Thunder Bay

For other uses, see Thunder Bay (disambiguation).
Thunder Bay
City (single-tier)
City of Thunder Bay

Overview of Thunder Bay


Coat of arms

Nickname(s): "Canada’s Gateway to the West", "T-Bay", "Lakehead" or "The Lakehead"[1]
Motto: Superior by Nature / The Gateway to the West
Thunder Bay

Location of Thunder Bay in Ontario

Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222°N 89.24611°W / 48.38222; -89.24611Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222°N 89.24611°W / 48.38222; -89.24611
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
District Thunder Bay District
CMA Thunder Bay
Settled 1683 as Fort Caministigoyan
Amalgamation 1 January 1970
Electoral Districts     

Thunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Rainy River
Provincial Thunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Atikokan
  Type Municipal Government
  Mayor Keith Hobbs
  City manager Norm Gale[4]
  Governing Body Thunder Bay City Council
  MPs Patty Hajdu (Liberal)
Don Rusnak (Liberal)
  MPPs Michael Gravelle (OLP)
Bill Mauro (OLP)
  City (single-tier) 447.5 km2 (172.8 sq mi)
  Land 328.24 km2 (126.73 sq mi)
  Water 119.0 km2 (45.9 sq mi)  26.6%
  Urban 179.38 km2 (69.26 sq mi)
  Metro 2,556.37 km2 (987.02 sq mi)
Elevation[9] 199 m (653 ft)
Population (2011)[5][6][7]
  City (single-tier) 108,359 (46th)
  Density 330.1/km2 (855/sq mi)
  Urban 102,222 (30th)
  Urban density 569.9/km2 (1,476/sq mi)
  Metro 121,596 (32nd)
  Metro density 47.6/km2 (123/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Thunder Bayer
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
  Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code FSA P7A to P7G, P7J, P7K
Area code(s) 807
NTS Map 052A06

Thunder Bay is a city in, and the seat of, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada. It is the most populous municipality in Northwestern Ontario with a population of 108,359 as of the Canada 2011 Census, and the second most populous in Northern Ontario after Greater Sudbury. Located on Lake Superior, the census metropolitan area of Thunder Bay has a population of 121,596, and consists of the city of Thunder Bay, the municipalities of Oliver Paipoonge and Neebing, the townships of Shuniah, Conmee, O'Connor, and Gillies, and the Fort William First Nation.

European settlement in the region began in the late 17th century with a French fur trading outpost on the banks of the Kaministiquia River.[10] It grew into an important transportation hub with its port forming an important link in the shipping of grain and other products from western Canada, through the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the east coast. Forestry and manufacturing played important roles in the city's economy. They have declined in recent years, but have been replaced by a "knowledge economy" based on medical research and education. Thunder Bay is the site of the Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute.

The city takes its name from the immense Thunder Bay at the head of Lake Superior, known on 18th-century French maps as Baie du Tonnerre (Bay of Thunder).[10] The city is often referred to as the "Lakehead", or "Canadian Lakehead", because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation on the Canadian side of the border.[11]


Before 1900

European settlement at Thunder Bay began with two French fur trading posts (1683, 1717) which were subsequently abandoned (see Fort William, Ontario). In 1803, the Montreal-based North West Company established Fort William as its mid-continent entrepôt. The fort thrived until 1821 when the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company, and Fort William was no longer needed.

Fort William in 1865

By the 1850s, the Province of Canada began to take an interest in its western extremity. Discovery of copper in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan had prompted a national demand for mining locations on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior. In 1849, French-speaking Jesuits established the Mission de l'Immaculée-Conception (Mission of the Immaculate Conception) on the Kaministiquia to evangelize the Ojibwe. The Province of Canada negotiated the Robinson Treaty in 1850 with the Ojibwa of Lake Superior. As a result, an Indian reserve was set aside for them south of the Kaministiquia River. In 1859–60, the Department of Crown Lands surveyed two townships (Neebing and Paipoonge) and the Town Plot of Fort William for European-Canadian settlement.

Another settlement developed a few miles to the north of Fort William after construction by the federal Department of Public Works of a road connecting Lake Superior with the Red River Colony. The work was directed by Simon James Dawson (see Port Arthur, Ontario). This public works depot or construction headquarters acquired its first name in May 1870 when Colonel Garnet Wolseley named it Prince Arthur's Landing. It was renamed Port Arthur by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in May 1883.[12]

The arrival of the CPR in 1875 sparked a long rivalry between the towns, which did not end until the amalgamation of 1970. Until the 1880s, Port Arthur was a much larger and dynamic community. The CPR, in collaboration with the Hudson's Bay Company, preferred east Fort William, located on the lower Kaministiquia River where the fur trade posts were. Provoked by a prolonged tax dispute with Port Arthur and its seizure of a locomotive in 1889, the CPR relocated all its employees and facilities to Fort William. The collapse of silver mining after 1890 undermined the economy of Port Arthur. It had an economic depression, while Fort William thrived.

