Widad Akrawi

Widad Akreyi
ویداد ئاکرەیی

Widad Akreyi addressing the UN, 2010

Widad Akreyi
1969 (age 4647)

Aqrah, Iraq

Citizenship Danish
Education Genetics and inherited disease (M.A.); Global health and cancer epidemiology (PhD)
Organization President of Defend International
Known for Advocate for human rights, peace and justice, author, Arms Trade Treaty, UN Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict, UN Resolution 2117
Website widad.org

Widad Akreyi (also known as Dr Widad and Widad Akrawi) (born 1969) is a Danish health expert and human rights activist of Kurdish ancestry. In 2007, she co-founded the Norway-based human rights organization Defend International and since then has been the organization's president. She is the author of several books about both health issues and human rights.

Akreyi holds a master's degree in genetics and a PhD in international health and epidemiology.[1] Violations of human rights that occurred during the Iraqi government offensive against the Kurds in 1974, as well as during the Al-Anfal Campaign are thought to have shaped her life. It is said that by focusing on the end goals and holding on to her principles she could overcome the hardships she had endured.

She has been listed as one of the winners of the Fellowship of Reconciliation peace awards, where she was called "outspoken peace activist" and the "first young woman of Middle Eastern descent" to engage in advocacy relating to illicit trade of small arms and light weapons, gender-based violence, chemical and biological disarmament, conventional disarmament and international security.[2]

In 2013, Akreyi was awarded the "Special Prize for bridging the gap between civilisations" by the National Organisation for Future Generations for making valuable contributions to humanity through the creation of a culture of coexistence.[3] When she received the International Pfeffer Peace Award in 2014, she dedicated it to the residents of Kobane and Sinjar and the persecuted Christians in the Middle East [4][5]


Akreyi was born into a secular family in Aqrah, Kurdistan region, Iraq, in 1969. In 1974 Akreyi and her family fled to Mosul to avoid the Iraqi government offensive against the Kurds. In 1975, her family returned to Aqrah, and she started school in September of that year. In her early and her teenage years, she resisted every effort made by members of the Baath Party to induce her to gain her trust and become a member, which caused her to be blacklisted for a period of time.[6]

In 1986, when Akreyi was 16 years old, she moved to Erbil where she studied civil engineering with a focus on designing roads and bridges at the Salahaddin University. In 1988 she was secretly involved in documenting torture and other violations of human rights throughout Iraq. The following year, she became politically involved in various struggles for human rights, peace, social justice, democratic governance and ethnic reconciliation. Her advocacy of anti-authoritarianism and her criticism of the use of excessive force against civilians were not without risk and threat to her life and the lives of her family members. Her involvement in these issues became more intense after the Al-Anfal Campaign, also known as the Kurdish Genocide. Despite difficult times, she managed to complete her B.Sc. in 1990.[7]

After the first Gulf War, when the Iraqi regime regained control of the Kurdistan region through an offensive in spring 1991, she was forced to leave her country. Because of her peace activism and political affiliations, she sought political asylum in Denmark and lived in Copenhagen.[7]

In Denmark, Akreyi graduated from Language School in Nykøbing Falster in 1992 and enrolled at Naestved High School, where she continued studying Danish language and literature. In 1993, she enrolled at the Roskilde Language School, where she passed "Danish Test 2" with a respectable high score.[8] In the following years, she earned a master's degree in genetics and genomics and a PhD degree in global health and cancer epidemiology.[1][5] She has served as a clinical geneticist at the Royal Hospital in Copenhagen, researching inherited diseases.[6]

Dr Akreyi is currently leading Defend International, a Norway-based NGO whose mission is "to respond to grave violations of human rights and of International Humanitarian Law, monitor the implementation of preventive measures that are designed to end impunity for the perpetrators of these crimes, conduct medical research that may either directly or indirectly improve the health standard of communities, and to promote peace and democracy through cultural relations and diplomacy."[9]

