Shirley Temple

For the beverage named after her, see Shirley Temple (beverage).

Shirley Temple

Temple in 1944.
27th United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia
In office
August 23, 1989  July 12, 1992
President George H. W. Bush
Preceded by Julian Niemczyk
Succeeded by Adrian A. Basora
18th Chief of Protocol of the United States
In office
July 1, 1976  January 21, 1977
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by Henry E. Catto, Jr.
Succeeded by Evan Dobelle
9th United States Ambassador to Ghana
In office
December 6, 1974  July 13, 1976
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by Fred L. Hadsel
Succeeded by Robert P. Smith
Personal details
Born Shirley Temple[note 1]
(1928-04-23)April 23, 1928
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Died February 10, 2014(2014-02-10) (aged 85)
Woodside, California, U.S.
Cause of death Emphysema
Resting place Alta Mesa Memorial Park
Palo Alto, California
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) John Agar
(m. 1945; div. 1950)

Charles Alden Black
(m. 1950; d. 2005)
Children 3
Education Tutors, private high school
Alma mater Westlake School for Girls (1940–45)
Occupation Film actress (1932–50)
TV actress/entertainer (1958–65)
Public servant (1969–92)
Known for Juvenile film roles

Shirley Temple Black (April 23, 1928 – February 10, 2014) was an American actress, singer and dancer, most notable as Hollywood's number one box-office star from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana and to Czechoslovakia and also served as Chief of Protocol of the United States.

Shirley Temple began her film career in 1932 at age 3. In 1934, she found international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. She received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer to motion pictures during 1934, and film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Licensed merchandise that capitalized on her wholesome image included dolls, dishes, and clothing. Her box-office popularity waned as she reached adolescence.[1] She appeared in a few films of varying quality in her mid-to-late teens, and retired from films in 1950 at the age of 22.[2][3]

Temple returned to show business in 1958 with a two-season television anthology series of fairy tale adaptations. She made guest appearances on television shows in the early 1960s and filmed a sitcom pilot that was never released. She sat on the boards of corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods and the National Wildlife Federation. She began her diplomatic career in 1969, with an appointment to represent the United States at a session of the United Nations General Assembly. In 1988, she published her autobiography, Child Star.[4]

Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Kennedy Center Honors and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. She is 18th on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female American screen legends of Classic Hollywood cinema.

Early years

Shirley Temple In Glad Rags to Riches, 1933

Shirley Temple was born on April 23, 1928, in Santa Monica, California. She was the daughter of Gertrude Amelia Temple, a homemaker, and George Francis Temple, a bank employee. The family was of English, German, and Dutch ancestry.[5][6] She had two brothers, George Francis, Jr., and John Stanley.[6][7][8] Her mother supported her young daughter's singing, dancing, and acting talents, and in September 1931, enrolled her in Meglin's Dance School in Los Angeles.[9][10][11] About this time, her mother began styling her daughter's hair in ringlets.[12]

While at Meglin's, she was spotted by Charles Lamont, a casting director for Educational Pictures. Although Shirley hid behind the piano while in the studio, Lamont took a shine to her, invited her to audition, and in 1932, signed her to a contract. Educational Pictures were about to launch their Baby Burlesks,[13][14][15][16] multiple short films satirizing recent film and political events, using preschool children in every role.

Baby Burlesks was a series of one-reelers; another series of two-reelers called Frolics of Youth followed, with Shirley playing Mary Lou Rogers, a youngster in a contemporary suburban family.[17] To underwrite production costs at Educational, she and her child co-stars modeled for breakfast cereals and other products.[18][19] She was lent to Tower Productions for a small role in her first feature film (The Red-Haired Alibi) in 1932[20][21] and, in 1933, to Universal, Paramount, and Warner Bros., for various parts.[22][23] After Educational Pictures declared bankruptcy in 1933, her father purchased her contract for $25.