20th century

C.N. Railway Station

In the era of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Thunder Bay began a period of extraordinary growth, based on improved access to markets via the transcontinental railway and development of the western wheat boom. The CPR double-tracked its Winnipeg–Thunder Bay line. The Canadian Northern Railway established facilities at Port Arthur. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway began construction of its facilities at the Fort William Mission in 1905, and the federal government began construction of the National Transcontinental Railway. Grain elevator construction boomed as the volume of grain shipped to Europe increased. Both cities incurred debt to grant bonuses to manufacturing industries.

By 1914, the twin cities had modern infrastructures (sewers, safe water supply, street lighting, electric light, etc.) Both Fort William and Port Arthur were proponents of municipal ownership. As early as 1892, Port Arthur built Canada's first municipally-owned electric street railway. Both cities spurned Bell Telephone Company of Canada to establish their own municipally-owned telephone systems in 1902.

The boom came to an end in 1913–14, aggravated by the outbreak of the First World War. A war-time economy emerged with the making of munitions and shipbuilding. Men from the cities joined the 52nd, 94th, and 141st Battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.

Railway employment was hurt when the federal government took over the National Transcontinental Railway and Lake Superior Division from the Grand Trunk in 1915, and the Canadian Northern Railway in 1918. These were amalgamated with other government-owned railways in 1923 to form the Canadian National Railways. The CNR closed many of the Canadian Northern Railway facilities in Port Arthur. It opened the Neebing yards in Neebing Township in 1922. By 1929, the population of the two cities had recovered to pre-war levels.

The forest products industry has played an important role in the Thunder Bay economy, from the 1870s. Logs and lumber were shipped primarily to the United States. In 1917, the first pulp and paper mill was established in Port Arthur. It was followed by a mill at Fort William, in 1920. Eventually there were four mills operating.

Manufacturing resumed in 1937 when the Canada Car and Foundry Company plant (opened during late World War I to produce naval ships and railcars) re-opened to build aircraft for the British. Now run by Bombardier Transportation, the plant has remained a mainstay of the post-war economy. It has produced forestry equipment and transportation equipment for urban transit systems, such as the Toronto Transit Commission and GO Transit.


On 1 January 1970, the City of Thunder Bay was formed through the merger of the cities of Fort William, Port Arthur, and the geographic townships of Neebing and McIntyre.[10] Its name was the result of a referendum held previously on 23 June 1969, to determine the new name of the amalgamated Fort William and Port Arthur. Officials debated over the names to be put on the ballot, taking suggestions from residents including "Lakehead" and "The Lakehead". Predictably, the vote split between the two, and "Thunder Bay" was the victor. The final tally was "Thunder Bay" with 15,870, "Lakehead" with 15,302, and "The Lakehead" with 8,377.[13]

There was more controversy over the selection of a name for the amalgamated city than over whether to amalgamate. A vocal majority of the population preferred the "Lakehead".[14] There was much discussion over whether there was any other city in the world that uses the word "The" in its name, which there is, as The Pas, Manitoba has "The" in its name, for example. The area was often referred to as the "Lakehead" before and after amalgamation based on its geographic location. It was seen as the "head" of shipping on the Great Lakes and the "rail head".

The expansion of highways, beginning with the Trans-Canada Highway, and culminating with the opening of Highway 17 (linking Sault Ste Marie to Thunder Bay in 1960), has significantly diminished railway and shipping activity since the 1970s and 80s. Shipping on the Saint Lawrence Seaway was superseded by trucking on highways. Grain shipping on the Great Lakes to the East has declined substantially in favour of transport to Pacific Coast ports. As a result, many grain elevators have been closed and demolished. The Kaministiquia River was abandoned by industry and shipping.


Thunder Bay has become the regional services centre for Northwestern Ontario with most provincial departments represented. Lakehead University, established through the lobbying of local businessmen and professionals, has proved to be a major asset. Another upper level institution is Confederation College. The same businessmen and professionals who helped attract the university and college were the driving force(s) behind the political amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur in 1970.


