Timeline of Middle Eastern history

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This timeline tries to compile dates of important historical events that happened in or that led to the rise of the Middle East. The Middle East is the territory that comprises today's Egypt, the Persian Gulf states, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Cyprus and Northern Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the State of Palestine, Gaza Strip, UAE, and Yemen. The Middle East with its particular characteristics was not to emerge until the late second millennium CE. To refer to a concept similar that of today's Middle East but earlier in time, the term Ancient Near East is used.

This list is intended as a timeline of the history of the Middle East. For more detailed information, see articles on the histories of individual countries. See Ancient Near East for ancient history of the Middle East.

Neolithic period

10th millennium BCE

9th millennium BCE

8th millennium BCE

7th millennium BCE

6th millennium BCE

5th millennium BCE

Ancient Near East

4th millennium BCE

Main articles: Sumer and Ur
Overview map of the Ancient Near East

3rd millennium BCE

2nd millennium BCE

The Oriental Empires about 600 BCE

1st millennium BCE

1st millennium CE

Rise of Islam

1st millennium CE

Ottoman Empire, 1481–1683
In blue, the Arabic Empire in its greatest extent and in yellow the four Christian empires.

2nd millennium CE

Contemporary Middle East

2nd millennium CE

3rd millennium CE

See also


  1. http://archaeology.about.com/od/eterms/qt/Emmer-Wheat.htm
  2. McTavish, E.J., Decker, J.E., Schnabel, R.D., Taylor, J.F. and Hillis, D.M.year=2013. "New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110: E1398–406. doi:10.1073/pnas.1303367110. PMC 3625352Freely accessible. PMID 23530234.
  3. Carter, Robert (2012). "19". In Potts, D.T. A companion to the archaeology of the ancient Near East. Ch 19 Watercraft. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 347–354. ISBN 978-1-4051-8988-0. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  4. King, Leonid W. (2015) "A History of Sumer and Akkad" (ISBN 1522847308)
  5. Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. (1981). The Camel (Camelus Dromedarius): A Bibliographical Review. International Livestock Centre for Africa Monograph. 5. Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa. pp. 1, 3, 20–21, 65, 67–68.
  6. Scarre, Chris (15 September 1993). Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World. London: D. Kindersley. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-56458-305-5. Both the dromedary (the seven-humped camel of Arabia) and the Bactrian camel (the two-humped camel of Central Asia) had been domesticated since before 2000 BC.
  7. Bulliet, Richard (20 May 1990) [1975]. The Camel and the Wheel. Morningside Book Series. Columbia University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-231-07235-9. As has already been mentioned, this type of utilization [camels pulling wagons] goes back to the earliest known period of two-humped camel domestication in the third millennium B.C.—Note that Bulliet has many more references to early use of camels
  8. near the modern village of Al-Houz in Syria's Al-Qusayr District. see Kitchen, K. A., "Ramesside Inscriptions", volume 2, Blackwell Publishing Limited, 1996, pp. 16–17.
  9. Eggenberger, David (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles. Dover Publications. p. 214.
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