Fox films

The actress's hand and foot prints at Grauman's Chinese Theater

While walking out of the viewing of her last Frolics of Youth picture, Fox Film songwriter Jay Gorney saw the little girl dancing in the movie theater lobby. Recognizing her from the screen, he arranged for her to have a tryout for the movie Stand Up and Cheer!. Arriving for the audition on December 7, 1933, she won the part and was signed to a $150-per-week contract guaranteed for two weeks by Fox Film Corporation. The role then was a breakthrough performance for her. Her charm was evident to Fox heads, as she was ushered into corporate offices almost immediately after finishing Baby Take a Bow song and dance number she did with James Dunn. On December 21, 1933, her contract was extended to a year at the same $150/week with a seven-year option and her mother Gertrude was hired on at $25/week as her hairdresser and personal coach.[24] Released in May 1934, Stand Up and Cheer! became Shirley's breakthrough film. Within months, she became the symbol of wholesome family entertainment.[25] In June, her success continued with a loan-out to Paramount for Little Miss Marker.[26][27]

After the success of her first three movies, the Temples realized Shirley was not being paid enough. Her image also began to appear on numerous commercial products without approval and without compensation. To get control over the corporate unlicensed use of her image and to negotiate with Fox, the girl's parents hired the lawyer Loyd Wright to represent them. On July 18, 1934, the contractual salary was raised to $1,000 a week and her mother's salary was raised to $250 a week, with an additional $15,000 bonus for each movie finished. Cease and desist letters were sent out to many companies and the process was begun for awarding corporate licenses.[28]

On December 28, 1934, Bright Eyes was released. It was the first feature film crafted specifically for the girl's talents and the first where her name appeared over the title.[29][30] Her signature song, "On the Good Ship Lollipop", was introduced in the film and sold 500,000 sheet-music copies. In February 1935, Shirley Temple became the first child star to be honored with a miniature Juvenile Oscar for her film accomplishments,[31][32][33][note 2] and she added her foot- and handprints to the forecourt at Grauman's Chinese Theatre a month later.[34]

20th Century Fox

Fox Films merged with Twentieth Century Pictures to become 20th Century Fox in 1935. Producer and studio head Darryl F. Zanuck focused his attention and resources upon cultivating Shirley's superstar status. She was the studio's greatest asset. Nineteen writers, known as the Shirley Temple Story Development team, made 11 original stories and some adaptations of the classics for her.[35][note 3]

Biographer Anne Edwards writes about the tone and tenor of Shirley Temple films, "This was mid-Depression, and schemes proliferated for the care of the needy and the regeneration of the fallen. But they all required endless paperwork and demeaning, hours-long queues, at the end of which an exhausted, nettled social worker dealt with each person as a faceless number. Shirley offered a natural solution: to open one's heart."[36] Edwards points out that the characters created for the little actress would change the lives of the cold, the hardened, and the criminal with positive results. Her films were seen as generating hope and optimism, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, "It is a splendid thing that for just fifteen cents an American can go to a movie and look at the smiling face of a baby and forget his troubles."[37][note 4]

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Shirley Temple in July 1938

Most of the Shirley Temple films were cheaply made at $200,000 or $300,000 per picture and were comedy-dramas with songs and dances added, sentimental and melodramatic situations, and little in the way of production values. Her film titles are a clue to the way she was marketed—Curly Top and Dimples, and her "little" pictures such as The Little Colonel and The Littlest Rebel. Shirley often played a fixer-upper, a precocious Cupid, or the good fairy in these films, reuniting her estranged parents or smoothing out the wrinkles in the romances of young couples.[38] Elements of the traditional fairy tale were woven into her films: wholesome goodness triumphing over meanness and evil, for example, or wealth over poverty, marriage over divorce, or a booming economy over a depressed one.[39] As the girl matured into a pre-adolescent, the formula was altered slightly to encourage her naturalness, naïveté, and tomboyishness to come forth and shine while her infant innocence, which had served her well at six but was inappropriate for her tweens (or later childhood years), was toned down.[38]


In the contract they signed in July 1934, Shirley's parents agreed to four films a year (rather than the three they wished). A succession of films followed: The Little Colonel, Our Little Girl, Curly Top (with the signature song "Animal Crackers in My Soup"), and The Littlest Rebel in 1935. Curly Top and The Littlest Rebel were named to Varietys list of top box office draws for 1935.[40] In 1936, Captain January, Poor Little Rich Girl, Dimples,[note 5] and Stowaway were released. Curly Top was Shirley's last film before the merger of 20th Century and Fox.

Based on Shirley Temple's many screen successes, Zanuck increased budgets and production values for her films. By the end of 1935, her salary was $2,500 a week.[41] In 1937, John Ford was hired to direct the sepia-toned Wee Willie Winkie (Temple's own favorite) and an A-list cast was signed that included Victor McLaglen, C. Aubrey Smith and Cesar Romero.[42][43] Elaborate sets were built at the famed Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, Calif., for the production, with a rock feature at the heavily filmed location ranch eventually being named the Shirley Temple Rock.

