This article is about the Indonesian city. For the Dutch warship, see HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën (1909).
Other transcription(s)
  Hanacaraka ꦱꦸꦫꦧꦪ
  Chinese 泗水
  Pinyin Sì shuǐ

From top left, clockwise: Sura and Baya statue in Surabaya Zoo, Suramadu Bridge, Heroes Monument, Tunjungan Plaza.

Nickname(s): City of Heroes
Motto: Sparkling Surabaya

Location of Surabaya in East Java
Coordinates: 7°15′55″S 112°44′33″E / 7.26528°S 112.74250°E / -7.26528; 112.74250Coordinates: 7°15′55″S 112°44′33″E / 7.26528°S 112.74250°E / -7.26528; 112.74250
Country  Indonesia
Province East Java
Settled May 31, 1293
  Mayor Tri Rismaharini (PDI-P)
  Vice Mayor Wisnu Sakti Buana
  City 350.5 km2 (135.3 sq mi)
  Metro 2,787 km2 (1,076 sq mi)
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2010 census[1])
  City 2,765,487
  Density 7,900/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
  Metro 7,302,283
  Metro density 2,600/km2 (6,800/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Suroboyoan
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +62 31
Vehicle registration L
Chinese 泗水

Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [surəˈbaja]) (formerly Dutch: Soerabaja/Soerabaia Javanese: ꦱꦸꦫꦧꦪ (Surabaya)), is the capital of Jawa Timur (East Java), located on northeastern Java island and along the edge of the Madura Strait and the second-largest-city in Indonesia. At the 2010 census, the city had a population over 2.8 million and an 'extended metropolitan area', with more than 9 million inhabitants in several cities and approximately 50 districts spread over non-contigous urban areas including Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Pasuruan regencies, and locally known as Gerbangkertosusila[1] The national government recognizes only the continuous core metropolitan area (Surabaya, Gresik and Sidarjo) as Greater Surabaya (Zona Surabaya Raya) with a population of 6,484,2060 (2010), making Surabaya now the third largest metropolitan area in Indonesia, after Greater Jakarta and Greater Bandung.

The city is known as Kota Pahlawan "city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Surabaya was once the largest city in Dutch East Indies and virtually the center of trading in the nation, exceeding those of Batavia, competing with the likes of Singapore and Hong Kong.[2]


Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of Surabaya city applied since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology

Surabaya (Suroboyo) is locally believed to derive its name from the words "suro" (shark) and "boyo" (crocodile), two creatures which, in a local myth, fought each other in order to gain the title of "the strongest and most powerful animal" in the area. It was said that the two powerful animals agreed for a truce and set boundaries; that the shark's domain would be in the sea while the crocodile's domain would be on the land. However one day the shark swam into the river estuary to hunt, this angered the crocodile, who declared it his territory. The Shark argued that the river was a water-realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory. A ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other. Finally the shark was badly bitten and fled to the open sea, and the crocodile finally ruled the estuarine area that today is the city.[3]

Another source alludes to a Jayabaya prophecy — a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom — as he foresaw a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as a foretelling of the conflict between the forces of the Mongol and those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in 1293.[4] The two animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.

Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese "sura ing baya", meaning "bravely facing danger";[4] or from the use of "surya" to refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.


Dutch residenthuis (Resident House) along the water in Surabaya
Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel-guide
Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s.

The earliest record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu,[5] the ancient name of Surabaya. Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingyai Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh".[6]

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya was an Islamic duchy (kadipaten) and a major political and military power in eastern Java. It entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung.[7]:31 It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.[7]:31

Handelstraat, Surabaya in the 1930s: subsequently the Jembatan Merah area.

The expanding Dutch East India Company took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over Surabaya and, in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720 – 1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727 – 1778) and the latter's son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759 – 1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem.[8][9]

Surabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the center of Java's plantation economy, industry and were supported by its natural harbor.[10] However, by 1920 a census recorded that Batavia has overtaken Surabaya's population size. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.

Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After Japanese surrender at the end of World War II Surabaya was seized by Indonesian nationalists. The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.

The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.

City overview

The regencies surrounding Surabaya include:

Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Lamongan comprise an extended metropolitan area which is called Gerbangkertosusila.