Fort William as seen from the International Space Station, December 2008

The city has an area of 328.48 square kilometres, which includes the former cities of Fort William and Port Arthur, as well as the [former] townships of Neebing and McIntyre.

The former Fort William section occupies flat alluvial land along the Kaministiquia River. In the river delta are two large islands: Mission Island and McKellar Island.

The former Port Arthur section is more typical of the Canadian Shield, with gently sloping hills and very thin soil lying on top of bedrock with many bare outcrops. Thunder Bay, which gives the city its name, is about 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi) from the Port Arthur downtown to Thunder Cape at the tip of the Sleeping Giant.

The city reflects the settlement patterns of the 19th century and sprawls. Anchoring the west end of the city, the Fort William Town Plot, surveyed in 1859–60, was named West Fort William (or Westfort) in 1888 by the CPR. The land adjoining the lower Kaministiquia River became the residential and central business district of the town and city of Fort William. A large uninhabited area adjoining the Neebing and McIntyre rivers, which became known as Intercity, separated Fort William from the residential and central business district of Port Arthur. At the extreme east of the city, a part of McIntyre Township was annexed to the town of Port Arthur in 1892, forming what later became known as the Current River area.

Since 1970, the central business districts of Fort William and Port Arthur have suffered a serious decline. Business and government relocated to new developments in the Intercity area. There has also been substantial residential growth in adjacent areas of the former Neebing and McIntyre townships.


The Thunder Bay area experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb)[15] that is influenced by Lake Superior, with especially noticeable effects in the city's north end. This results in cooler summer temperatures and warmer winter temperatures for an area extending inland as far as 16 km. The average daily temperatures range from 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) in July to −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) in January. The average daily high in July is 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) and the average daily high in January is −8.0 °C (17.6 °F).[16] On 10 January 1982, the local temperature in Thunder Bay dropped to −36.3 °C (−33.3 °F), with a wind speed of 54 km (34 mi) for a wind chill temperature that dipped to −58 °C (−72.4 °F).[17][18] As a result, it holds Ontario's record for coldest day with wind chill.[18] The highest temperature ever recorded in Thunder Bay was 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) on 7 August 1983.[19] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) on 31 January 1996.[20]

The city is quite sunny, with an average of 2121 hours of bright sunshine each year, ranging from 268.1 hours in July to 86.2 hours in November, sunnier than any city in Canada located to the east of it.[16] Winters are comparatively dry with the snowfall being very limited and temperatures much colder than in Houghton, Michigan on the U.S. side of the lake, where the climate is marked by heavy lake-effect snow. Thunder Bay has more of a continental climate in comparison.

Climate data for Thunder Bay Airport, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1877−present[lower-alpha 1]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 9.2 15.4 22.9 29.7 38.7 43.1 46.2 45.4 41.2 32.3 21.7 11.8 46.2
Record high °C (°F) 8.3
Average high °C (°F) −8
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.3
Average low °C (°F) −20.6
Record low °C (°F) −43.2
Record low wind chill −58.2 −54.0 −42.7 −32.0 −16.2 −5.8 0.0 −4.0 −10.8 −20.6 −40.0 −51.0 −58.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26.3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.39
Average snowfall cm (inches) 36.5
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.0 9.5 10.3 9.5 11.5 13.8 12.9 12.3 13.7 12.9 12.1 12.4 142.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.57 1.1 3.4 7.1 11.0 13.8 12.9 12.3 13.5 11.0 4.7 1.2 90.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.9 9.6 8.4 4.0 0.50 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.27 3.4 9.7 13.9 62.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 109.6 126.7 159.8 213.0 259.0 262.0 268.1 255.9 163.8 125.4 86.2 91.2 2,120.5
Percent possible sunshine 40.1 44.2 43.4 52.0 55.0 54.5 55.2 57.6 43.2 37.2 31.0 35.0 45.7
Source #1: Environment Canada[16][21][22][23][24][25][26] Extremes 1877–1941[27]
Source #2: CBC [28]


In 2012, Thunder Bay was the city with the highest per-capita rate of homicides in Canada. Winnipeg had previously held the distinction of having the highest rate from the years 2007 to 2011.[29][30] In 2014, the per-capita rate of homicides in Thunder Bay was more than double the 2012 rate, and was over 2.5 times higher than the city with the next highest rate.[31]


The Port of Thunder Bay, as seen from Hillcrest Park

Thunder Bay is composed of two formerly separate cities, Port Arthur and Fort William. Both still retain much of their distinct civic identities, reinforced by the buffering effect of the Intercity area between them. Port Arthur and Fort William each has its own central business districts and suburban areas. Some of the more well-known neighbourhoods include: the Bay and Algoma area, which has a large northern European population centred around the Finnish Labour Temple and the Italian Cultural Centre; Simpson-Ogden and the East End, two of the oldest neighbourhoods in Fort William located north of Downtown Fort William; Intercity, a large business district located between Fort William and Port Arthur; Current River, the northernmost neighbourhood of Port Arthur; and Westfort, the oldest settlement in Thunder Bay. Within city limits are some small rural communities, such as Vickers Heights and North McIntyre, which were located in the former townships of Neebing and McIntyre, respectively.