Dedication to human rights

Akreyi's passion for human rights started many years ago when she advocated for her classmates at her school.[10] As she grew up, she helped to establish a secret working group against torture in Iraq, dedicated to collecting evidence of torture and other human rights abuses. In 1987, she was secretly interviewing the victims and their families.[10] She raised awareness about the impacts of torture and other violations of human rights on civilians. In 1990, she was engaged in advocating for gender equality and women’s empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa region. She then co-founded a regional Women’s Working Group and organised programs to enhance women’s participation in peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction.[10]

Continuing Activism

In Denmark, Akreyi launched campaigns, wrote articles for Danish, Arabic and Kurdish newspapers and spoke in panel discussions on human rights, international conventions and peace. In 2005, she was elected, among Arabic-speaking bloggers from around the world, as the MENA region’s most prominent blogger.[5] She was awarded the prestigious title of "Queen Blogger" for two years until she resigned. Her first involvement with Amnesty International was in 1994, when she started to do volunteer work. In March 2006, the International Secretariat of Amnesty International thanked her for her efforts in support of Amnesty’s campaigns, especially her effective use of the internet as a tool for human rights education and mobilisation.[5] In February 2006, she was appointed as "Stop Torture" ambassador for Amnesty’s Danish section. She was elected in the executive committee of Amnesty International Denmark in April 2006.[11]

In June 2006, Akreyi co-chaired the first regional conference on control arms held in Cairo and was part of a delegation of high-profile activists who met with policy-makers at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Egyptian Parliament.[5] In June 2007, she quit Amnesty International and co-founded Defend International. Same year, she was elected as a co-chair of the Women’s Working Group on MENA Region.[5]

It is observed that Akreyi has created partner agreements with leading NGOs like the International Action Network on Small Arms,[12] Cluster Munition Coalition[13] and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves.[5] She has launched campaigns to defend the rights of writers, civil society activists, children (child/forced marriages), girls, women's rights defenders,[14] students, professors, prisoners on death row and prisoners on hunger strikes.[15][16] She has over 20 years of experiences in the areas of human rights, gender equality, women's empowerment, grassroots organising, intercultural communication, strategic planning, international security, peace and international conventions.[17]

Widad Akreyi has worked for a strong and effective Arms Trade Treaty. Her research on MENA countries, lobbying, and advocacy helped bring about sweeping changes in the voting process in 2006, 2008 and 2013.
Akreyi has worked for a new Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict - a goal that was achieved in September 2013.
Akreyi has lobbied for the adoption of a resolution exclusively dedicated to illicit transfer, destabilising accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons around the world - a goal that was achieved in September 2013 by the adoption of Resolution 2117 (2013) Dedicated to Question of Small Arms and Light Weapons.
The momentum Dr. Akreyi created in favor of a UN resolution on a strong and an effective Arms Trade Treaty, her commitment to combat armed gender-based violence, and her successful lobbying for the adoption of the new UN Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict as well as the UN Resolution 2117 exclusively dedicated to illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons around the World are outstanding contributions to shifting the current culture of violence, and we are grateful for her work.

Pfeffer Peace Prize

Dr. Widad Akreyi received the 2014 International Pfeffer Peace Award in Oslo in October 2014

Dr. Akreyi has been awarded the 2014 International Pfeffer Peace Award for "creating momentum in favor of a UN resolution on a strong and an effective Arms Trade Treaty to prevent the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons that might be used for acts of genocide, crimes against humanity, or terrorism," as well as for lobbying for the "UN Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict and the UN Resolution 2117 dedicated to halting illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons" around the world.[4]

Following the announcement by the US Fellowship of Reconciliation on 18 September 2014,[18] the award was presented to her on 13 October 2014 by Rev. Lucas Johnson, International Coordinator for the International Fellowship of Reconciliation at an event arranged at the Oslo Peace House. Dr. Akreyi dedicated the award to the 50 million refugees who have been displaced as a direct result of conflict, persecution or the irresponsible transfer of conventional arms, and particularly mentioned the Yazidis, Christians, and all residents of Kobanê region.[4]

