|List of digital television broadcast standards|
|DVB standards (countries)|
|ATSC standards (countries)|
|ISDB standards (countries)|
|DTMB standards (countries)|
|DMB standard (countries)|
It is delivering television programming using signals relayed from space radio stations (e.g. DVB satellites). The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter (LNB). A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be external set-top boxes, or a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services, especially to geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television.
The most common method of reception is direct-broadcast satellite television (DBSTV), also known as "direct to home" (DTH). In DBSTV systems, signals are relayed from a direct broadcast satellite on the Ku wavelength and are completely digital. Satellite TV systems formerly used systems known as television receive-only. These systems received analog signals transmitted in the C-band spectrum from FSS type satellites, and required the use of large dishes. Consequently, these systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, and were more expensive and less popular.
The direct-broadcast satellite television signals were earlier analog signals and later digital signals, both of which require a compatible receiver. Digital signals may include high-definition television (HDTV). Some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption (pay television), requiring a subscription.
Satellites used for television signals are generally in either naturally highly elliptical (with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, also known as Molniya orbit) or geostationary orbit 37,000 km (23,000 mi) above the earth's equator.
Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) in diameter. The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite. The transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency (a process known as translation, used to avoid interference with the uplink signal), typically in the C-band (4–8 GHz), Ku-band (12–18 GHz), or both. The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink.
A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 27 and 50 MHz. Each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference; for Ku the spacing can be 1°. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain (as water is an excellent absorber of microwaves at this particular frequency). The latter is even more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds.
On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed. The downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance (see inverse-square law), is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter (LNB). The LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF), usually in the L-band.
The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier (LNA) connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish. The amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via very expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with relatively complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter (a mixer and a voltage-tuned oscillator with some filter circuitry) for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled typically by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved.
Designs for microstrip-based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band. Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more easily handled IF.
The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable can be used to connect the indoor receiver to the satellite television dish and LNB, and that the technology for handling the signal at L-band and UHF was far cheaper than that for handling the signal at C-band frequencies. The shift to cheaper technology from the hardline and N-connectors of the early C-band systems to the cheaper and simpler 75-ohm cable and F-connectors allowed the early satellite television receivers to use, what were in reality, modified UHF television tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to a lower intermediate frequency centered on 70 MHz, where it was demodulated. This shift allowed the satellite television DTH industry to change from being a largely hobbyist one where only small numbers of systems costing thousands of US dollars were built, to a far more commercial one of mass production.
In the United States, service providers use the intermediate frequency ranges of 950–2150 MHz to carry the signal from the LNBF at the dish down to the receiver. This allows for transmission of UHF signals along the same span of coaxial wire at the same time. In some applications (DirecTV AU9-S and AT-9), ranges of the lower B-band and 2250–3000 MHz, are used. Newer LNBFs in use by DirecTV, called SWM (Single Wire Multiswitch), are used to implement single cable distribution and use a wider frequency range of 2–2150 MHz.
The satellite receiver or set-top box demodulates and converts the signals to the desired form (outputs for television, audio, data, etc.). Often, the receiver includes the capability to selectively unscramble or decrypt the received signal to provide premium services to some subscribers; the receiver is then called an integrated receiver/decoder or IRD. Low-loss cable (e.g. RG-6, RG-11, etc.) is used to connect the receiver to the LNBF or LNB. RG-59 is not recommended for this application as it is not technically designed to carry frequencies above 950 MHz, but may work in some circumstances, depending on the quality of the coaxial wire, signal levels, cable length, etc.
A practical problem relating to home satellite reception is that an LNB can basically only handle a single receiver. This is because the LNB is translating two different circular polarizations (right-hand and left-hand) and, in the case of K-band, two different frequency bands (lower and upper) to the same frequency range on the cable. Depending on which frequency and polarization a transponder is using, the satellite receiver has to switch the LNB into one of four different modes in order to receive a specific "channel". This is handled by the receiver using the DiSEqC protocol to control the LNB mode. If several satellite receivers are to be attached to a single dish, a so-called multiswitch will have to be used in conjunction with a special type of LNB. There are also LNBs available with a multiswitch already integrated. This problem becomes more complicated when several receivers are to use several dishes (or several LNBs mounted in a single dish) pointing to different satellites.