Government and politics

Map of Thunder Bay's seven municipal wards

The city is governed by a mayor and twelve councillors. The mayor and five of the councillors are elected at large by the whole city. Seven councillors are elected for the seven wards: Current River Ward, McIntyre Ward, McKellar Ward, Neebing Ward, Northwood Ward, Red River Ward, and Westfort Ward.[32]

Thunder Bay is represented in the Canadian Parliament by Don Rusnak, and Patty Hajdu, both members of the Liberal Party of Canada, and in the Ontario Legislature by Ontario Liberal Party members Michael Gravelle and Bill Mauro.

City symbols

Sleeping Giant

A large formation of mesas on the Sibley Peninsula in Lake Superior which resembles a reclining giant has become a symbol of the city. Sibley peninsula partially encloses the waters of Thunder Bay, and dominates the view of the lake from the northern section of the city (formerly Port Arthur). The Sleeping Giant also figures on the city's coat of arms and the city flag.

Coat of arms
The Coat of Arms of the City of Thunder Bay, which incorporates features from the coats of arms of Port Arthur and Fort William.

The Coat of arms of Thunder Bay, Ontario is a combination of the coats of arms of both Port Arthur and Fort William, with a unifying symbol—the Sleeping Giant—at the base of the arms.[33]

Corporate logo

The city logo depicts a stylized thunderbird, called Animikii, a statue of which is located on the city's Kaministiquia River Heritage Park. The slogan, Superior by Nature, is a double play on words reflecting the city's natural setting on Lake Superior.[33]

City flag

Thunder Bay's flag was created in 1972, when mayor Saul Laskin wanted to promote the city by having a distinctive flag. The city held a contest, which was won by Cliff Redden. The flag has a 1:2 ratio, and depicts a golden sky from the rising sun behind the Sleeping Giant, which sits in the blue waters of Lake Superior. The sun is represented by a red maple leaf, a symbol of Canada. Green and gold are Thunder Bay's city colours.[33]

Sister cities

Thunder Bay has four sister cities on three continents,[34] which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.


Labour force[35][36]
Rate Thunder Bay Ontario Canada
Employment 57.7% 60.8% 62.2%
Unemployment 7.6% 8.9% 7.7%
Participation 62.4% 66.8% 67.4%
As of: February 2009

As the largest city in Northwestern Ontario, Thunder Bay is the region's commercial, administrative and medical centre. Many of the city's largest single employers are in the public sector. The City of Thunder Bay, the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, the Lakehead District School Board and the Government of Ontario each employ over 1,500 people.[37] Bowater Forest Products is the largest private employer, employing over 1,500 people.[38] Other major employers in the forestry sector include AbitibiBowater and Buchanan Forest Products.

Bombardier Transportation operates a 553,000 square feet (51,400 m2) plant in Thunder Bay which manufactures mass transit vehicles and equipment, employing approximately 800 people.[38] The plant was built by Canadian Car and Foundry to build railway box cars in 1912, began building passenger railcar and transit cars from 1963 onwards[39][40] Bombardier acquired the facility from UTDC in 1992, which had acquired it from Cancar in 1984.

Employment by industry, 2006[41]
Industry Thunder Bay Ontario
Agriculture and resource-based 3.6% 2.9%
Construction 5.4% 5.9%
Manufacturing 7.7% 13.9%
Wholesale Trade 2.8% 4.7%
Retail trade 12.7% 11.1%
Finance and real estate 4.2% 6.8%
Health care and social services 15.2% 9.4%
Education services 8.9% 6.7%
Business services 16.8% 19.7%
Other services 22.6% 18.7%

Lack of innovation by traditional industries, such as forest products, combined with high labour costs have reduced the industrial base of Thunder Bay by close to 60%. The grain trade has declined because of the loss of grain transportation subsidies and the loss of European markets. The gradual transition from shipping by train and boat to shipping by truck, and the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement have ended Thunder Bay's privileged position as a linchpin in Canadian east-west freight-handling trade. As a result, the city has lost its traditional raison d'être as a break-bulk point. However, in recent years shipments through the port of Thunder Bay have stabilized, and remains an important part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[42]