The film was a critical and commercial hit.[42] but British writer and critic Graham Greene muddied the waters in October 1937 when he wrote in a British magazine that the actress was a "complete totsy" and accused her of being too nubile for a nine-year-old:

Her admirers—middle-aged men and clergymen—respond to her dubious coquetry, to the sight of her well-shaped and desirable little body, packed with enormous vitality, only because the safety curtain of story and dialogue drops between their intelligence and their desire.[44]

Shirley Temple and Twentieth Century-Fox sued for libel and won. The settlement remained in trust for the girl in an English bank until she turned twenty-one, when it was donated to charity and used to build a youth center in England.[45][46]

The only other Shirley Temple film released in 1937 was Heidi.[45] Midway through the shooting of the movie, the dream sequence was added into the script. There were reports that the little actress was behind the dream sequence and that she was enthusiastically pushing for it but in her autobiography she vehemently denied it. Her contract gave neither her nor her parents any creative control over the movies she was in. She saw this as the collapse of any serious attempt by the studio to build upon the dramatic role from the previous movie Wee Willie Winkie.[47]


Shirley Temple in The Little Princess, her first color film.

The Independent Theatre Owners Association paid for an advertisement in the Hollywood Reporter in May 1938 that included Shirley Temple on a list of actors who deserved their salaries while others, such as Katharine Hepburn and Joan Crawford, were described as "whose box-office draw is nil".[48] That year Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Little Miss Broadway and Just Around the Corner were released. The latter two were panned by the critics, and Corner was the first of her films to show a slump in ticket sales.[49] The following year, Zanuck secured the rights to the children's novel, A Little Princess, believing the book would be an ideal vehicle for the girl. He budgeted the film at $1.5 million (twice the amount of Corner) and chose it to be her first Technicolor feature. The Little Princess was a 1939 critical and commercial success with Shirley's acting at its peak. Convinced that the girl would successfully move from child star to teenage actress, Zanuck declined a substantial offer from MGM to star her as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz and cast her instead in Susannah of the Mounties, her last money-maker for Twentieth Century-Fox.[50][51] The film was successful, but because she made only two films in 1939 instead of three or four, Shirley dropped from number one box-office favorite in 1938 to number five in 1939.[52]

In 1939, she was the subject of the Salvador Dalí painting Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time and she was animated and was with Donald Duck in The Autograph Hound.

In 1940 Lester Cowan, an independent film producer, bought F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story, "Babylon Revisited and Other Stories" for $80 which was a bargain. Fitzgerald thought his screenwriting days were over and with some hesitation accepted Cowan's offer to write the screenplay, titled "Cosmopolitan," based on the short story. After finishing the screenplay, Scott was told by Cowan that he would not do the film unless Shirley Temple starred in the lead of the youngster Honoria. Fitzgerald objected, saying that at age 12, going on twenty, the actress was too worldly for the part and would detract from the aura of innocence otherwise framed by Honoria's character. After meeting Shirley in July, Fitzgerald changed his mind and tried to persuade her mother to let her star in the film. However, her mother demurred. In any case, the Cowan project was shelved by the producer. F. Scott Fitzgerald was later credited for the use of the original story for The Last Time I Saw Paris, starring Elizabeth Taylor.[53]

In 1940, Shirley starred in two flops at Twentieth Century-Fox, The Blue Bird and Young People.[54][55] Her parents bought up the remainder of her contract and sent her at the age of 12 to Westlake School for Girls, an exclusive country day school in Los Angeles.[56] At the studio, the girl's bungalow was renovated, all traces of her tenure expunged, and the building reassigned as an office.[55]


The actress had her own radio series on CBS. Junior Miss debuted March 4, 1942, with her in the title role. The series was based on stories by Sally Benson. Sponsored by Procter & Gamble, Junior Miss was directed by Gordon Hughes, with David Rose as musical director.[57]

Last films and retirement

After her departure from Twentieth Century-Fox,[note 6] MGM signed Shirley for her comeback, and made plans to team her with Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney for the Andy Hardy series. The idea was quickly abandoned, with MGM teaming her with Garland and Rooney for the musical Babes on Broadway. Fearing that either of the latter two could easily upstage the girl, MGM replaced her with Virginia Weidler. As a result, her only film for Metro became Kathleen in 1941, a story about an unhappy teenager. The film was not a success and her MGM contract was canceled after mutual consent. Miss Annie Rooney followed for United Artists in 1942, but was unsuccessful.[note 7] The actress retired for almost two years from films, focusing on school and activities.[58]