Humanitarian initiatives and peace and security efforts

Arms Trade Treaty

In 2005, Akreyi began advocating for a UN resolution on a strong and an effective Arms Trade Treaty to prevent the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons that might be used for acts of genocide, crimes against humanity, or terrorism.[5] The Clarion Project has pointed out that she has helped pioneer the global arms-control treaty, and in 2008 Dr. Akreyi was "hand-picked to be part of the prestigious UN Group of Governmental Experts to examine the feasibility, scope and draft parameters of an Arms Trade Treaty."[19]

Prohibition Against Torture

In 2005, she joined a Danish campaign to require a prohibition against torture in the Danish Criminal Code.[20] She has served as ambassador of Amnesty International’s "Stop Torture" campaign.[5]

Created Bridges to Arabic Speaking Audiences

Since 2005 she has been engaged in online discussions, blogging and other interactive techniques [21] through which she was able to create online bridges to Arabic speaking audiences by becoming part of online dialogue and debate. In 2006, the International Secretariat of Amnesty International praised her activities in support of Amnesty’s campaigns, noting that her involvement boosted Amnesty's "chances of success."[5]

In 2008, Akreyi joined an international campaign against Eid aerial firing.[22]

Gender-based Violence

In March 2008, she joined the international campaign to end gender-based violence at gunpoint.[23]

In a press release published in February 2013, Akreyi called on UN negotiators of the Arms Trade Treaty to include a legally-binding provision to prevent armed gender-based violence, noting the importance of maintaining the "momentum created over the last seven years" in favor of a strong and an effective Arms Trade Treaty. "We aim to provide new directions to assist in developing policy measures that counter the harmful impacts that illicit trade in small arms and light weapons have on vulnerable populations, especially on women and children" said Akreyi.[24]

The commitment to combat gender-based violence is a crucial investment in healthy minds and bodies; it is the first step towards creating inclusive, equitable, productive and healthy societies. We need an integrated approach to end violence against females, and as civil society we are ready to provide direction and assist in the development of a global norm that counter the far-reaching impacts of gender-based violence on lives and livelihoods.

Dr. Widad Akreyi's statement published by Everywoman Everywhere Coalition[25]

In December 2014, Dr Akreyi joined the Everywoman Everywhere Coalition at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government’s Carr Center for Human Rights Policy.[26] This "highly diverse coalition is driven by survivors and practitioners, with more than 50 active working group members from more than 44 countries including every continent and major geographic area" and has "come together with a singular goal: Mobilization and execution of a global, grassroots-up campaign for a universal legal tool, such as a UN Convention or Additional Protocol, that empowers every woman and girl access to legal remedy should her rights to personal security be violated." [27] In her statement released by the EEC, she had pointed out that "violence against females is a worldwide pandemic that devastates victims, threatens families, intensifies inequality, weakens societies and undermines global efforts to combat poverty through sustainable development,"[25] and she was listed as a policy advisor.[26]

Peace Initiatives

Armed violence and peace cannot coexist. We need to overcome the challenges and seek practical solutions. We must replace the culture of war with the culture of peace.

Dr. Widad Akreyi, addressing UN 4th Biennial Meeting of States[28]

In June 2010, she addressed the UN Fourth Biennial Meeting of States, in New York to consider the implementation of the Programme of Action to prevent, combat, and eradicate the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects. She shared her views on the importance of investing in a "Culture of Peace," expressing her concerns about the proliferation of illicit trade in SALW around the world, which has significantly "intensified armed conflicts and made the proliferation of peace difficult" to achieve.[28]

Today, we have a chance to make a difference, not only in the lives and future of the civilians witnessing these steps, but also in the lives of the generations yet to be born.