In an effort to rejuvenate its economy, the city has been actively working to attract quaternary or "knowledge-based" industries, primarily in the fields of molecular medicine and genomics.[43][44] The city is home to the western campus of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, the first medical school to open in Canada in a generation.[45] The city also has a law school.[46]



Thunder Bay receives air, rail and shipping traffic due to its prime location along major continental transportation routes. Greyhound Canada provides coach service to both regional and national destinations, with the municipally owned Thunder Bay Transit providing 17 routes across the city's urban area. The city is served by the Thunder Bay International Airport, the fourth busiest airport in Ontario by aircraft movements.[47] The main highway through the city is Highway 11/17, a four-lane highway designated as the Thunder Bay Expressway.

The city is an important railway hub, served by both the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railway. Passenger rail service to Thunder Bay ended on 15 January 1990, with the cancellation of Via Rail's southern transcontinental service.[48]


Thunder Bay has been a port since the days of the North West Company which maintained a schooner on Lake Superior. The Port of Thunder Bay is the largest outbound port on the St. Lawrence Seaway System,[49] and the sixth largest port in Canada.[45] The Thunder Bay Port Authority manages Keefer Terminal, built on a 320,000 square metre site on Lake Superior.

Medical centres and hospitals

Thunder Bay has one major hospital, the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre. Other health care services include the St. Joseph's Care Group, which operates long term care centres such as the Lakehead Psychiatric Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital, and Hogarth Riverview Manor. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine has a campus at Lakehead University. The city is also home to a variety of smaller medical and dental clinics.


Selected Ethnic
Origins, 2006[52]
Ethnic origin Population
English 34,355
Scottish 26,400
Canadian 24,650
Irish 22,265
French 21,130
Ukrainian 17,620
Italian 17,285
Finnish 14,510
German 13,090
Aboriginal 11,870
Polish 8,595
Swedish 5,580
Visible minorities 3,175
multiple responses included

According to the 2006 Census, there were 109,140 people residing in Thunder Bay on 16 May 2006, of whom 48.4% were male and 51.6% were female. Residents 19 years of age or younger accounted for approximately 22.9% of the population. People aged by 20 and 39 years accounted for 24.6%, while those between 40 and 64 made up 35.9% of the population. The average age of a Thunder Bayer in May 2006 was 41.7, compared to the average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.[41]

Between the censuses of 2001 and 2006, Thunder Bay's population increased by 0.1%, compared to the average of 6.6% for Ontario and 5.4% for Canada. The population density of the city of Thunder Bay averaged 332.3 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 13.4 for Ontario. The total population has been stagnant or declining since amalgamation in 1970.

A further 13,767 people lived in Thunder Bay's Census Metropolitan Area, which apart from Thunder Bay includes the municipalities of Neebing and Oliver Paipoonge, the townships of Conmee, Gillies, O'Connor and Shuniah, and the aboriginal community of Fort William First Nation.[53]


According to the census, Thunder Bay was home to 14,510 people of Finnish descent,[52] the highest concentration of people of Finnish origin per capita in Canada, and the second largest Finnish population in Canada after that of Toronto (14,750). Thunder Bay has a large Aboriginal population representing 8.2% of the population, but few other ethnic minorities. The most populous of these others, the Chinese Canadians, represent only 0.8% of the population.[52]


In terms of Canada's official languages, 81.6% of Thunder Bayers spoke only English, and 2.6% spoke only French. Thunder Bay has one of the largest established communities of Finnish speaking people outside of Finland.[54] Other languages spoken in Thunder Bay include Italian and Ojibwe.


The 2001 census states that 82.0 per cent of Thunder Bay residents belonged to a Christian denomination: 39.8% of the total population was Roman Catholic, 39.5% were Protestant, and 2.6% followed other Christian denominations, mostly Eastern Orthodox. Those who followed other religions made up less than 1% of the population, while the remaining 17.0% were non-religious or did not respond.

Visitor attractions

Thunder Bay's main tourist attraction is Fort William Historical Park, a reconstruction of the North West Company's Fort William fur trade post as it was in 1815, which attracts 100,000 visitors annually.[55] The marina in downtown Port Arthur, an area known as The Heart of the Harbour, draws visitors for its panoramic view of the Sleeping Giant and the presence of various water craft. The marina also includes a lake walk, playground, harbour cruises, a children's museum, and a Chinese/Canadian restaurant. There are several small surface amethyst mines in the area, some of which allow visitors to search for their own crystals.[56] A 2.74 m (9 ft) statue of Terry Fox is situated at the Terry Fox Memorial and Lookout on the outskirts of the city near the place where he was forced to abandon his run. Other tourists attractions are listed below.