In 1944, David O. Selznick signed Shirley Temple to a four-year contract. She appeared in two wartime hits: Since You Went Away and I'll Be Seeing You. Selznick however became involved with Jennifer Jones and lost interest in developing Shirley's career. She was lent to other studios with Kiss and Tell, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer,[note 8] and Fort Apache being her few good films at the time.[59]

According to biographer Robert Windeler, her 1947–49 films neither made nor lost money, but "had a cheapie B look about them and indifferent performances from her".[60] Selznick suggested she move abroad, gain maturity as an actress, and even change her name. She was typecast, he warned her, and her career was in perilous straits.[60][61] After auditioning for and losing the role of Peter Pan on the Broadway stage in August 1950,[62] Temple took stock, admitted her recent movies had been poor fare, and announced her retirement from films on December 16, 1950.[60][63]

Merchandise and endorsements

Shirley Temple leaving the White House offices with her mother and her bodyguard, John Griffith, 1938

Many Shirley Temple-inspired products were manufactured and released during the 1930s. Ideal Toy and Novelty Company in New York City negotiated a license for dolls with the company's first doll wearing the polka-dot dress from Stand Up and Cheer!. Shirley Temple dolls realized $45 million in sales before 1941.[64] A mug, a pitcher, and a cereal bowl in cobalt blue with a decal of the little actress were given away as a premium with Wheaties.

Successful Shirley Temple items included a line of girls' dresses, accessories, soap, dishes, cutout books, sheet music, mirrors, paper tablets, and numerous other items. Before 1935 ended, the girl's income from licensed merchandise royalties would exceed $100,000, doubling her income from her movies. In 1936, her income topped $200,000 from royalties. She endorsed Postal Telegraph, Sperry Drifted Snow Flour, the Grunow Teledial radio, Quaker Puffed Wheat,[64] General Electric and Packard automobiles.[65][note 9]

Myths and rumors

At the height of her popularity, Shirley Temple was often the subject of myths and rumors, some propagated by 20th Century Fox/Fox Films. Fox also publicized her as a natural talent with no formal acting or dance training. As a way of explaining how she knew stylized buck and weave dancing, she was enrolled in the Elisa Ryan School of Dancing for two weeks.[66]

One persistent rumor that was especially prevalent in Europe was that Shirley was not a child but a 30-year-old dwarf due in part to her stocky body type. So prevalent were these rumors that the Vatican dispatched Father Silvio Massante to investigate if she were indeed a child. The fact that she never seemed to miss any teeth led some people to conclude she had all her adult teeth. The girl was actually losing her teeth regularly through her days with 20th Century Fox, most notably during the sidewalk ceremony in front of Grauman's Theatre, where she took off her shoes and placed her bare feet in the cement to take attention away from her face. When acting, she wore dental plates and caps to hide the gaps in her teeth.[67] Another rumor pertaining to her teeth was the idea that they were filed to make them appear like baby teeth.[68]

Her biggest trademark, her hair, also was subject of rumors. One rumor that circulated was she wore a wig. More than once, fans yanked her hair to test the theory. She later said she wished all she had to do was wear a wig. The nightly process she went through in the setting of her curls was tedious and grueling, with once a week vinegar rinses burning her eyes.[69] Rumors also spread about her hair color, namely that she wasn't a natural blonde. During the making of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, news spread that she was going to do extended scenes without her trademark curls. During production, she also caught a cold which caused her to miss a couple days. As a result, a false report originated in Britain that all of her hair was cut off.[68]

Marriages and children

In 1943, 15-year-old Shirley Temple met John Agar (1921–2002), an Army Air Corps sergeant, physical training instructor, and member of a Chicago meat-packing family.[70][71] On September 19, 1945, when Temple was 17, they married before five hundred guests in an Episcopal ceremony at Wilshire Methodist Church in Los Angeles.[72][73][74] On January 30, 1948, the young wife bore a daughter, Linda Susan.[72][75][76] Agar became an actor, and the couple made two films together: Fort Apache (1948, RKO) and Adventure in Baltimore (1949, RKO).[76] The marriage became troubled;[76][77] and Temple divorced Agar on December 5, 1949.[65][76] She was awarded custody of their daughter.[76][78][79] The divorce was finalized on December 5, 1950.