A common solution for consumers wanting to access multiple satellites is to deploy a single dish with a single LNB and to rotate the dish using an electric motor. The axis of rotation has to be set up in the north-south direction and, depending on the geographical location of the dish, have a specific vertical tilt. Set up properly the motorized dish when turned will sweep across all possible positions for satellites lined up along the geostationary orbit directly above the equator. The disk will then be capable of receiving any geostationary satellite that is visible at the specific location, i.e. that is above the horizon. The DiSEqC protocol has been extended to encompass commands for steering dish rotors.
Analog television which was distributed via satellite was usually sent scrambled or unscrambled in NTSC, PAL, or SECAM television broadcast standards. The analog signal is frequency modulated and is converted from an FM signal to what is referred to as baseband. This baseband comprises the video signal and the audio subcarrier(s). The audio subcarrier is further demodulated to provide a raw audio signal.
Later signals were digitized television signal or multiplex of signals, typically QPSK. In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, is based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S/DVB-S2 or ISDB-S.
The conditional access encryption/scrambling methods include NDS, BISS, Conax, Digicipher, Irdeto, Cryptoworks, DG Crypt, Beta digital, SECA Mediaguard, Logiways, Nagravision, PowerVu, Viaccess, Videocipher, and VideoGuard. Many conditional access systems have been compromised.
Categories of usage
There are three primary types of satellite television usage: reception direct by the viewer, reception by local television affiliates, or reception by headends for distribution across terrestrial cable systems.
Direct broadcast via satellite
Direct broadcast satellite, (DBS) also known as "Direct-To-Home" can either refer to the communications satellites themselves that deliver DBS service or the actual television service. Most satellite television customers in developed television markets get their programming through a direct broadcast satellite provider. Signals are transmitted using Ku band and are completely digital which means it has high picture and stereo sound quality.
Programming for satellite television channels comes from multiple sources and may include live studio feeds. The broadcast centre assembles and packages programming into channels for transmission and, where necessary, encrypts the channels. The signal is then sent to the uplink where it is transmitted to the satellite. With some broadcast centres, the studios, administration and uplink are all part of the same campus. The satellite then translates and broadcasts the channels.
Most of the DBS systems use the DVB-S standard for transmission. With pay television services, the datastream is encrypted and requires proprietary reception equipment. While the underlying reception technology is similar, the pay television technology is proprietary, often consisting of a conditional-access module and smart card. This measure assures satellite television providers that only authorised, paying subscribers have access to pay television content but at the same time can allow free-to-air (FTA) channels to be viewed even by the people with standard equipment (DBS receivers without the conditional-access modules) available in the market.
The term Television receive-only, or TVRO, arose during the early days of satellite television reception to differentiate it from commercial satellite television uplink and downlink operations (transmit and receive). This was the primary method of satellite television transmissions before the satellite television industry shifted, with the launch of higher powered DBS satellites in the early 1990s which transmitted their signals on the Ku band frequencies. Satellite television channels at that time were intended to be used by cable television networks rather than received by home viewers. Early satellite television receiver systems were largely constructed by hobbyists and engineers. These early TVRO systems operated mainly on the C-band frequencies and the dishes required were large; typically over 3 meters (10 ft) in diameter. Consequently, TVRO is often referred to as "big dish" or "Big Ugly Dish" (BUD) satellite television.
TVRO systems were designed to receive analog and digital satellite feeds of both television or audio from both C-band and Ku-band transponders on FSS-type satellites. The higher frequency Ku-band systems tend to resemble DBS systems and can use a smaller dish antenna because of the higher power transmissions and greater antenna gain. TVRO systems tend to use larger rather than smaller satellite dish antennas, since it is more likely that the owner of a TVRO system would have a C-band-only setup rather than a Ku band-only setup. Additional receiver boxes allow for different types of digital satellite signal reception, such as DVB/MPEG-2 and 4DTV.
The narrow beam width of a normal parabolic satellite antenna means it can only receive signals from a single satellite at a time. Simulsat or the Vertex-RSI TORUS, is a quasi-parabolic satellite earthstation antenna that is capable of receiving satellite transmissions from 35 or more C- and Ku-band satellites simultaneously.
In 1945 British science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke proposed a world-wide communications system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit. This was published in the October 1945 issue of the Wireless World magazine and won him the Franklin Institute's Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1963.
The first public satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic ocean on 23 July 1962, although a test broadcast had taken place almost two weeks earlier on 11 July. The signals were received and broadcast in North American and European countries and watched by over 100 million. Launched in 1962, the Relay 1 satellite was the first satellite to transmit television signals from the US to Japan. The first geosynchronous communication satellite, Syncom 2, was launched on 26 July 1963.