Thunder Bay has 38 elementary schools, 3 middle schools, 8 secondary schools, 2 private schools, and an adult education facility. The city also has several other private for-profit colleges and tutoring programmes. Post secondary institutions in Thunder Bay include Confederation College and Lakehead University.

The Lakehead District School Board is the largest school board in the city, with 22 elementary schools, 4 secondary schools and a centre for adult studies. The Thunder Bay Catholic District School Board is the second largest with 16 elementary schools, 3 middle schools and 2 high schools. Conseil scolaire de district catholique des Aurores boréales operates one elementary and one high school in Thunder Bay, and an additional six schools throughout the Thunder Bay District.


A Persian, local to Thunder Bay

The city of Thunder Bay was declared a "Cultural Capital of Canada" in 2003.[57] Throughout the city are cultural centres representing the diverse population, such as the Finnish Labour Temple, Scandinavia House, the Italian Cultural Centre, the Polish Legion, and a wide variety of others. Shags, a combination shower and stag held to celebrate the engagement of a couple,[58] and Persians, a cinnamon bun pastry with pink icing, originated in the city.[59][60] Thunder Bay is served by the Thunder Bay Public Library, which has four branches.

The arts

Thunder Bay Historical Museum

Thunder Bay is home to a variety of music and performance arts venues. The largest professional theatre is Magnus Theatre. Founded in 1971, it offers six stage plays each season and is located in the renovated Port Arthur Public School on Red River Road. The Thunder Bay Community Auditorium, which seats 1500, is the primary venue for various types of entertainment. It is the home of the Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra, which has 30 full-time and up to 20 extra musicians presenting a full range of classical music.[61] New Music North is vital to the contemporary classical music scene in the city by offering intriguing and novel contemporary chamber music concerts.[62]

The Bay Street Film Festival, established in 2005, is an independent film festival that features local, national, and international films with the theme of "Films for the People." The festival is held in early October at 314 Bay Street in the historic Finnish Labour Temple.[63] Thunder Bay is also home to the North of Superior Film Association (NOSFA). Established in 1992, the NOSFA features monthly screenings of international and Canadian films at the Cumberland Cinema Centre, with a spring film festival that attracts several thousand patrons.[64]

Museums and galleries

The Thunder Bay Art Gallery, which was founded in 1976, specializes in the works of First Nations artists, having a collection of national significance. The Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, founded in 1908, presents local and traveling exhibitions and houses an impressive collection of artifacts, photographs, paintings, documents and maps in its archives.

Thunder Bay has two recognized Federal Heritage buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings:[65]

Both are part of HMCS Griffin.

Places of worship

St. Andrews Presbyterian Church

Thunder Bay has many places of worship supported by people of a variety of faiths, reflecting the cultural diversity of the population.[66] A sample:

Sports and recreation

Thunder Bay's proximity to the wilderness of the Boreal Forest and the rolling hills and mountains of the Canadian Shield allow its residents to enjoy very active lifestyles. The city has hosted several large sporting events including the Summer Canada Games in 1981, the Nordic World Ski Championships in 1995, the Continental Cup of Curling in 2003, and the World Junior Baseball Championship in 2010.

Recreational facilities

Thunder Bay enjoys many recreational facilities. The city operates fifteen neighbourhood community centres, which offer various sporting and fitness facilities as well as seasonal activities such as dances. The city also operates six indoor ice rinks and 84 seasonal outdoor rinks,[69] two indoor community pools and three seasonal outdoor pools as well as a portable pool and two maintained public beaches, several curling sheets, and three golf courses, among others.[70] Listed below are some of the city's major facilities.