Dr. Widad Akreyi on possible peace deal between Turkey and Kurds[29]

In a press release published in March 2013, she welcomed the Kurdish leader's call for cease-fire; she urged the Turkish authorities not to waste a historic opportunity and called on Scandinavian countries to take the lead in negotiating a peace deal in Turkey.[29] In a statement released two days after the 2015 Ankara bombings, she asked President Barack Obama to urge the Turkish Prime Minister to show respect for the victims of the peace rally and declare a ceasefire with the Kurdistan Workers' Party, which had already declared a unilateral ceasefire.[30] She also asked Federica Mogherini to help end the armed violence between Turkey and the Kurds.[31]

I have to admit that the sight of the refugees and their children has left me sleepless many nights... I am deeply saddened every time I see that people of all faiths who lived peacefully side by side are no longer tolerating each other. The brutality and misconduct they face daily is unimaginable… With their struggle to survive, comes all the horrible memories that will follow them for the rest of their lives.

Dr. Widad Akreyi interviewed on Syrian crisis[32]

When the Syrian crisis first erupted, she decided to advocate for a peaceful solution to the conflict. In an interview conducted in October 2013, she emphasised the massive human cost of the prevailing crisis in Syria and underlined that the conflict has radically influenced regional security and the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, making any global attempt to regulate the illicit trade in conventional weapons out of reach. She characterised the crisis as a "humanitarian tragedy of historic proportions," before urging the international community to do whatever possible to bring the crisis to an end in a peaceful and diplomatic manner.[32]

Global Refugee Crisis

On the occasion of the World Refugee Day 2013, she underscored the significant contributions of resettled refugees to their new communities while expressing concern about the safety and well-being of all displaced populations. "Their challenges are many, but common for all refuges, asylum seekers, and internally displaced persons is that they have either limited or no control over their own lives... Although the world is possibly facing the worst economic crisis in its history, we must not forget the plight of refugees around the world. The international community has a responsibility to protect the rights of vulnerable asylum seekers, refugees, and returnees. We call on Member States, humanitarian agencies, and other stakeholders involved in refugee protection to ensure high standards of protection for displaced persons in neighboring countries," said Akreyi.[33]

Dr. Widad Akreyi during a beach event held by Defend International in September 2015 to remember the victims of the global refugee crisis

On 4 September 2015, Dr. Akreyi organized moments of silence or prayer to honor the victims of the global refugee crisis unfolding on the shores of Europe and elsewhere. People worldwide paid tribute in memory of Alan Kurdi, his brother, his mother, their loved-ones, thousands of children who had lost their lives fleeing armed conflicts and over 2,500 refugees who had died in summer 2015 attempting to cross the Mediterranean to Europe.[34] During a beach memorial, Dr. Akreyi expressed condolences to the families and friends of victims and called on the international community to share equitably the responsibility for protecting, assisting and hosting refugees in accordance with principles of international solidarity and human rights.[35][36] She thanked volunteers and humanitarian workers for their efforts in aiding refugees.[34]

Toxic Remnants of War

Across the world, the lack of accountability for the harm to the environment and public health caused by conflict and military activities undermines global efforts to help fragile countries recover from armed conflicts.

Dr. Widad Akreyi preface of 2014 publication on Toxic Remnants of War[37]

In July 2014, Dr Akreyi joined a global civil society initiative launched by Toxic Remnants of War Project to help strengthen protection for the environment and those who depend on it during and after conflict.[38][39] In the preface she wrote for the publication "Pollution Politics: power, accountability and toxic remnants of war" she pointed out that toxic remnants of war may likely be "associated with the risk of birth defects, the risk of developing certain forms of cancer, or may adversely affect the neurological development of children and the reproductive processes of humans and animals. They may also impair the function of the respiratory and immune systems, thereby compromising the ability to respond to pathogens and other harmful organisms."[37]

