University of Minnesota Duluth
Duluth Normal School (1902–1921)|
Duluth State Teachers College (1921–1947)
|Motto||Those Who Can, Duluth|
|Endowment||$130 million (2015)|
|Budget||$249 million (2015)|
|Chancellor||Lendley C. Black|
|Location||Duluth, Minnesota, United States|
|Campus||Urban - 244 acres (99 ha)|
Maroon and Gold|
NCAA Division II – NSIC|
D-I – NCHC, WCHA (ice hockey)
|Sports||14 varsity teams|
|Mascot||Champ the Bulldog|
University of Minnesota system|
The University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD) is a regional branch of the University of Minnesota system located in Duluth, Minnesota, United States. As Duluth's regional comprehensive university, UMD offers 14 bachelor's degrees in 85 majors, graduate programs in 27 different fields, a two-year program at the School of Medicine, a four-year College of Pharmacy program, and a Doctor of Education program.
The chief executive officer of UMD is Chancellor Dr. Lendley C. Black. Black began his tenure on August 1, 2010. The previous chancellor, Kathryn A. Martin, served from 1995 to 2010.
Although the University of Minnesota Duluth didn’t officially make its appearance until 1947, plans for a college in the Duluth area were first made in the 1890s. The state legislature planned for a teaching school for women (then referred to as a normal school) and in 1895 they announced the formation of the Duluth Normal School. In 1896, the City of Duluth donated 6 acres (2.4 ha) of land to serve as a foundation for the Duluth Normal School, and the state legislature donated additional funds for the construction costs for the main building, which was built in 1900. In February 1901, a fire caused extensive damage to the school and the following year, the school was rebuilt.
In April 1901, Eugene W. Bohannon was appointed president of the Duluth Normal School. In 1902 the school first opened for enrollment. The first students, all women, came to the school to be trained for a degree in education. By 1903, the first seven women received their diplomas from Duluth Normal School. In 1906, the first dormitories were opened, costing the school around $35,000 to build. Room and board were offered at cost, between fourteen and fifteen dollars a month. Throughout the next few years, more dormitories, two new wings, and an auditorium were added to the school. Requirements, such as having a high school diploma, were instituted. Students who signed a pledge to teach after graduation attended for free; others were required to pay $30 per year.
The 1906 Bulletin of the State Normal School describes the school at that time:
- The building is thoroughly modern in construction and equipment. It is located in one of the most attractive parts of the city, overlooking the waters of Lake Superior from a height of more than three hundred feet. The laboratories are large and well arranged. The furniture and apparatus are new and excellent in every way. The present equipment of the several laboratories represents an expenditure of not less than $7,500, and is entirely adequate for the needs of the school. A large and well-lighted room has been equipped for manual training. It is supplied with twenty benches of the most approved make and all of the necessary tools and instruments.
Enrollment for 1903 was 127 and by 1906 it had increased to 202. A Model School with kindergarten through grade eight was maintained for "practice teaching". The 1906 bulletin reports, "At the opening of the school four years ago it was somewhat doubtful whether the number of children to attend would be sufficient to constitute a model school in any proper sense. Only three teachers were needed to take charge of the pupils at that time, while five are required now and the number of children seeking admission is greatly in excess of the limit fixed for the several grades.
In 1921, the Duluth Normal School was renamed Duluth State Teachers College or DSTC. The change in status allowed bachelor's degrees and four-year degree programs to be added to the school. In 1929 the school became co-ed, and the first sports teams were instituted, including hockey, football, and basketball. By 1937, the community supported elevating DSTC to a branch campus of the University of Minnesota. In 1947, DSTC officially became part of the University of Minnesota system and was given its current name, the University of Minnesota Duluth, or UMD.
The UMD campus consists of more than 50 buildings on 244 acres (99 ha) overlooking Lake Superior. Most UMD buildings are connected by concourses or hallways. UMD is also home to the Tweed Museum of Art, the Marshall W. Alworth Planetarium, Weber Music Hall, and the Marshall Performing Arts Center. Other UMD facilities include Glensheen Historic Estate, Chester Park School which houses Minnesota Sea Grant and the Speech-Language-Hearing Clinic, the Natural Resources Research Institute, the Research and Field Studies Center, and the Lower Campus which houses the Large Lakes Observatory.