The Adhiwangsa, The Via & Vue, Taman Beverly, Trillium and Water Place Residences are five of the tallest skyscrapers in Surabaya, along with the BRI Tower, BII Tower and Graha Pena.

Surabaya is a major shopping destination for Indonesians, with several large malls.

Surabaya is home to the Eastern Fleet, one of two fleets in the Indonesian Navy. Its strong maritime heritage is also represented in a form of KRI Pasopati Submarine Monument, a retired Russian Whiskey class submarine.[11][12]

Cheng Hoo Mosque, Surabaya

In June 2011, Surabaya received the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya today has wide sidewalks and parks and was recorded by one reporter from Singapore as being clean and green.[13]

Tourist destination

Kebun Binatang Surabaya (Surabaya Zoo) or KBS, opened in 1916, was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity. Other interesting destinations include:

Shopping area

Traffic in a Surabaya street in 1958 as seen from Dutch Trading Company building

Surabaya is a major shopping destination for people from throughout Indonesia. During the last decade many shopping centers and precincts have been built around Surabaya, especially in central Surabaya, with some specialising in gadgets and computer hardware, while many others sell a range of goods from basic necessities to high end and exquisite goods.

  • BG Junction
  • Ciputra World Surabaya
  • City of Tomorrow (CITO)
  • Darmo Trade Center
  • East Coast Center & Food Festival
  • Galaxy Mall
  • Grand City
  • HI-Tech Mall
  • ITC
  • Jembatan Merah Plaza
  • Kapas Krampung Plaza
  • Lenmarc
  • Marvell City
  • Pasar Atum
  • Pasar Atum Mall
  • Plasa Marina
  • Plaza Surabaya (formerly Delta Plaza)
  • Plaza Tunjungan
  • Royal Plaza Surabaya
  • Supermal Pakuwon Indah
  • Surabaya Town Square
  • WTC (World Trade Center Surabaya)

Administrative Divisions

Surabaya has 31 kecamatan (districts):[19][20]

  • Karang Pilang (72,469)
  • Jambangan (46,430)
  • Gayungan (42,717)
  • Wonocolo (80,276)
  • Tenggilis Mejoyo (72,467)
  • Gunung Anyar (62,120)
  • Rungkut (121,084)
  • Sukolilo (119,873)
  • Mulyorejo (94,728)
  • Gubeng (128,127)
  • Wonokromo (133,211)

  • Dukuh Pakis (64,249)
  • Wiyung (67,987)
  • Lakarsantri (51,195)
  • Sambikerep (61,101)
  • Tandes (103,084)
  • Sukomanunggal (100,612)
  • Sawahan (170,605)
  • Tegalsari (85,606)
  • Genteng (46,548)
  • Tambaksari (204,805)

  • Kenjeran (163,438)
  • Bulak, Surabya (37,214)
  • Simokerto (79,319)
  • Semampir (151,429)
  • Pabean Cantian (69,423)
  • Bubutan (84,465)
  • Krembangan (106,664)
  • Asemrowo (42,704)
  • Benowo, Surabya (54,133)
  • Pakal, Surabaya (47,404)


Surabaya features a tropical wet and dry climate, with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of around 26 degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Surabaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 33
Daily mean °C (°F) 27
Average low °C (°F) 24
Average rainfall mm (inches) 327
Average rainy days 17 18 19 15 13 11 7 3 4 5 12 23 147
Source: .[21]
Wind Speed and Humidity data for Surabaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Maximum Wind Speed (km/h) 23 16 16 26 27 29 40 34 34 35 29 21 27.5
Average Wind Speed (km/h) 13.39 12.10 13.30 14.37 20.26 16.87 22.71 22.16 22.8 22.35 18.6 13.55 17.71
Minimum Wind Speed (km/h) 8 10 10 10 3 5 11 11 14 10 11 10 9.42
Maximum Humidity (%) 86 75 83 92 96 77 67 69 64 73 65 79 77.17
Average Humidity (%) 66.61 69.1 66.3 67.23 64.87 60.27 60.84 57.87 54.53 56.06 56.13 63.03 61.9
Minimum Humidity (%) 44 60 59 58 53 47 52 47 46 42 46 53 50.58


Ujung passenger Port

Transportation in Surabaya is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport, Sedati, Sidoarjo). Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya is also a transit city between Jakarta and Bali for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.