Multi-use facilities

Municipal ice rinks and indoor pools

  • Current River Arena
  • Delaney Arena
  • Grandview Arena
  • Neebing Arena
  • Port Arthur Arena
  • Thunder Bay Tournament Centre (2 ice surfaces)
  • Sir Winston Churchill Community Pool
  • Volunteer Community Pool

Golf courses[72]

  • Centennial Golf Course (9 holes)
  • Chapples Memorial Golf Course (18 Holes)(Municipal)
  • Dragon Hills Golf Course (9 holes)
  • Emerald Greens Golf Course (9 holes)
  • Fort William Country Club (18 Holes)
  • Municipal Golf Course (9 holes)(Municipal) (closed)
  • Northern Lights Golf Complex (9 holes par 3/9 holes regulation)
  • Strathcona Golf Course (18 holes)(Municipal)
  • Thunder Bay Country Club (9 holes)
  • Whitewater Golf Club (18 holes)

Ski hills

  • Loch Lomond Ski Resort
  • Mount Baldy Ski Resort

Cross-Country Skiing Facilities

  • Lappe Nordic Ski Centre
  • Kamview Nordic Centre

Sports teams

Club Sport League Venue
Thunder Bay North Stars Ice Hockey Superior International Junior Hockey League Fort William Gardens
Lakehead Thunderwolves Basketball Ontario University Athletics C.J. Sanders Fieldhouse
Lakehead Thunderwolves Baseball National Club Baseball Association Div 2 (USA) Baseball Central
Lakehead Thunderwolves Ice Hockey Ontario University Athletics Fort William Gardens
Lakehead Thunderwolves Volleyball Ontario University Athletics C.J. Sanders Fieldhouse
Thunder Bay Border Cats Baseball Northwoods League Port Arthur Stadium
Thunder Bay Chill Soccer USL Premier Development League Chapples Park Stadium

Thunder Bay is also home to the National Development Centre – Thunder Bay, an elite cross-country ski team that attracts many of Canada's best Junior and U-23 skiers.

Sport events

Thunder Bay 10 Mile Road Race


Main article: Media in Thunder Bay


Thunder Bay has one daily newspaper, The Chronicle-Journal, which has a circulation of approximately 28,000 and has coverage of all of Northwestern Ontario.[73] The Chronicle Journal publishes a free weekly called Spot every Thursday, focusing on entertainment.There are two weekly news papers—Thunder Bay's Source, a weekly newspaper operated by Dougall Media, and Canadan Sanomat, a Finnish-language weekly newspaper. Lakehead University has a student newspaper called The Argus, which is published weekly during the school year.[74] The city publishes a bi-monthly newsletter to citizens titled yourCity, which is also available online in a PDF format, by electronic subscription and RSS feed.[75]


Three English-language stations supply Thunder Bay with free digital over-the-air television. Programming from the Global and CTV networks is provided by a locally owned twinstick operation branded as Thunder Bay Television, and the city receives TVOntario on channel 9. CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé are available only on cable and satellite in the area.

The cable provider in Thunder Bay is Shaw, although locally owned TBayTel, has been granted a license by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) to compete in the cable TV market.[76] The community channel on Shaw Cable is branded as Shaw TV, and airs on cable channel 10.

WBKP TV channel 5, the CW affiliate in Calumet, Michigan can be received in Thunder Bay with an outdoor roof antenna and a digital-capable television or receiver.


Thunder Bay is home to 12 radio stations, all of which broadcast on the FM band.

There are four commercial radio stations based in the city — Rock 94.3 and 91.5 CKPR, owned by Dougall Media, the parent company of Thunder Bay Television and Thunder Bay's Source, and Magic 99.9 and Country 105, owned by Acadia Broadcasting. One additional station, Thunder 103.5, targets the Thunder Bay market from transmitters in Kaministiquia and Shuniah. The city receives CBC Radio One as CBQT-FM and CBC Radio 2 as CBQ-FM, at 88.3 FM and 101.7 FM respectively. The French Première Chaîne is available as a repeater of Sudbury-based CBON-FM on 89.3 FM. Lakehead University operates a campus radio station, CILU-FM, at 102.7 FM, and CJOA-FM 95.1 broadcasts Christian-oriented programming and is run by a local non-profit group. Thunder Bay Information Radio CKSI-FM is broadcast 24/7 on 90.5 and is also the city's emergency radio station.