UMD has substantially expanded its facilities beginning in 2000 with the completion of a new library. Additional recent buildings include the Weber Music Hall (2002), Kirby Plaza (2004), James I. Swenson Science Building (2005), Sports and Health Center addition (2006), Life Science Renovation (2006), Labovitz School of Business & Economics (2008), Bagley Environmental Classroom (2009), and the Civil Engineering Building (2010).
New art on campus came along with the construction of the new buildings. All new public building projects in Minnesota must comply with the state's “One Percent for Art” law, passed by the State Legislature in 1984, which mandates that all such projects in Minnesota costing over $500,000 must devote at least 1% of their total construction budget towards incorporating public art into these building's public spaces. A little over 1% of the library's $28 million construction costs went toward the purchase and installation of a glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly that hangs from the ceiling of the two-story library lobby. An 89-foot (27 m) outdoor sculpture adjacent to the Swenson Science Building makes reference to elements of Duluth's surrounding Native American Ojibwe culture. The sculpture, "Wild Ricing Moon," was designed by John David Mooney and represents the traditional wild rice harvest.
The colleges and schools at the University of Minnesota Duluth are:
- College of Liberal Arts
- Swenson College of Science and Engineering
- School of Fine Arts
- Labovitz School of Business and Economics
- College of Education & Human Service Professions
- Graduate School
- Medical School
- College of Pharmacy
Weber Music Hall
The Weber Music Hall, built in 2002 and designed by architect César Pelli, is considered the "gem" of UMD. The hall has state-of-the-art acoustics and can seat 350 people.
Tweed Museum of Art
The Tweed Museum of Art's history began in the 1920s when George and Alice Tweed first began collecting pieces of 19th and 20th American and European art including examples of the French Barbizon School and Impressionist influenced American Landscape painting. After the death of Mr. Tweed in 1946, Mrs. Tweed saw the potential of the Tweed collection as a resource for the community. She generously developed the funding for the present building which was dedicated in 1958.
Today the museum holds over 7,000 works of art. The collection features artists including David Ericson, Gilbert Munger, Eastman Johnson, William Hart, John Twachtman, Homer Dodge Martin, and Childe Hassam. The Hudson River Valley School collection, the Potlatch Company Royal Canadian Mounted Police painting collection, the Glenn C. Nelson pottery collection and an extensive American Indian artifacts and artworks collection are especially noteworthy. Besides the museum's permanent collection the Tweed hosts exhibitions that feature both international and local artists.
Marshall Performing Arts Center
Marshall Performing Arts Center was built in the 1970s and is a 715-seat flexible thrust/proscenium theatre presenting an array of theatre and dance events. It was named after the parents of Julia and Caroline Marshall and Jessica Marshall Spencer (Albert and Julia N. Marshall) who were donors to the university. The Dudley Experimental Theatre (a black-box theatre within MPAC) was named for another donor, Marjorie Congdon Dudley.
Marshall W. Alworth Planetarium
The construction of the Marshall W. Alworth Planetarium was supported by Marshall W. Alworth. Alworth grew up in Duluth and attended Duluth Central High School and later Dartmouth College. He also donated funds towards scholarships which today are valued at over $35 million.
The Marshall W. Alworth Planetarium has a 30 ft (9.1 m) dome and a Spitz A3P star machine. The planetarium can seat up to 70 people and projects approximately 1500 stars. The planetarium holds a historical telescope that once belonged to John H. Darling.