Surabaya's Juanda International Airport is a passenger and cargo airport which also serves as Surabaya's Navy Airbase, operated by the TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy) and located just outside Surabaya, on the outskirts of Sidoarjo. This airport has served Surabaya for many years, and currently has 2 terminals, with domestic flights served from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia's domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Although considered smaller than Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan and Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Juanda International Airport is still regarded as Indonesia's second busiest airport right after Jakarta's Soekarno Hatta International Airport


Tanjung Perak is the main port of the city and is one of the busiest ports in the country. Although much of the port cargo is traditionally administered, the port is also used to carry modern international cargo ships up to 2nd generation, maximum 1,000 teus ships. Currently, the port is dredged to 14 meters depth to serve 10,000 teus 5th generation ships to be finished in mid-2015, while 16 meters depth with width 200 meters can serve 15,000 teus or 7th generation ships to be finished in mid-2016. Today the biggest international ships are 9th generation craft.[22] The other port in the region is located in Gresik, a city 22 km from the Surabaya city centre. In May 2014 a new Teluk Lamong Green Sea Port began trial run operation with two Ship to Shore Crane (STS) units, five Automated Stacking Crane (ASC) units, and one Automotive Terminal Tractor (ATT) unit as an extension of Tanjung Perak port. The new facilities will primarily serve international shipping, predicted to be 7 ships every week, and any unused capacity will be used to support domestic shipping. The new facilities will use less paper and gas trucks to carry containers in the port area.[23][24] From January 2015, a dry bulk port will be built with 250 meter piers with a projected finish in one year to accommodate up to 14 LWS international ships. The port will be provided with 2 "Ship Unloader" units complete with conveyors and 8 hectares of warehousing. The dry bulk terminal will occupy 26 hectares, a supporting area of 36 hectares for a total capacity of 20,000,000 tonnes.[25]


The city has three major train stations, being Surabaya Kota (also known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya's main train station is Pasar Turi Station. The Argo Bromo Anggrek operated by PT Kereta Api (Indonesia's main rail operator) connects Surabaya from this station to Gambir Station (Jakarta). Both economy and executive class trains are served to and from Surabaya


The main bus terminal is Terminal Purabaya (located in Bungurasih, Waru, Sidoarjo), the other major terminal is Osowilangon in Tambak, Surabaya.

Other Options

There are various kinds of local transport including: taxi, bemo (shuttle bus), bis kota (city bus), becak (pedicab) and commuter trains.

Suramadu Bridge

Suramadu Bridge, The longest bridge in Indonesia

The Suramadu Bridge (derived from Surabaya-Madura) connects Surabaya and Madura Island over the Madura Strait. A 16-kilometer highway will be built from the Suramadu Bridge to Madura International Seaport-City (MIS-C) in Pernajuh village, Kocah district, Bangkalan, Madura at a cost of approximately Rp. 60 billion (USD 7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya's overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.[26]


The city is one of the busiest ports in the country. Its principal exports include sugar, tobacco and coffee. It has a large shipyard, and numerous specialized naval schools.

As the provincial capital, Surabaya is also home to many offices and business centres. Surabaya's economy is also influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu bridge. Surabaya is currently in the process of building high rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, as a way of attracting foreign people to the city.

Surabaya is the main trading port in East Java. Enriched by its facilities, and geography advantages, Surabaya has great economic potential.


A street in Surabaya.

Surabaya is the second most populous city in Indonesia with 2,765,908 recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in 2010 census.,[27] and has an extended metropolitan development area called 'Gerbangkertosusila' (derived from Gresik-Bangkalan-Mojokerto-Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Lamongan) The city is highly urbanized, with many industries centralized in the city, and has many slum areas. As the main education center, Surabaya is a home for many students from around Indonesia.

Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at approximately 1.2% per year. In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java


Jembatan Merah, near Kya-Kya Kembang Jepun.

Javanese people are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese Indonesians and Madurese being significant minorities in the city. Surabaya also has ethnic populations from other parts of Indonesia: Sundanese, Minang, Batak, Banjar, Balinese, and Bugis.