The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed "Early Bird", was launched into geosynchronous orbit on April 6, 1965. The first national network of television satellites, called Orbita, was created by the Soviet Union in October 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for rebroadcasting and delivering of television signals to ground downlink stations. The first commercial North American satellite to carry television transmissions was Canada's geostationary Anik 1, which was launched on 9 November 1972. ATS-6, the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), was launched on 30 May 1974. It transmitted at 860 MHz using wideband FM modulation and had two sound channels. The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.
The first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry Direct-To-Home television, Ekran 1, was launched on 26 October 1976. It used a 714 MHz UHF downlink frequency so that the transmissions could be received with existing UHF television technology rather than microwave technology.
Beginning of the satellite TV industry, 1976–1980
The satellite television industry developed first in the US from the cable television industry as communication satellites were being used to distribute television programming to remote cable television headends. Home Box Office (HBO), Turner Broadcasting System (TBS), and Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN, later The Family Channel) were among the first to use satellite television to deliver programming. Taylor Howard of San Andreas, California became the first person to receive C-band satellite signals with his home-built system in 1976.
In the US, PBS, a non-profit public broadcasting service, began to distribute its television programming by satellite in 1978.
In 1979 Soviet engineers developed the Moskva (or Moscow) system of broadcasting and delivering of TV signals via satellites. They launched the Gorizont communication satellites later that same year. These satellites used geostationary orbits. They were equipped with powerful on-board transponders, so the size of receiving parabolic antennas of downlink stations was reduced to 4 and 2.5 metres. On October 18, 1979, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) began allowing people to have home satellite earth stations without a federal government license. The front cover of the 1979 Neiman-Marcus Christmas catalogue featured the first home satellite TV stations on sale for $36,500. The dishes were nearly 20 feet (6.1 m) in diameter and were remote controlled. The price went down by half soon after that, but there were only eight more channels. The Society for Private and Commercial Earth Stations (SPACE), an organisation which represented consumers and satellite TV system owners, was established in 1980.
Early satellite television systems were not very popular due to their expense and large dish size. The satellite television dishes of the systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s were 10 to 16 feet (3.0 to 4.9 m) in diameter, made of fibreglass or solid aluminum or steel, and in the United States cost more than $5,000, sometimes as much as $10,000. Programming sent from ground stations was relayed from eighteen satellites in geostationary orbit located 22,300 miles (35,900 km) above the Earth.
TVRO/C-band satellite era, 1980–1986
By 1980, satellite television was well established in the USA and Europe. On 26 April 1982, the first satellite channel in the UK, Satellite Television Ltd. (later Sky1), was launched. Its signals were transmitted from the ESA's Orbital Test Satellites. Between 1981 and 1985, TVRO systems' sales rates increased as prices fell. Advances in receiver technology and the use of gallium arsenide FET technology enabled the use of smaller dishes. Five hundred thousand systems, some costing as little as $2000, were sold in the US in 1984. Dishes pointing to one satellite were even cheaper. People in areas without local broadcast stations or cable television service could obtain good-quality reception with no monthly fees. The large dishes were a subject of much consternation, as many people considered them eyesores, and in the US most condominiums, neighborhoods, and other homeowner associations tightly restricted their use, except in areas where such restrictions were illegal. These restrictions were altered in 1986 when the Federal Communications Commission ruled all of them illegal. A municipality could require a property owner to relocate the dish if it violated other zoning restrictions, such as a setback requirement, but could not outlaw their use. The necessity of these restrictions would slowly decline as the dishes got smaller.
Originally, all channels were broadcast in the clear (ITC) because the equipment necessary to receive the programming was too expensive for consumers. With the growing number of TVRO systems, the program providers and broadcasters had to scramble their signal and develop subscription systems.
In October 1984, the U.S. Congress passed the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984, which gave those using TVRO systems the right to receive signals for free unless they were scrambled, and required those who did scramble to make their signals available for a reasonable fee. Since cable channels could prevent reception by big dishes, other companies had an incentive to offer competition. In January 1986, HBO began using the now-obsolete VideoCipher II system to encrypt their channels. Other channels used less secure television encryption systems. The scrambling of HBO was met with much protest from owners of big-dish systems, most of which had no other option at the time for receiving such channels, claiming that clear signals from cable channels would be difficult to receive. Eventually HBO allowed dish owners to subscribe directly to their service for $12.95 per month, a price equal to or higher than what cable subscribers were paying, and required a descrambler to be purchased for $395. This led to the attack on HBO's transponder Galaxy 1 by John R. MacDougall in April 1986. One by one, all commercial channels followed HBO's lead and began scrambling their channels. The Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA) was founded on December 2, 1986 as the result of a merger between SPACE and the Direct Broadcast Satellite Association (DBSA).
