Stereoscopic Displays and Applications

Stereoscopic Displays and Applications
Abbreviation SD&A
Discipline Stereoscopic Imaging
Publication details
Publisher IS&T
History 1990-(ongoing)
Frequency annual

Stereoscopic Displays and Applications (SD&A) is an academic technical conference in the field of stereoscopic 3D imaging.[1] The conference started in 1990 and is held annually. The conference is held as part of the annual Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology Symposium[2] organised by the technical society IS&T.


SD&A is an academic technical conference dedicated to stereoscopic imaging topics, specializing in all forms of stereoscopic imaging, including stereoscopic 3D display hardware, stereoscopic 3D image capture, stereoscopic 3D image storage and processing, and also applications of these technologies. As well as including coverage of two-view 3D displays, the conference includes significant coverage of multi-view autostereoscopic displays and volumetric 3D displays - any system that stimulates stereoscopic vision in an observer.


The backbone of the annual SD&A conference is the technical presentations, which are all accompanied by a technical paper published in the conference proceedings. Alongside the technical sessions, the conference has its own keynote presentation, a popular demonstration session (where a range of stereoscopic 3D technologies can be seen in one place at one time), the 3D theater (where the latest stereoscopic content is shown), and a discussion forum.


SD&A was founded in 1990 by John O. Merritt and Scott Fisher, and has been held annually since. Holography pioneer Stephen Benton was also an SD&A conference chair from 2000 until his death in 2003.

From 1990 to 1993, papers from the SD&A conference were published in its own proceedings volume. From 1994, the papers from the SD&A conference were co-published with papers from The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference (which was co-located with SD&A) in a volume series titled Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems. From 2008, SD&A went back to the publication of papers in its own proceedings volume.

Over the period 1990 to 2015, SD&A and the Electronic Imaging Symposium were jointly organized by IS&T and SPIE. From 2016 onwards, SD&A and EI are organized by IS&T.

A detailed listing of the conference program for every year since 1996 is available on the official SD&A website. The Introduction/Preface of every year's conference proceedings also contains a descriptive summary of each conference. The proceedings Introduction is also available on the official SD&A website.


A technical proceedings is published annually containing manuscripts presented at the conference. Over 1100 technical papers have been published over the history of the SD&A conference. The full list of conference proceedings, including a compilation DVD-ROM (1990-2009), is listed at the official SD&A website.

The DVD-ROM compilation "Stereoscopic Displays and Applications 1990-2009: A Complete 20-Year Retrospective - and The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality 1994-2009 (CDP51)"[3] released in 2010 represents a technical knowledge base across stereoscopic 3D and VR topics containing the complete technical record of the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference (1990-2009), The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference (1994-2009), and papers from a selection of ten other 3D related SPIE conferences (1977-1989) predating SD&A. The disc contains 1260 individual technical papers – 816 from the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference, 223 from The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality conference, and 221 papers from the SPIE 3D conferences prior to SD&A.

Some of the presentations at the SD&A conference have been, or go onto be, published in the Journal of Electronic Imaging. From 1990 to 2015, the SD&A proceedings were published as part of the Proceedings of SPIE series. From 2016 the SD&A proceedings are published by IS&T and will be available open-access.

Citation Statistics

Papers presented at SD&A are cited extensively. A citation analysis[4] of SD&A proceedings papers conducted in January 2014 using Google Scholar found that there were a total of 12,371 citations across all papers presented at SD&A, and also calculated a top ten of most-cited papers across the then 25-year history of SD&A:

Rank Title Author(s) Year Citations
1. "Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR), compression, and transmission for a new approach on 3D-TV" Christoph Fehn 2004 704
2. "Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems" Andrew J. Woods, Tom Docherty, Rolf Koch 1993 417
3. "Perceptual issues in augmented reality" David Drascic, Paul Milgram 1996 237
4. "Controlling perceived depth in stereoscopic images" Graham R. Jones, Delman Lee, Nicolas S. Holliman, David Ezra 2001 156
5. "Variation and extrema of human interpupillary distance" Neil A. Dodgson 2004 147
6. "Image preparation for 3D LCD" Cees van Berkel 1999 122
7. "Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images" Filippo Speranza, Wa J. Tam, Ron Renaud, Namho Hur 2006 100
8. "Geometry of binocular imaging" Victor S. Grinberg, Gregg W. Podnar, Mel Siegel 1994 99
9. "Viewpoint-dependent stereoscopic display using interpolation of multiviewpoint images" Akihiro Katayama, Koichiro Tanaka, Takahiro Oshino, Hideyuki Tamura 1995 92
10. "Rapid 2D-to-3D conversion" Philip V. Harman, Julien Flack, Simon Fox, Mark Dowley 2002 90


Various media outlets have reported on research presented at SD&A and on the conference itself. Outlets include:

See also Citation Statistics above.


  1. Stereoscopic Displays and Applications: 12–14 February 1990, SD&A conference, 1990, webpage: BGoogle-k6t.
  2. Electronic Imaging Symposium
  3. Selected SPIE/IS&T papers on DVD-ROM: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications 1990-2009: A Complete 20-Year Retrospective - and The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality 1994-2009, SPIE Press, CDP51, ISBN 978-0-8194-7659-3, 2010.
  4. Introduction - Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXV, Proceedings of the Electronic Imaging, Volume 9011, SPIE Press, 2015.
  5. Seeing Triple, Scientific American, 296(86), June 2007. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0607-86
  6. Hitting Every Angle with Autostereoscopic 3-D Displays, Photonics Spectra, May 2012.
  7. Editor's Introduction, Third Dimension Newsletter, Issue 23, Veritas et Visus, February 2008.
  8. Don't sit too close to the 3DTV, CNET, January 31, 2011.
  9. 25th Stereoscopic Displays Applications conference highlights, Display Daily, Insight Media, March 1, 2014.
  10. 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen, B. Mendiburu, Taylor and Francis, 2009, ISBN 978-0-240-81137-6
  11. Book Reviews, The Photogrammetric Record, 14(83), pages 828–845, April 1994. DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-9730.1994.tb00797.x
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 10/6/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.