Defending Victims of ISIL

In September 2014, Dr Akreyi launched a worldwide campaign entitled "Save The Yazidis: The World Has To Act Now" to raise awareness about the tragedy of the Yazidis in Northern Iraq and the humanitarian emergency that continued to unfold. "The plight of the Yazidis is a humanitarian tragedy, and we want to make sure that the victims are not forgotten, protected legally, fully assisted and compensated fairly," said Akreyi. She paid tribute to all countries that had supported any minorities during the Iraqi crisis and reiterated her call for the International community to urgently intervene.[40] Dr. Akreyi was quoted in the 2015 Annual Report of The US Commission on International Religious Freedom about the persecution of religious communities in Iraq, Syria and the surrounding region.[41][42]

In October 2014, she dedicated her International Pfeffer Peace Award to the Yazidis, Christians and all residents of Kobane because, she said, facts on the ground demonstrate that these peaceful people are not safe in their enclaves, partly because of their ethnic origin and/or religion and they are therefore in urgent need for immediate attention from the global community.[4]

On 4 November 2014, Dr. Akreyi said that "the international community should define what’s happening to the Yezidis as a crime against humanity, crime against cultural heritage of the region and ethnic cleansing," adding that Yazidi females are being "subjected to as systematic gender-based violence and the use of slavery and rape as a weapon of war."[43]

When the horrifying "price list" for Yazidi and Christian females was issued by ISIS on 3 August 2015, Dr. Akreyi and her team were the first to verify the document's authenticity and publish a translation.[44] The document was later confirmed to be genuine by UN official Zainab Bangura.[45]


In 2014, she joined an international campaign launched by Child Rights International Network to end all executions of juvenile offenders and to protect the rights of child domestic workers.[46]

Human Trafficking

In 2008, she joined the project "Stop Trafficking Worldwide", a campaign to stop human trafficking worldwide.[47][48]

Status and membership

Widad Akreyi addressing the United Nations Fourth Biennial Meeting of States held in June 2010 in New York.