Videocipher II used analog scrambling on its video signal and Data Encryption Standard–based encryption on its audio signal. VideoCipher II was defeated, and there was a black market for descrambler devices which were initially sold as "test" devices.
Late 1980s and 1990s to present
By 1987, nine channels were scrambled, but 99 others were available free-to-air. While HBO initially charged a monthly fee of $19.95, soon it became possible to unscramble all channels for $200 a year. Dish sales went down from 600,000 in 1985 to 350,000 in 1986, but pay television services were seeing dishes as something positive since some people would never have cable service, and the industry was starting to recover as a result. Scrambling also led to the development of pay-per-view events. On November 1, 1988, NBC began scrambling its C-band signal but left its Ku band signal unencrypted in order for affiliates to not lose viewers who could not see their advertising. Most of the two million satellite dish users in the United States still used C-band. ABC and CBS were considering scrambling, though CBS was reluctant due to the number of people unable to receive local network affiliates. The piracy on satellite television networks in the US led to the introduction of the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992. This legislation enabled anyone caught engaging in signal theft to be fined up to $50,000 and to be sentenced to a maximum of two years in prison. A repeat offender can be fined up to $100,000 and be imprisoned for up to five years.
Satellite television had also developed in Europe but it initially used low power communication satellites and it required dish sizes of over 1.7 metres. On 11 December 1988 Luxembourg launched Astra 1A, the first satellite to provide medium power satellite coverage to Western Europe. This was one of the first medium-powered satellites, transmitting signals in Ku band and allowing reception with small dishes (90 cm). The launch of Astra beat the winner of the UK's state Direct Broadcast Satellite licence holder, British Satellite Broadcasting, to the market.
In the US in the early 1990s, four large cable companies launched PrimeStar, a direct broadcasting company using medium power satellites. The relatively strong transmissions allowed the use of smaller (90 cm) dishes. Its popularity declined with the 1994 launch of the Hughes DirecTV and Dish Network satellite television systems.
On March 4, 1996 EchoStar introduced Digital Sky Highway (Dish Network) using the EchoStar 1 satellite. EchoStar launched a second satellite in September 1996 to increase the number of channels available on Dish Network to 170. These systems provided better pictures and stereo sound on 150–200 video and audio channels, and allowed small dishes to be used. This greatly reduced the popularity of TVRO systems. In the mid-1990s, channels began moving their broadcasts to digital television transmission using the DigiCipher conditional access system.
In addition to encryption, the widespread availability, in the US, of DBS services such as PrimeStar and DirecTV had been reducing the popularity of TVRO systems since the early 1990s. Signals from DBS satellites (operating in the more recent Ku band) are higher in both frequency and power (due to improvements in the solar panels and energy efficiency of modern satellites) and therefore require much smaller dishes than C-band, and the digital modulation methods now used require less signal strength at the receiver than analog modulation methods. Each satellite also can carry up to 32 transponders in the Ku band, but only 24 in the C band, and several digital subchannels can be multiplexed (MCPC) or carried separately (SCPC) on a single transponder. Advances in noise reduction due to improved microwave technology and semiconductor materials have also had an effect. However, one consequence of the higher frequencies used for DBS services is rain fade where viewers lose signal during a heavy downpour. C-band satellite television signals are less prone to rain fade.
In a return to the older (but proven) technologies of satellite communication, the current DBS-based satellite providers in the USA (Dish Network and DirecTV) are now utilizing additional capacity on the Ku-band transponders of existing FSS-class satellites, in addition to the capacity on their own existing fleets of DBS satellites in orbit. This was done in order to provide more channel capacity for their systems, as required by the increasing number of High-Definition and simulcast local station channels. The reception of the channels carried on the Ku-band FSS satellite's respective transponders has been achieved by both DirecTV & Dish Network issuing to their subscribers dishes twice as big in diameter (36") than the previous 18" (& 20" for the Dish Network "Dish500") dishes the services used initially, equipped with 2 circular-polarized LNBFs (for reception of 2 native DBS satellites of the provider, 1 per LNBF), and 1 standard linear-polarized LNB for reception of channels from an FSS-type satellite. These newer DBS/FSS-hybrid dishes, marketed by DirecTV and Dish Network as the "SlimLine" and "SuperDish" models respectively, are now the current standard for both providers, with their original 18"/20" single or dual LNBF dishes either now obsolete, or only used for program packages, separate channels, or services only broadcast over the providers' DBS satellites.