James I Swenson Civil Engineering Building
Completed in 2010, the 35,300 square foot, $12,100,000 building was designed by Ross Barney Architects of Chicago, Illinois. The new building for the Civil Engineering program is designed to teach students about materials, how they go together, how they age, and how they express the forces inherent in any structure. The exterior expresses the traits of a place where students design, construct, and test structures to withstand stresses and strains. The facade is distinguished by cor-ten steel, precast and poured in place concrete, concrete block, and scuppers clad in reclaimed wood. On a rainy day, the building is a demonstration of hydraulics and kinetic energy, as water pours from the scuppers and splashes into the cor-ten steel catch basins. The design has received many accolades, including the 2013 American Institute of Architects Cote Top Ten Green Project Award.
The jury stated "This is an example of wedding together buildings that perform well but also are aesthetically rich, and culturally useful, beneficial, and beautiful in their own way. The project has a very honest expression of the materials—it’s very clear what this building is made of. It’s creative in its architectural expression in a way that’s sculptural and sort of bold and solid like the sciences that are studied within. Seventy-seven percent energy reduction below the baseline in Duluth’s severe climate also is impressive."
Swenson Science Building
Completed in 2006, the new building is situated on the main corridor into the 244 acre campus and contains 108,000 gross square feet of inter disciplinary research and teaching laboratories for Chemistry, Fresh Water Ecology and Biology and creates a link between the academic and residential areas of the campus. Designed by Ross Barney Architects of Chicago, Illinois, the new building provides 16 undergraduate instructional laboratories for 2100 students, 16 research laboratories for faculty and postdoctoral researchers, offices for faculty, graduate and postgraduate students, and the Biology departments administration. One unique feature is the wild rice research laboratory built into the watershed creating a front yard and an outdoor learning space.
Centers, Institutes, and Research Labs
Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BBER): Conducts economic and business research, providing unbiased data and analysis concerning the economic viability of building, expanding or relocating businesses in the region.
Center for Community and Regional Research: Community-based education providing faculty and students in the social and natural sciences the opportunity to work with local and regional community organizations.
Center for Economic Development: A consulting program with one-on-one services for business start-ups and existing businesses focusing on feasibility studies, market research, surveys, business plan development, loan packaging, operational assistance, procurement assistance, manufacturing, management, compliance (EPA, OSHA, Revenue and Tax), problem solving, and information technology.
Center for Genocide, Holocaust, and Human Rights Studies: The Center engages students, staff and the wider public by offering a lecture series and workshops.
Center for Regional and Tribal Child Welfare Studies: Advances the well-being of children by strengthening families and communities through social work education, research, and outreach in the region.
Center for Water and Environment: Committed to understanding problems and developing tools for solving problems that impede environmentally sound development of the economy.
Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute (GLMRI): GLMRI is dedicated to developing and improving economically and environmentally sustainable maritime commerce by researching marine transportation, logistics, economics, engineering, environmental planning, and port management.
Large Lakes Observatory (LLO): As the only institute in the country dedicated to the study of large lakes throughout the world, LLO focuses on the global implications of aquatic chemistry, circulation dynamics, geochemistry, acoustic remote sensing, plankton dynamics, sedimentology, and paleoclimatology.
MMAD Lab: The (Motion + Media Across Disciplines) MMAD Lab is a 3D motion capture and high definition video production studio that offers unique opportunities for interdisciplinary research and creative activity, including ergonomic design, gait analysis, virtual reality, and the latest innovative techniques in video production and sound engineering. The MMAD Lab works in conjunction with the Viz Lab.
Minnesota Sea Grant Program: Facilitates interaction between university scientists and the public. Scientists work to enhance the communities, the environment and the economies along Lake Superior and Minnesota's inland waters.
Natural Resources Research Institute: The institute helps launch promising small businesses and provides ongoing research and development assistance, especially in the areas of forest products, and taconite ore mining. Environmental program areas include: water resources, land resources, land-water interactions, and environmental chemistry.
The Northland Advanced Transportation Systems Research Laboratory: Develops innovative technologies for safe, productive, and sustainable transportation systems in northern areas.
Royal D. Alworth Institute for International Studies: The Institute aims to engage students, staff and the wider public with open discussion for educational, social and democratic purposes by introducing a wide range of international issues that have domestic implications.