In January 1950, Temple met Charles Alden Black, a World War II United States Navy intelligence officer and Silver Star recipient who was Assistant to the President of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company.[80][81] Conservative and patrician, he was the son of James Black, president and later chairman of Pacific Gas and Electric, and reputedly one of the richest young men in California.[81] Temple and Black were married in his parents' Del Monte, California, home on December 16, 1950, before a small assembly of family and friends.[72][81][82]

The family moved to Washington DC, when Black was recalled to the Navy at the outbreak of the Korean War.[83] Temple had their son, Charles Alden Black, Jr., in Washington, D.C., on April 28, 1952.[72][84][85] Following the war's end and Black's discharge from the Navy, the family returned to California in May 1953. Black managed television station KABC-TV in Los Angeles, and Temple became a homemaker. Their daughter Lori was born on April 9, 1954;[72] Lori went on to be a bassist in the multi-genre band the Melvins. In September 1954, Charles Sr. became director of business operations for the Stanford Research Institute, and the family moved to Atherton, California.[86] The couple were married for 54 years until his death on August 4, 2005, at home in Woodside, California of complications from a bone marrow disease.[87]


The actress in 1965

Between January and December 1958, Temple hosted and narrated a successful NBC television anthology series of fairy-tale adaptations called Shirley Temple's Storybook. She acted in three of the sixteen hour-long episodes, and her son made his acting debut in the Christmas episode, "Mother Goose".[88][89] The series was popular but faced issues. The show lacked the special effects necessary for fairy tale dramatizations, sets were amateurish, and episodes were telecast in no regular time-slot, making it hard for another.[90] The show was reworked and released in color in September 1960 in a regular time-slot as The Shirley Temple Show.[91][92] It faced stiff competition from Maverick, Lassie, Dennis the Menace, the 1960 telecast of The Wizard of Oz, and the Walt Disney anthology television series however, and was canceled at season's end in September 1961.[93]

Temple continued to work on television, making guest appearances on The Red Skelton Show, Sing Along with Mitch, and other shows.[91] In January 1965, she portrayed a social worker in a pilot called Go Fight City Hall that was never released.[94] In 1999, she hosted the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars awards show on CBS, and, in 2001, served as a consultant on an ABC-TV production of her autobiography, Child Star: The Shirley Temple Story.[95]

Motivated by the popularity of Storybook and television broadcasts of Temple's films, the Ideal Toy Company released a new version of the Shirley Temple doll and Random House published three fairy tale anthologies under her name. 300,000 dolls were sold within six months and 225,000 books between October and December 1958. Other merchandise included handbags and hats, coloring books, a toy theater, and a recreation of the Baby, Take a Bow polka-dot dress.[96]

Life after Hollywood

Political career

After her venture into television, Temple became active in the Republican Party in California. In 1967, she ran unsuccessfully in a special election in California's 11th congressional district to fill the seat left vacant by the death of eight-term Republican J. Arthur Younger from leukemia.[97][98] She ran as a conservative and lost to law school professor Pete McCloskey.[99][100]

Temple was extensively involved with the Commonwealth Club of California, a public-affairs forum headquartered in San Francisco. She spoke at many meetings through the years and was president in 1984.[101][102]

Temple got her start in foreign service after her failed run for Congress in 1967, when Henry Kissinger overheard her talking about Namibia at a party, he was surprised that she knew anything about it.[103] She was appointed delegate to the 24th United Nations General Assembly by President Richard M. Nixon (September – December 1969),[104][105][106] and was appointed United States Ambassador to Ghana (December 6, 1974 – July 13, 1976) by President Gerald R. Ford.[107] She was appointed first female Chief of Protocol of the United States (July 1, 1976 – January 21, 1977), and was in charge of arrangements for President Jimmy Carter's inauguration and inaugural ball.[107][108] She served as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia (August 23, 1989 – July 12, 1992), having been appointed by President George H. W. Bush.[65] She was the first and only female US ambassador to Czechoslovakia. Temple was a witness to two crucial moments in the history of Czechoslovakia's fight against Communism. She was in Prague in August 1968, as a representative of the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis Societies and was going to meet with Czechoslovakian party leader Alexander Dubček on the very day that Soviet-backed forces invaded the country. Dubček fell out of favor with the Soviets after a series of reforms known as the Prague Spring. Temple, who was stranded at a hotel as the tanks rolled in, sought refuge on the roof of the hotel. She later reported that it was from here she saw an unarmed woman on the street gunned down by Soviet forces, a sight that stayed with her for the rest of her life.[109] Later, after she became ambassador to Czechoslovakia, she was present in the Velvet Revolution, which brought about the end of Communism in Czechoslovakia. Temple played a critical role in hastening the end of the Communist regime by openly sympathizing with anti-Communist dissidents and later establishing formal diplomatic relations with the newly elected government led by Václav Havel. She took the unusual step of personally accompanying Havel on his first official visit to Washington, riding along on the same plane.[110]