See also


  1. 1 2 "Event: Human Rights in Iran". Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  2. "And the winners are...". Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  3. 1 2 "Dr. Widad Akreyi Awarded For Bridging Gap Between Civilisations". Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Linda Kelly (22 October 2014). "Dr. Widad Akrawi Receives the Pfeffer Peace Award". Fellowship of Reconciliation. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "About Widad Akreyi - Widad's Biography". Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  6. 1 2 "Taras Book at Booklovers(bokelskere.no)". Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  7. 1 2 "Taras bog: Book review by Dr. Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe in the Danish Weekly Paper for Doctors". Retrieved 2013-05-23.
  8. "Lobbyist Widad Akrawi interviewed for the Danish radio program "DR Syd/Fortælletimen"".
  9. "About Defend International". Defend International. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 "Under Haabets Skygge". Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  11. "2006 Amnesty Budget reviewed by EC" (PDF). Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  12. "IANSA and the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs". Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  13. 1 2 "Convention on Cluster Munitions Signing Conference Oslo 2 – 4 December 2008 Final list of delegates" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-02.
  14. "iTunes: Dr Widad Akrawi talking about Kurdish women's right and continued violence against women perpetrated by men, challenges in the implementation of laws". Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  15. "Campaigns at Defend International". Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  16. "Turkey: The Rights of Prisoners on Hunger Strike Must be Respected". Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  17. "Dr. Widad Akreyi interviewed by the Australian SBS Radio (broadcasting in Kurdish) on her work and new incidences of violence against women in Iraqi Kurdistan". Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  18. Meredith Nicolich (18 September 2014). "And the winners are…". Fellowship of Reconciliation. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  19. "Dr. Widad Akrawi: Bridging the Gaps Between Cultures". Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  20. "145,000 signatures supporting a prohibition against torture in the Danish Criminal Code". Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  21. "وداد عقراوي". Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  22. "Children kill two during Eid aerial firing tragedy". Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  23. "Keep women safe from guns". Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  24. "President of Defend International Calls for a Legally-Binding Provision on Preventing Armed Gender-Based Violence in the ATT". Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  25. 1 2 "Everywoman Everywhere Coalition: Widad Akrawi". Retrieved 2014-07-24.
  26. 1 2 3 "Everywoman Everywhere: Europe Regional Working Group". Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  27. "Everywoman Everywhere Coalition: Our Story". Retrieved 2014-07-24.
  28. 1 2 "UN: Dr. Widad underlines Importance of a Culture of Peace". Defend International. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  29. 1 2 "President of Defend International Widad Akreyi Urges Turkey Not to Waste This Historic Opportunity for Peace". Retrieved 2013-05-23.
  30. "Statement by Dr. Widad Akreyi on 2015 Ankara attacks". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  31. "Turkey: Statement by Defend International President on Ankara attacks". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  32. 1 2 "Dr. Akreyi Advocates for Peaceful Solution to Syrian Conflict". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  33. "Dr. Akreyi Marks World Refugee Day 2013". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  34. 1 2 "Dr Widad Akreyi organized Minutes of Mourn for Alan Kurdi and others". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  35. "DI Media Committee: Minute of Mourn for Alan Kurdi". Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  36. "The Global Refugee Crisis". legalparley.com. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  37. 1 2 "Pollution Politics: power, accountability and toxic remnants of war" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-07-12.
  38. "Environmental Peacebuilding: Report launch: Pollution Politics: Power, Accountability and Toxic Remnants of War". Retrieved 2014-07-12.
  39. "Events: Report launch: Pollution Politics: Power, Accountability and Toxic Remnants of War, 2nd July, 2014, London". Retrieved 2014-07-12.
  40. "Save The Yazidis: The World Has To Act Now". Retrieved 2014-09-12.
  42. "USCIRF Annual Report: A Year of Humanitarian Crises". Retrieved 2015-07-25.
  43. "Dr Widad Akreyi Interviewed at RojNews: How should the international community classify the systematic massacre of the Yezidi civilians in Sinjar by IS jihadists that included taking Yezidi girls as sex slaves". Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  44. "IS "Price List" For Yazidi And Christian Females Verified By UN Official". Defend International. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  45. Doug Bolton (4 August 2015). "Isis 'price list' for child slaves confirmed as genuine by UN official Zainab Bangura". The Independent. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  46. "Campaign for a complaints procedure under the CRC". Retrieved 2014-06-02.
  47. "Stop Trafficking Worldwide". Women Of Europe Award. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  48. "Stop Trafficking Worldwide (Europas Kvinders Pris)".
  49. "Support from public figures: Holding a Universal Citizenship Passport". Organisation for Universal Citizenship. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
  50. "Contact us - Dr. Widad Akreyi". Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  51. "WIDAD AKRAWI, of Defend International said that peace lay at the core of the Programme of Action". General Assembly. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  52. "President of Defend International Widad attended the General Assembly meetings as an observer". Defend International. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  53. "List of approved observers to the Informal Interactive Hearings of the General Assembly with Non-governmental organizations, Civil society organizations and the Private sector" (PDF). The United Nations. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  54. "DI joins other NGOs in the 1st Committee of the 64th Session of the UNGA". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  55. "NY: NGO Presentation to the UN First Committee 2008". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  56. "Defend International was accredited to participate in the UN Third Biennial Meeting of States". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  57. "Defend International participated in the 52nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  58. "UNODAupdate: International Women's Day and Disarmament". Retrieved 2014-05-27.
  59. "NY: DI President Dr. Widad at the UN 62nd General Assembly". Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  60. "Dr. Akreyi's Biography". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  61. "Widad Akrawi lobbying for an Arms Trade Treaty at UN First Committee". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  62. "Velkommen til Europas Kvinders Pris i Danmark". Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  63. 1 2 3 Dr. Akrawi's Publication on Cervical Cancer at Amazon.com. ISBN 365650752X.
  64. "Amnesty's new executive committee (Amnestys nye bestyrelse)". Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  65. ÇáÍÏø ãä ÇáÃÓáÍÉ
  66. الحد من الأسلحة (in Arabic)
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