Visualization and Digital Imaging Lab: A multi-disciplinary lab that focuses on the integration of information and emerging visual technologies and the distribution of knowledge to the public.
|U.S. News & World Report||47|
|Master's University class|
The University of Minnesota Duluth has 13 bachelor's degree programs with 74 majors.
UMD's athletic teams were named the Bulldogs in 1933. Their colors are maroon and gold. The school competes at the NCAA Division II level in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference (NSIC) in all sports except ice hockey. The men's hockey program plays in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference (NCHC) after previously playing in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA). The women's hockey program still competes in the Division I Western Collegiate Hockey Association.
On 13 December 2008, the undefeated Bulldogs won the NCAA Division II National Football Championship—the first Division II championship in any sport at the school. On December 18, 2010, the Bulldogs won their second NCAA Division II National Football Championship in a 3-year span, and their second in school history beating Delta State University.
On April 9, 2011, the Minnesota Duluth Bulldogs men's ice hockey team defeated the University of Michigan 3-2 in overtime for the NCAA Division I men's hockey national title, their first. The Minnesota Duluth Bulldogs women's ice hockey team has won five NCAA Division I national titles (2001, 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2010.)
UMD's Football, Soccer and Track and Field teams compete at Griggs Field in James S. Malosky Stadium. Hockey is played off campus at Amsoil Arena in the DECC. Basketball and Volleyball teams play in Romano Gymnasium on campus. Baseball is played in Bulldog Park and softball is played in Junction Avenue Field
Fraternities and sororities
There are several fraternities and sororities that UMD students can join. Sororities include Gamma Sigma Sigma, Beta Lambda Psi (a local sorority), Phi Sigma Sigma, and Kappa Beta Gamma. Fraternities include Phi Kappa Psi, Alpha Delta, Tau Kappa Epsilon, Phi Kappa Tau, and Alpha Nu Omega (a local fraternity, not to be confused with the national Alpha Nu Omega organization). Students must be an active member of a fraternity or sorority in good standing before serving on Greek Council. The UMD Greek system is run like a senate body where all organizations are represented by two delegates. Although the council had financial disagreements involving the membership fee which led to the departure of Alpha Phi Omega in the fall of 2009, they have since rejoined. In April 2013 Alpha Phi Omega transferred to Alpha Delta due to conflicts at a national level.
Recreational sports outdoor program
Soccer, Softball, Volleyball, Flag Football, Ultimate Frisbee, Bowling, Inner Tube Water Polo, Golf, Table Tennis, Broomball, Hockey (4 on 4), Basketball (Co-Rec., 3 on 3), Curling, Volleyball (4 on 4)
There are many UMD organized sports clubs that both men and women may join together. Some of the clubs include: Alpine Skiing, Cycling, Badminton, Dance Team, Synchronized Skating, snowboard, Dodgeball, Martial Arts, Rowing, and Table Tennis. Men's clubs include: Lacrosse, Wrestling, Hockey, Rugby Football, Soccer. Women's clubs include: Ice Hockey, Lacrosse, Rugby.
Rod & Gun Club, Kayak & Canoe Club, North Shore Climbers, Outdoor Educators Club, and Wuda Wooch!
Examples of past trips include: Paddling the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Climbing the Devil’s Tower National Monument in Wyoming, backpacking the Porcupine Mountains in Michigan. Events and races on campus in UMD's Bagley Nature Area have included the Rock Hill Adventure where participants run, canoe or kayak and the Homecoming 5K Trail Run.
There are a variety of group fitness programs at UMD. These programs are open to students, faculty, staff, and community members. Fitness passes grant entry to classes including; Butts & Gutts, Cardio Mix, Circuit City, Hip Hop, Kardio Kick, Pilates, Piloga, Pump & Tone, Power Yoga, Spin & Core, Step, Step & Sculpt, Vinyasa Yoga, and Yoga Inspired Stretch. Massage therapy, personal training, tri teams, and kinesis are also available at UMD.