Breast cancer

In 1972, at age 44, Temple was diagnosed with breast cancer. The tumor was removed and a modified radical mastectomy performed. She announced the results of the operation on radio and television and in a February 1973 article for the magazine McCall's. In doing so, she became one of the first prominent women to speak openly about breast cancer.[111]

Corporation commitments

Temple served on boards of directors of large enterprises and organizations such as The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, Bank of America, the Bank of California, BANCAL Tri-State, Fireman's Fund Insurance, the United States Commission for UNESCO, the United Nations Association and the National Wildlife Federation.[112]


Shirley Temple died on February 10, 2014, at age 85. She was at her home in Woodside, California.[113][114] Her family stated only that she died of natural causes. The specific cause, according to her death certificate released on March 3, 2014, was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[115] A lifelong smoker, she avoided revealing her habit in public to avoid setting a bad example for her fans.[116]

Awards, honors and legacy

Temple was the recipient of many awards and honors including a special Juvenile Academy Award,[72] the Life Achievement Award from the American Center of Films for Children,[107] the National Board of Review Career Achievement Award,[117] Kennedy Center Honors,[118][119] and the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award.[120] On September 11, 2002, a life-size bronze statue of the child Temple by sculptor Nijel Binns was erected on the Fox Studio lot.[121]

On March 14, 1935, Shirley left her footprints and handprints in the wet cement at the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. She was the Grand Marshal of the New Year's Day Rose Parade in Pasadena, California three times in 1939, 1989, and 1999.

On February 8, 1960, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

In February 1980, Temple was honored by the Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, along with U.S. Senator Jake Garn of Utah, actor James Stewart, singer John Denver, and Tom Abraham, a businessman from Canadian, Texas, who worked with immigrants seeking to become U.S. citizens.[122]


See also



  1. While Temple occasionally used "Jane" as a middle name, her birth certificate reads "Shirley Temple". Her birth certificate was altered to prolong her babyhood shortly after she signed with Fox in 1934; her birth year was advanced from 1928 to 1929. Even her baby book was revised to support the 1929 date. She confirmed her true age when she was 21 (Burdick 5; Edwards 23n, 43n).
  2. Temple was presented with a full-sized Oscar in 1985 (Edwards 357).
  3. In keeping with her star status, Winfield Sheehan, built the girl a four-room bungalow at the studio with a garden, a picket fence, a tree with a swing, and a rabbit pen. The living room wall was painted with a mural depicting her as a fairy-tale princess wearing a golden star on her head. Under Zanuck, she was assigned a bodyguard, John Griffith, a childhood friend of Zanuck's (Edwards 77), and, at the end of 1935, Frances "Klammie" Klampt became her tutor at the studio (Edwards 78).
  4. Shirley and her parents traveled to Washington, DC, late in 1935 to meet Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor. The presidential couple invited the Temple family to a cook-out at their home, where Eleanor, bending over an outdoor grill, was hit smartly in the rear with a pebble from the slingshot that Shirley carried everywhere in her little lace purse (Edwards 81).
  5. In Dimples, Shirley was upstaged for the first time in her film career by Frank Morgan who played Professor Appleby with such zest as to render the child actress almost the amateur (Windeler 175).
  6. In 1941, Temple worked radio with four shows for Lux soap and a four-part Shirley Temple Time for Elgin. Of radio she said, "It's adorable. I get a big thrill out of it, and I want to do as much radio work as I can." (Windeler 43)
  7. the teenager received her first on-screen kiss in the film (from Dickie Moore, on the cheek) (Edwards 136).
  8. Temple took her first on-screen drink (and spat it out) in Bobby-Soxer. The Women's Christian Temperance Union protested that unthinking teenagers might do the same after seeing the teenage Shirley in the film (Life Staff 140).
  9. In the 1990s, audio recordings of the girl's film songs and videos of her films were released, but she received no royalties. Porcelain dolls were created by Elke Hutchens. The Danbury Mint released plates and figurines depicting her in her film roles, and, in 2000, a porcelain tea set (Burdick 136)