Most citizens speak a dialect of Indonesian/Javanese called Suroboyoan, a sub-dialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The usage of register is less strict than the Central Java dialect. The Suroboyoan dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa Indonesia and Javanese, also with some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese etc., which has formed a special dialect known as Suroboyoan. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers and traditional dramas called Ludruk.


Religions in Surabaya have co-existed for centuries and the city has rarely seen violence between religious groups, such as during the 1998 political unrest which struck all of Indonesia, where several small churches (primarily Protestant) were targets of bombings. Although around 85% of citizens in Surabaya adhere to Islam, other major religions include Christianity (Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox), of whom the majority are Roman Catholics. The influence of Hinduism is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism. There is also significant population of Chinese Indonesians who adhere to Buddhism & Confucianism, and a small community of Dutch - Jews who adhere to Judaism.


The city has an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java during the Walisongo era, alongside Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, Demak and Cirebon. The prominent and honored Islamic figure in Surabaya was Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat). His tomb is a sacred religious site in the city and visited by many Surabayans and pilgrims from different parts of Indonesia. The largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, NU (Nahdlatul Ulama) was established in Surabaya on 26 January 1926.

Masjid Al-Akbar Surabaya is the famous and largest mosque in Surabaya.


Christianity as a whole in Surabaya is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians, who attend either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church. A minority of Javanese practice at the Gereja Kejawen, a branch of native Christianity. Several ethnic groups, including the Ambonese, Batak, and East Nusa Tenggara peoples can easily be found in Roman Catholic Churches around Surabaya.

Roman Catholicism

The city is the home of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Surabaya. There are around 15 churches in Surabaya, which vary in size. One of the first churches in Surabaya was the Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria, also known as Gereja Kepanjen, built in 1815 as the first church in Surabaya and one of the oldest churches in Indonesia. Surabaya is the seat of the Diocese of Surabaya, and the cathedral is Hati Kudus Yesus, located at 17 Polisi Istimewa Road. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Surabaya is one of the largest dioceses and one of the most fastest growing in Indonesia, with more than 150,000 members.


Bethany Indonesian Church: In 2000, Graha Bethany Nginden conducted a soft opening in cooperation with the Church Seminar International (SPGI). This location can accommodate 35,000 people. Bethany Indonesian Church Synod (Bethany), is an incorporated church Synod of Indonesia and based in Surabaya, a Pentecostal church with a charismatic theology.

Mawar Sharon Church: Surabaya is also the base of one of Asia's largest Megachurches. Gereja Mawar Sharon (Mawar Sharon Church) is a non-denominational charismatic church with over 30 branches in Indonesia and more than 40,000 churchgoers every week. The Church has held major events in Surabaya, including Surabaya For Jesus, Asia For Jesus, Festival Kuasa Allah (Festival of God's Power) and many others. It has the largest Christian youth group with over 8000 in weekly attendance. In Surabaya itself, Mawar Sharon Church has more than 17,000 church members.


The city is also home to the Orthodox Christian Center Surabaya which was opened on 15 October 2008 by Father Yohanes Bambang Cahyo Wicaksono an Orthodox Priest.[28] The city is also home to two Orthodox Christian Community centres and there are plans to establish a kindergarten, High School and University in the medium term. The main Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas Church, is also based in Surabaya.[29] On 12 January a new Orthodox Orthodox Community center was opened in the Dinoyo district, beside St. Nikolaos Orthodox Church.[30]

Eastern Religion


Once the major religion in Surabaya and across the archipelago during the Majapahit era, Hinduism played a major role on traditional Surabayan culture. Small Hindu communities still exist in Surabaya most commonly in the eastern sections of the city.


Surabaya was the location of the only synagogue in Java, but it rarely obtained a minyan (quorum). The synagogue was destroyed in protests and riots related to Palestine-Israeli conflict. There is still a Jewish cemetery in the city.[31][32]


The city has one football club which competes in the Indonesian Super League, called Persebaya. Persebaya is considered as one of the most successful clubs in Indonesia, having won the Indonesian Premier Division twice. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates as "equipped by bravery"). The Bonek have been well known for their strong loyalty to the club, which is also perceived as a representation of the bravery of the citizens of Surabaya.

Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium named Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium. This stadium is used mostly for football matches and is the current new home stadium of Persebaya, after replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium.[33] On 23 July 2012, it was the venue of a friendly match between Persebaya 1927 against Queens Park Rangers.


Universities and post-secondary institutions

Surabaya has several major universities and institutions, including those with religious or technical specialties:

Primary and secondary schools

International schools include:





Twin towns – Sister cities

Surabaya is twinned with:[35]


See also


  1. 1 2
  2. "Surabaya City Of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000 (Ohio RIS Southeast Asia Series): Howard Dick: 9780896802216: Books".
  3. Irwan Rouf & Shenia Ananda. Rangkuman 100 Cerita Rakyat Indonesia dari Sabang sampai Merauke: Asal Usul Nama Kota Surabaya (in Indonesian). MediaKita. p. 60. ISBN 9786029003826. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  4. 1 2 "Welcome to Surabaya City, East Java". Surabaya Tourism, Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  5. F. Hirth and W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua, St Petersburg, 1911
  6. Ma Huan Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of Ocean Shore, translated by J.V.G. Mills, p. 90, 1970, Hakklut Society, reprint by White Lotus, 1997. ISBN 974-8496-78-3.
  7. 1 2 Drakeley S. The History of Indonesia. Greenwood, 2005. ISBN 9780313331145
  8. Margana, Sri (2007). Java's last frontier : the struggle for hegemony of Blambangan, c. 1763-1813. Leiden: TANAP. pp. 210–236. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  9. Salmon, Claudine (1997). "La communauté chinoise de Surabaya. Essai d'histoire, des origines à la crise de 1930". Archipel. 53 (Volume 53): 121–206. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  10. "The City in Southeast Asia".
  11. The Submarine Monument. "Welcome to Submarine Monument Surabaya, Indonesia : A real Russian submarine in the Indonesia's Navy Armada".
  12. "Monkasel (Submarine Monument)".
  13. "Surabaya, a miniature of Singapore". September 5, 2011.
  14. "House of Sampoerna website".
  15. "KRI Pasopati 410: Kenangan Whiskey Class".
  16. Harsaputra, Indra (September 19, 2009). "The Jakarta Post". Former Chinese cemetery serves as bustling market. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  17. Azali, Kathleen (2012). "Rumah Abu Han, a historic ancestral house in Surabaya" (PDF). The Newsletter (International Institute for Asian Studies). 59 (Spring). Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  18. Fitrianto, Heri Agung (July 7, 2013). "Kompasiana". Jejak Sang Kapiten Di Rumah Abu Keluarga Han. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  19. Surabaya City Regulation No. 5 2006
  20. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  21. "World Weather Information Service - Surabaya".
  22. "Pertengahan 2015, Kapal Generasi Lima Sandar di Tanjung Perak". November 16, 2014.
  23. Miftahul Ulum. "Teluk Lamong Can Serve 7 International Ships". Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  24. "Pelindo III to start trial runs at Teluk Lamong port in May". Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  25. Titis Jati Permata (December 27, 2014). "2015, Dermaga Curah Kering di Terminal Teluk Lamong Dibangun".
  26. "Surabaya's hotel business boom "likely to continue"". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  27. "Gatra.Com". Gatra.Com. 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  29. Orthodox Indonesia Church Parokia St. Nikolaos
  30. "News - Orthodoxy Cognate PAGE". News - Orthodoxy Cognate PAGE.
  31. "The Synagogue of Surabaya, Indonesia - Beit Hatfutsot". Beit Hatfutsot.
  32. The Jews of Surabaya, by Jessica Champagne and Teuku Cut Mahmud Aziz.
  33. (Indonesian) Detik Surabaya: Gelora Bung Tomo Diresmikan, Lalu Lintas Macet
  34. "Overseas Schools" (Archive). Taiwanese Ministry of Education. Retrieved on January 10, 2016.
  35. "Kegiatan Kerjasama Kota Surabaya Dengan Mitra Di Luar Negeri" [Cooperation Activities of Surabaya with Partners Overseas] (PDF). Surabaya City Government. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  36. "Interactive City Directory: Surabaya, Indonesia". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  37. "International Exchange". The International Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR), Singapore. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  38. "Sister Cities of Guangzhou". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Retrieved 2015-02-15.

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