University of Minnesota Duluth alumni have made significant contributions in government, business, sciences, athletics, and the arts. Yvonne Prettner Solon is the former Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota. Robert Senkler serves as Chairman and CEO of Securian Financial Group. Brian Kobilka won the 2012 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Don Ness is the former mayor of Duluth, Minnesota. Minnesota Duluth has also produced numerous professional hockey players including John Harrington and Mark Pavelich from the 1980 Miracle on Ice Olympic hockey team, and NHL Hall of Famer, Brett Hull.
James Swenson, a University of Minnesota Duluth Alumnus, has donated more than $21 million to the school, with his most recent donation of $10.7 million toward the College of Science and Engineering. $3 million of this was dedicated to the new civil engineering building and the remaining $7.7 million was given as scholarships for students in science and research programs. This donation helps to continue to support the scholarship programs the Swenson family started in 1994. Since the program began, UMD has awarded scholarships to over 200 students. Because of his generous donations over the years, the school renamed the College of Science and Engineering to be the Swenson College of Science and Engineering. “It’s nice to have our names on buildings, but there’s a lot of gratification in helping these young people,” said Swenson. The Swensons are natives of northern Superior, Wisc. and have since relocated to California. James completed his bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1959 at UMD. He then worked in the computer industry with his circuit shop Details Inc., which he sold in 1997.
Joel Labovitz is founder of Labovitz Enterprises, a diversified investment firm based in Duluth with a focus on the hospitality industry. Previously, Joel Labovitz was President and CEO of Maurices, the retail clothing company that was founded in 1931 in Duluth by his father, Maurice Labovitz.
- ↑ https://umdstatesman.wp.d.umn.edu/2012/12/05/umd-rebranded-university-establishes-its-own-identity/
- ↑ "History of the Minnesota Sea Grant Program". Minnesota Sea Grant. Minnesota Sea Grant. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- ↑ "University of Minnesota--Duluth". Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- ↑ "University of Minnesota--Duluth" (PDF). University of Minnesota Duluth, Office of the Vice Chancellor for Finance and Operations. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- ↑ "University of Minnesota: Employee Head Count". University of Minnesota Office of Institutional Research.
- 1 2 3 4 Campus and Unit Enrollment by Academic Level for Spring 2016 University of Minnesota Office of Institutional Research
- ↑ The State We’re in: Reflections on Minnesota History. Atkins, Annette and Miller, Deborah L. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press. 2010
- 1 2 3 The Will and the Way, published by Manley Goldfine and Donn Larson, 2004, chapter 30 by Mike Lalich.
- 1 2 3 UMD Comes of Age: The First 100 Years, by Ken Moran and Neil Storch, 1996
- ↑ Duluth:300 Years, Sieur duLhut Tricentennial Committee, Duluth. 1979.
- ↑ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/normal.html
- ↑ Zenith: A Postcard Perspective of Historic Duluth. Dierckins, Tony. X-Communication, Duluth, Minnesota. 2006.
- ↑ Duluth: Then and Now, Duluth News Tribune, Duluth. 2005
- ↑ Duluth’s Legacy Volume 1: Architecture. Scott, James Allen. The City of Duluth and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Duluth, Minnesota. 1974.
- ↑ Duluth Sketches of the Past: A Bicentennial Collection. Northprint Co. U.S.A. 1976.
- 1 2 Bulletin of the State Normal School, Duluth, Minnesota. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- ↑ A Chronology of UMD Events, 1895-1984. Hoshal, Julian. Duluth. 1985.
- ↑ "Full text of "Bulletin of the State Normal School, Duluth, Minnesota"". Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- ↑ Images of America: Duluth, Minnesota. Aubut, Sheldon T. and Norton, Maryanne C., Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Illinois. 2001.
- ↑ Today's Education. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- 1 2 Landmark Structures of Duluth: Their History and Architecture. Sommer, Lawrence J. 1971.
- ↑ The University of Minnesota 1945-2000, Stanford Lehmberg and Ann M. Pflam, University of Minnesota Press, 2001
- ↑ Duluth: An Illustrated History of the Zenith City. Sandvik, Glenn N. Windsor, Publications, Woodland Hills, California. 1983.