  1. "Shirley Temple". Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  2. Balio 227
  3. Windeler 26
  4. Child Star. McGraw-Hill. 1998. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.
  5. Edwards 15, 17
  6. 1 2 Windeler 16
  7. Edwards 15
  8. Burdick 3
  9. Edwards 29–30
  10. Windeler 17
  11. Burdick 6
  12. Edwards 26
  13. Edwards 31
  14. Black 14
  15. Edwards 31–4
  16. Windeler 111
  17. Windeler 113, 115, 122
  18. Black 15
  19. Edwards 36
  20. Black 28
  21. Edwards 37, 366
  22. Edwards 267–9
  23. Windeler 122
  24. Shirley Temple Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988), 32-36.
  25. Barrios 421
  26. Edwards 62
  27. Windeler 122, 127
  28. Shirley Temple Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 79-83.
  29. Edwards 67
  30. Windeler 143
  31. Black 98–101
  32. Edwards 80
  33. Windeler 27–8
  34. Black 72
  35. Edwards 74–5
  36. Edwards 75
  37. Edwards 75–6
  38. 1 2 Balio 227–8
  39. Zipes 518
  40. Balio 228
  41. Shirley Temple Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 130.
  42. 1 2 Windeler 183
  43. Edwards 104–5
  44. Edwards 105, 363
  45. 1 2 Edwards 106
  46. Windeler 35
  47. Shirley Temple Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 192-193.
  48. "Box-office Busts/Boys and Girls". Life. pp. 13, 28. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
  49. Edwards 120–1
  50. Edwards 122–3
  51. Windeler 207
  52. Edwards 124
  53. E. Ray Canterbery and Thomas D. Birch, "F. Scott Fitzgerald: Under the Influence" (St. Paul, Minn.: Paragon House, 2006), pp. 347–352.
  54. Burdick 268
  55. 1 2 Edwards 128
  56. Windeler 38
  57. "Shirley Temple in Title Role Of 'Junior Miss' Radio Drama". Harrisburg Telegraph. February 28, 1942. p. 22. Retrieved March 28, 2015 via
  58. Windeler 43–5
  59. Windeler 49, 51–2
  60. 1 2 3 Windeler 71
  61. Edwards 206
  62. Edwards 209
  63. Black 479–81
  64. 1 2 Black 85–6
  65. 1 2 3 Thomas; Scheftel
  66. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.
  67. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 72–73, 183–184. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.
  68. 1 2 Lindeman, Edith. "The Real Miss Temple". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  69. Black, Shirley Temple (1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.
  70. Edwards 147
  71. Windeler 53
  72. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Edwards 355
  73. Edwards 169
  74. Windeler 54
  75. Black 419–21
  76. 1 2 3 4 5 Windeler 68
  77. Edwards 199–200
  78. Black 449
  79. Edwards 199
  80. Edwards 207
  81. 1 2 3 Windeler 72
  82. Edwards 211
  83. Edwards 215
  84. Edwards 217
  85. Windeler 72–3
  86. Windeler 74
  87. Dawicki 2005
  88. Edwards 231, 233, 393
  89. Windeler 255
  90. Burdick 112–3
  91. 1 2 Edwards 393
  92. Burdick 115
  93. Burdick 115–6
  94. Edwards 235–6, 393
  95. "Child Star: The Shirley Temple Story (2001)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  96. Edwards 233
  97. Edwards 243ff
  98. Windeler 80ff
  99. Sean Howell (July 1, 2009). "Documentary salutes Pete McCloskey". The Almanac Online. Embarcadero Publishing Co. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  100. Romney, Lee (June 11, 2012). "Between two public servants, Purple Heart-felt admiration". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  102. "In Memoriam: Shirley Temple Black". Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  103. Joshua Keating, "Shirley Temple Black's Unlikely Diplomatic Career," Slate, 11 Feb 2014 <>.
  104. Edwards 356
  105. Windeler 85
  106. Aljean Harmetz, "Shirley Temple Black, Hollywood's Biggest Little Star, Dies at 85," The New York Times, February 11, 2014
  107. 1 2 3 Edwards 357
  108. Windeler 105
  109. Craig R. Whitney, "Prague Journal: Shirley Temple Black Unpacks a Bag of Memories," New York Times, 11 Sep 1989 <>.
  110. Joshua Keating, "Shirley Temple Black's Unlikely Diplomatic Career: Including an Encounter with Frank Zappa," Slate, 11 Feb 2014 <>.
  111. Thornton, Michael (April 18, 2008). "Shirley Temple: the superstar who had her childhood destroyed by Hollywood". Daily mail. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  112. Edwards 318, 356–7
  113. "Hollywood star Shirley Temple dies". BBC News. 11 February 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  114. "Shirley Temple, former Hollywood child star, dies at 85". Reuters. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  115. "EXCLUSIVE: Shirley Temple revealed to be a secret smoker and actually died from lung disease ... but her family covered it up to protect her 'goody goody' image". Daily Mail. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  116. "Obituary: Shirley Temple". BBC News. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  117. "Shirley Temple Black". The National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  118. "History of Past Honorees". The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  119. Burdick 136
  120. "Shirley Temple Black: 2005 Life Achievement Recipient". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  121. "The Shirley Temple Monument". Nijart. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  122. "Tom Abraham to be honored by Freedoms Foundation Feb. 22", Canadian Record, February 14, 1980, p. 19

