.
  32. 1 2 T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 251 (figure 2), 255. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.
  33. James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5.
  34. T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 238, 252–253. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.
  35. 1 2 Antonio Rigopoulos (1994). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 243 footnote 40. ISBN 978-1-4384-1733-2.
  36. Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 64-71, 223.
  37. Olivelle 1992, pp. 273-277.
  38. Larson, Gerald James; Bhattacharya, Ram Shankar (2008). Yoga : India's Philosophy of Meditation. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 608=harv. ISBN 978-81-208-3349-4.
  39. Rigopoulos 1998, p. 57.
  40. Olivelle 1992, pp. 145, 184, 237, 278-280 (see first three sections).
  41. Olivelle 1992, pp. 5-11.
  42. Vanaparva 115.12, Shantiparva 49.36-37, Anushasanparva 152.5 and 153.12
  43. 1 2 Rigopoulos 1998, p. 43.
  44. 1 2 Rigopoulos 1998, p. 195.
  45. John A. Grimes (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5.
  46. Katz, Jerry (2007). One: essential writings on nonduality. Sentient Publications. ISBN 978-1-59181-053-7, ISBN 978-1-59181-053-7. Source
  47. Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 195-196.
  48. Swami Abhayananda (1992, 2007). Dattatreya: Song of the Avadhut: An English Translation of the 'Avadhuta Gita' (with Sanskrit Transliteration). Classics of mystical literature series. ISBN 978-0-914557-15-9 (paper), p.10
  49. Hattangadi 2000.
  50. 1 2 Joshi, Dr. P. N. (2000) Shri Dattatreya Dnyankosh. Pune: Shri Dattatreya Dnyankosh Prakashan.
  51. 1 2 Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 99-104, 218.
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  53. David N. Lorenzen; Adrián Muñoz (2011). Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths. State University of New York Press. pp. 59–61. ISBN 978-1-4384-3892-4.
  54. Rigopoulos 1998, p. 99.
  55. Rigopoulos 1998, pp. xiii, 89, 94-95.
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  57. Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 95–102, 220–221. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3.
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  63. http://www.deogad.com Deogad.com


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