- 1 2 3 4 A Construction History: University of Minnesota Duluth by Robert W. Bridges, UMD. Duluth. 1986.
- ↑ UMD Campus Master Plan. Duluth, Minnesota: University of Minnesota. 1995.
- ↑ University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus Master Plan Update. Duluth, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, Duluth. 2000.
- ↑ America’s Castles. The University Estates: Chinqua-Penn, Glensheen & Cupples House. New York: A & E Home Video. 1997.
- ↑ A Lake Superior Lawyer: A Biography of Chester Adgate Congdon, by Roy O. Hoover. Superior Partners, Duluth. 1997.
- 1 2 2000-2010: A decade of building excellence at the University of Minnesota Duluth, UMD, Duluth. 2010.
- ↑ The Vatican Observatory and the Arts: The Sculpture of John David Mooney at Castel Gandolfo, University of Notre Dame Press. 2000
- ↑ UMD: sculpture
- ↑ Duluth: An Illustrated History of the Zenith City. Sandvik, Glenn N. Windsor Publications, Woodland Hills, California. 1983.
- ↑ European Painting from the Tweed Museum of Art by David Stark, Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2000
- ↑ Tweed Museum of Art: 50 Years Artwork by Kenneth FitzGerald, Zuzana Licko, Martin DeWitt, and Peter Spooner. Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2000
- ↑ American Painting at the Tweed Museum of Art and Glensheen. by J. Gray Sweeney, Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1982
- ↑ Duluth's Legacy: Architecture by James Allen Scott; John R Ulven; Robert T Calton; Dept. of Research, City of Duluth, 1974
- ↑ David Ericson Always Returning: The Life and Work of a Duluth Cultural Icon, Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2005
- ↑ Forgotten Duluthians. Ouse, David. Duluth, Minnesota: X-presso books. 2010.
- ↑ Gilbert Munger: Quest for Distinction by Michael D. Schroeder and J. Gray Sweeney, Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2003
- ↑ Looking North: Royal Canadian Mounted Police: The Potlatch Collection, by Karal Ann Marling, Afton Historical Society Press, 2003
- ↑ Glenn C. Nelson: A Tribute Exhibition. by various authors. Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1992
- ↑ Shared Passion: The Richard E. and Dorothy Rawlings Nelson Collection of American Indian Art, by Martin DeWitt and others, Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2001
- ↑ Cheng-Khee Chee Retirement Party: Held at the Tweed Museum of Art on the UMD Campus, May 4th, 1994.
- ↑ http://www.archdaily.com/189461/umd-swenson-civil-engineering-building-ross-barney-architects/
- ↑ Jennifer Goodman. "2013 AIA COTE Top Ten Green Project: James I. Swenson Civil Engineering Building". EcoBuilding Pulse. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- ↑ "University of Minnesota's Swenson Science Building Improves Education". Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- ↑ Labovitz School of Business and Economics: Bureau of Business and Economic Research. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Center For Community and Regional Research. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Center for Economic Development. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Center for Genocide, Holocaust, & Human Rights Studies. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Center for Regional and Tribal Child Welfare Studies. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Center for Water and the Environment. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Large Lakes Observatory. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ . Retrieved August 29, 2016
- ↑ Minnesota Sea Grant. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Natural Resources Research Institute. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Northland Advanced Transportation Systems Research Laboratory. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Royal D. Alworth, Jr. Institute for International Studies. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ Visualization and Digital Imaging Lab. Retrieved July 13, 2011
- ↑ "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. July 5, 2016.
- ↑ "Best Colleges 2017: Regional Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. September 12, 2016.
- ↑ "2016 Rankings - National Universities - Masters". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- ↑ UMD: Facts
- ↑ [UMD Comes of Age: The First 100 Years, by Ken Moran and Neil Storch, 1996]
- ↑ "Sports News & latest headlines from AOL". AOL.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- ↑ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- ↑ Engage Your Education! | Kirby Student Center
- ↑ Living Life Forward: Memoirs of a Lucky Life, by Joel Labovitz. Stewart-Taylor Printing, Duluth, MN, 2006.
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