Works cited

  • Balio, Tino (1995) [1993]. Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20334-8. 
  • Barrios, Richard (1995). A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508810-7. 
  • Black, Shirley Temple (1989) [1988]. Child Star: An Autobiography. Warner Books, Inc. ISBN 0-446-35792-8. 
  • Burdick, Loraine (2003). The Shirley Temple Scrapbook. Jonathan David Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-8246-0449-0. 
  • Dawicki, Shelley (August 10, 2005). "In Memoriam: Charles A. Black". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved February 10, 2011. 
  • Hatch, Kristen. Shirley Temple and the Performance of Girlhood (Rutgers University Press, 2015) x, 173 pp.
  • Edwards, Anne (1988). Shirley Temple: American Princess. William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 0-688-06051-X. 
  • Life Staff (1946-09-16). "Tempest Over Temple: Shirley sips liquor and the W.C.T.U. protests". Life. 21 (12): 140. 
  • Thomas, Andy; Scheftel, Jeff (1996). Shirley Temple: The Biggest Little Star. Biography. A&E Television Networks. ISBN 0-7670-8495-0 
  • Windeler, Robert (1992) [1978]. The Films of Shirley Temple. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-0725-X. 
  • Zipes, Jack, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-9653635-7-0. 

Further reading

  • Basinger, Jeanine (1993). A Woman's View: How Hollywood Spoke to Women, 1930–1960. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 262ff. ISBN 0-394-56351-4. 
  • Best, Marc (1971). Those Endearing Young Charms: Child Performers of the Screen. South Brunswick and New York: Barnes & Co. pp. 251–255.
  • Bogle, Donald (2001) [1974]. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. pp. 45–52. ISBN 0-8264-1267-X. 
  • Cook, James W.; Glickman, Lawrence B.; O'Malley, Michael (2008). The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present, and Future. University of Chicago Press. pp. 186ff. ISBN 978-0-226-11506-1. 
  • Dye, David (1988). Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914-1985. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., pp. 227–228.
  • Everett, Charles (2004) [1974]. "Shirley Temple and the House of Rockefeller". Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media (2): 1, 17–20. 
  • Kasson, John F. The Little Girl Who Fought the Great Depression: Shirley Temple and 1930s America (2014) Excerpt
  • Thomson, Rosemarie Garland, ed. (1996). Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. New York University Press. pp. 185–203. ISBN 0-8147-8217-5. 

External links

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Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Academy Juvenile Award
Succeeded by
Deanna Durbin and Mickey Rooney
Preceded by
James Garner
Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award
Succeeded by
Julie Andrews
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Fred L. Hadsel
United States Ambassador to Ghana
Succeeded by
Robert P. Smith
Preceded by
Henry E. Catto, Jr.
Chief of Protocol of the United States
Succeeded by
Evan Dobelle
Preceded by
Julian Niemczyk
United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia
Succeeded by
Adrian A. Basora
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