Notable people

Notes and references

  1. "Port of Thunder Bay".
  2. City Hall, Thunder Bay City Council. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  3. Municipal Code, by-law 218-2003. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  4. Smith, Jamie. "Norm Gale appointed city manager at city council meeting Monday," TB News Watch (11 January 2016). Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  5. 1 2 "Thunder Bay, Ontario (Code 3558004) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  6. 1 2 "Thunder Bay (census metropolitan area) (Code 595) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  7. 1 2 "Thunder Bay (population centre) (Code 0935) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  8. The Port of Thunder Bay, The Transportation Sector. City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
  9. "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000". Thunder Bay A, Ontario: Environment Canada. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  10. 1 2 3 Brief History of Thunder Bay, City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  11. Tronrud, Thorold J; Epp, Ernest A.; and others. (1995). "Introduction", Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity, p. vii, Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society ISBN 0-920119-22-0
  12. F.B. Scollie, "Falling into Line : How Prince Arthur's Landing Became Port Arthur," Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records, XIII (1985) 8–19.
  13. About Thunder Bay, pp. 2. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  16. 1 2 3 "Thunder Bay A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  17. "Thunder Bay Airport Hourly Data Report for January 10, 1982". Environment Canada. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  18. 1 2 "Fact Sheet−Winter Weather Warnings". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  19. "August 1983". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  20. "January 1996". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  21. "Environment Canada Monthly Summary". Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  22. "June 1995". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  23. "February 1996". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  24. "February 2000". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  25. "September 2005". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  26. "March 2010". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  27. "Port Arthur". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  28. "Thunder Bay shatters cold weather records". Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  29. "Manitoba murder capital of Canada for fifth year in a row". CTV. 24 July 2012.
  30. "Manitoba's homicide rate highest among provinces". Winnipeg Free Press. 19 December 2013.
  31. "Statistics Canada report shows city has one of Canada's highest crime rates". TBNewswatch. 22 July 2015.
  32. Guide to City Services, Municipal Government, Wards. Retrieved 4 June 2007
  33. 1 2 3 Thunder Bay City Symbols. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  34. Thunder Bay Sister Cities. Retrieved 1 August 2014
  35. Labour Force Characteristics, Seasonally adjusted, by CMA. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  36. Labour Force Survey. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  37. Major Employer List – Thunder Bay, 2006 45kb. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  38. 1 2 Thunder Bay Top Private Sector Employers, Northern Ontario Business (May 2006). Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  41. 1 2 City of Thunder Bay, 2006 Community Profile. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  42. 56-Year Cargo Statistics, Port of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
  43. New Molecular Medicine Research Centre to be Headquartered in Thunder Bay, (6 September 2006). Retrieved 4 September 2007
  44. Genesis Genomics. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  45. 1 2 Thunder Bay Blends Old, New Industries, Site Selection (November 2005). Retrieved 4 September 2007
  46. Lakehead University Faculty of Law, Site Selection. Retrieved 27 February 2014
  47. TP 1496 Preliminary aircraft statistics 2006. Transport Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  48. Canada Transportation Act, 1990. Order Varying Certain National Transportation Agency Orders Respecting Railway Companies, SOR/89-488 S III 1. (2) (c). Retrieved 5 June 2007
  49. Port of Thunder Bay, official website. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  50. The People of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
    For 1911: Tronrud, Thorold J; Epp, Ernest A.; and others. (1995). Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity. Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, pp. 59. ISBN 0-920119-22-0.
  51. "Planting the Municipal Ownership Idea in Port Arthur, 1875–1914." Urban History Review, Vol. XXVI, no. 1. October, 1997.
  52. 1 2 3 Profile of Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  53. 2006 Census Population Counts by Municipality, Thunder Bay CMA. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  54. Thunder Bay Public Library – Community – Finnish Community. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  55. Fort William Historical Park, Planning Your Visit – Beginnings. Retrieved on 4 June 2007
  56. Ontario Amethyst: Mining Ontario’s Amethyst Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
  57. Cultural Capitals of Canada 2003. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  58. Seven Wonders of Thunder Bay, Shags. Thunder Bay Source. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  59. Thunder Bay Food. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  60. The Universal Cynic (26 June 2006) Lexicon of Yore. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  61. Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  62. New Music North. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
  63. Bay Street Film Festival. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  64. NOSFA Website. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  65. Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings.
  66. "Thunder Bay Community Information Database: Churches" Thunder Bay Community Information & Referral Center. Retrieved 3 January 2009
  67. "Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary", City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 3 January 2009
  68. "Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra Brochure" TBSO. Retrieved 3 January 2009
  69. City of Thunder Bay – Outdoor Rinks. Retrieved January 2008
  70. Thunder Bay Telephone (2007) TBayTel 2007–2008 Directory, Pages 56 to 58.
  71. The Sports Dome. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  72. Golf Thunder Bay and Golflink – Thunder Bay Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  73. Sudbury Star and Sault Star Part of Media Buyout. Netnewsledger, 1 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  74. The Argus. Retrieved 8 June 2007
  75. Your City, Thunder Bay. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  76. CRTC Decision 2008-289 – CRTC. Retrieved 3 March 2009


  1. Climate data was recorded at Port Arthur from July 1877 to July 1941, and at Thunder Bay Airport from August 1941 to present.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thunder Bay, Ontario.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Thunder Bay.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.