Treaty of Zuhab

The Treaty of Zuhab (Persian: قصرشیرین, also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Treaty of Kasr-ı Şirin; Turkish: Kasr-ı Şirin Antlaşması)) was an accord signed between Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639.[1] The accord ended the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–1639) and was the last conflict in almost 150 years of intermittent wars between the two states over territorial disputes. It can roughly be seen as a confirmation of the previous Peace of Amasya from 1555.[2] The treaty confirmed the dividing of territories in West Asia priorly held by the Safavids, such as the permanent parting of the Caucasus between the two powers, in which East Armenia, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan stayed under the control of the Safavid Empire, while western Georgia and most of Western Armenia came fully under Ottoman rule. It also included all of Mesopotamia (including Baghdad) being irreversibly ceded to the Ottomans. Nevertheless, border disputes between Persia and the Ottoman Empire did not end. Between 1555 and 1918, Persia and the Ottomans signed no less than 18 treaties that would re-address their disputed borders. The exact demarcation according to this treaty would not begin until the 19th century, essentially laying out the rough outline for the frontier between modern day Iran and the states of Turkey and Iraq (the former Ottoman-Persian border until 1918, when the Ottoman Empire lost its territories in the Middle East following their defeat in World War I.)


  1. Somel, Selçuk Akşin, Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire, (Scarecrow Press Inc., 2003), 306.
  2. Redgate, A. E. (2000). The Armenians. Oxford Malden, MA: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22037-4.


See also

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