Timeline of Jainism
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Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the most possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism.
Before common era (BCE)
- 584,979–574,979 BCE: Naminatha, 21st Tirthankara
- Neminatha, 22nd Tirthankara: According to Jain beliefs, he lived 84,650 years before the 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanatha. He existed in the Mahabharata era and was the cousin brother of Krishna.
- 877–777 BCE: Parshva, 23rd Tirthankar of Jainism. He is the earliest Jain leader who can be reliably dated.
- 599–527 BCE: Mahavira, 24th and last Tirthankar of this era.
- 5th century BCE: Siddhasen Diwakar
- d. 507 BCE: Ganahar Sudharma Swami
- d. 357 BCE: Acharya Bhadrabahu
- d. 162 BCE: Hathigumpha inscription mentions the Navkar Mantra and Jain monarch Kharvela.
- 2nd century BCE: Navakar Mantra epigraphically attested in Maharashtra
Common era (CE)
- 1st century CE: Acharya Kundkund
- 87 CE: Pushpadanta starts to write Shatkhandagam
- 156 CE: Acharya Bhutbali completes writing of Shatkhandagam
- 454 CE: Devardhigani compiles Jain Agamas
- 5th century CE: first mention of the Mula Sangh order
- 9th century
- 10th century
- 12th century
- 13th century
- 1229: Tapa Gachchha
- 15th century
- 17th century
- 18th century
- 1868: Jain temple in Mumbai
- 1880s: reform movement of Acharya Rajendrasuri
- 1893: Virachand Gandhi participates in Chicago's World Parliament of Religions& Won Silver Medal.
- 1904: Jain temple at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
- 1927: Madras High Court in Gateppa v. Eramma and others recognizes "Jainism as a distinct religion"
- 1970s: significant presence of Jainism in the United States
- 1975: Monolithic statue of Bahubali is installed at Dharmasthala, Karnataka, India under the auspices of D. Rathnavarma Heggade and Mathrushree D. Rathnamma Heggade, members of Dharmasthala's Jaina lineage who also manage the local Shivaite temple. Carving work began in 1966 under the sculptor Rejala Gopalkrishna Shenoy of Karkala.
- 1976: In Arya Samaj Education Trust, Delhi & Others v. The Director of Education, Delhi Administration, Delhi & Others (AIR 1976 Delhi 207), the Court referred to Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India describing Jainism as "a heterodox Indian religion" and J. N. Farquhar's Modern Religious Movements in India describing Jainism as "a rival of Hinduism."
- 1981: First Jain convention in Los Angeles
- 1983: Formal organization of JAINA (Jain Associations in North America)
- 1990: Temple Pratishtha, The Jain Sangh Cherry Hill, New Jersey
- 1990: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Washington
- 1991: Founding of Siddhachalam, the Jain tirtha
- 1991: Death of Jain Acharya Shri Ramchandra Surishwarji
- 1993: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago
- 1995: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Cincinnati and Dayton
- 1998: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Greater Detroit
- 2000: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Northern California (JCNC)
- 2000: Jain Vishwa Bharati Orlando
- 2005: the Supreme Court of India declined to grant Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India, leaving it to the respective states to decide on the minority status of Jainis.
- 2006: the Supreme Court opined that "Jain Religion is indisputably not a part of the Hindu religion" (Para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, U.P. v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21.08.2006, Supreme Court of India.)
- 2008: Delhi city government declares Jain community as a minority as per the Supreme Court Orders.
- 2014: Jain community is notified as minority at national level.
- "NamiNatha Bhagwan". http://jainmuseum.com. External link in
- "About Tonks Of 24 Jain Tirthankaras On Parasnath Hills Information-Topchanchi". http://www.hoparoundindia.com. External link in
- Zimmer 1953, p. 226.
- Jinasena, Acharya; Jain (Sahityacharya), Dr. Pannalal (2008). Harivamsapurana [Harivamsapurana]. Bhartiya Jnanpith (18, Institutional Area, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110003). ISBN 978-81-263-1548-2.
- Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-148-2. p. 115
- "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 59–60.
- "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
- Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII.
- Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English
- Cort 2009, p. 39-41.
- Kerkar & TNN 2014.
- Government notification- minority
- Kerkar, Rajendra; TNN (31 October 2014), Jain heritage dwindles as govt sits pretty, The Times of India
- Bedrij, Orest (2013). The Greatest Achievement: Miracle after Miracle the Easy Way. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4931-0773-5.
- Bedrij, Orest (2011). Exodus III: Great Joy and Glory to the Most High as You. Xlibris Corporation.
- Cort, John (16 November 2009). Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History. United States: Oxford University Press.
- Shah, Natubhai (2004), Jainism: The World of Conquerors, 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2
- Sangave, Dr. Vilas Adinath (2001). Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2.
- Glasenapp, Helmuth Von (1999), Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1953), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-8120807396