- Dish Home (HD Panorama)
- Commercialization of space
- FTA Receiver
- Microwave antenna
- Molniya orbit
- Satellite dish
- Satellite subcarrier audio
- Satellite television by region
- Smart TV: provides television via internet connection
- Television antenna
- ITU Radio Regulations, Section IV. Radio Stations and Systems – Article 1.39, definition: Broadcasting-satellite service
- Antipolis, Sophia (September 1997). Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Implementation of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation in DVB satellite transmission systems (PDF) (Report). European Telecommunications Standards Institute. pp. 1–7. TR 101 198. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "Frequency letter bands". Microwaves101.com. 25 April 2008.
- "Installing Consumer-Owned Antennas and Satellite Dishes". FCC. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Campbell, Dennis; Cotter, Susan (1998). Copyright Infringement. Kluwer Law International. ISBN 90-247-3002-3. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Pattan 1993, p. 65.
- Pattan 1993, p. 207.
- Pattan 1993, p. 330.
- Pattan 1993, p. 327.
- Mott, Sheldon 2000, p. 253.
- Mott, Sheldon 2000, p. 268.
- Mott, Sheldon 2000, p. 115.
- Tirro 1993, p. 279.
- Minoli 2009, p. 60.
- Minoli 2009, p. 27.
- Minoli 2009, p. 194.
- "Europe's Best Kept Secret". Electronics World + Wireless World. Reed Business Publishing. 95: 60–62. 1985. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Microstrip Impedance Program". Ham Radio Magazine. Communications Technology, Incorporated. 17: 84. 1984. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Microwave Journal International". Microwave Journal International. Horizon House. 43 (10-12): 26–28. 2000. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Dodd 2002, p. 308.
- Dodd 2002, p. 72.
- Fox, Barry (1995). "Leaky dishes drown out terrestrial TV". New Scientist. Reed Business Information. 145: 19–22. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "JEDI Innovation report".
- Bruce R. Elbert (2008). "9 Earth Stations and Network Technology". Introduction To Satellite Communications. Artech House. ISBN 9781596932111.
- "Space TV". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. 171 (8): 57–60. August 1994. ISSN 0032-4558.
- "Intelsat New Media Brochure" (PDF).
- James, Meg. NBC tacks on Telemundo oversight to Gaspin's tasks. Los Angeles Times, July 26, 2007. Retrieved on May 14, 2010.
- "Satellite Communications Training from NRI!". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. 228. February 1986. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Prentiss 1989, p. 274.
- Prentiss 1989, p. 246.
- Prentiss 1989, p. 1.
- Prentiss 1989, p. 293.
- "Sensing SATCOM Success Is New Simulsat From ATCi". Satnews. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation at the Wayback Machine (archived July 25, 2011)
- Campbell, Richard; Martin, Christopher R.; Fabos, Bettina (23 February 2011). Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication. London, UK: Macmillan Publishers. p. 152. ISBN 978-1457628313. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- The 1945 Proposal by Arthur C. Clarke for Geostationary Satellite Communications
- Wireless technologies and the national information infrastructure. DIANE Publishing. September 1995. p. 138. ISBN 0160481805. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Klein, Christopher (23 July 2012). "The Birth of Satellite TV, 50 Years Ago". History.com. History Channel. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "Relay 1". NASA.gov. NASA.
- Darcey, RJ (16 August 2013). "Syncom 2". NASA.gov. NASA. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "Encyclopedia Astronautica - Intelsat I". Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Soviet-bloc Research in Geophysics, Astronomy, and Space" (Press release). Springfield Virginia: U.S. Joint Publications Research Service. 1970. p. 60. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Robertson, Lloyd (1972-11-09). "Anik A1 launching: bridging the gap". CBC English TV. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Ezell, Linda N. (22 January 2010). "NASA - ATS". Nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Long Distance Television Reception (TV-DX) For the Enthusiast, Roger W. Bunney, ISBN 0900162716
- "Ekran". Astronautix.com. Astronautix. 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Feder, Barnaby J. (15 November 2002). "Taylor Howard, 70, Pioneer In Satellite TV for the Home". New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- Public Service Broadcasting in the Age of Globalization, Editors: Indrajit Banerjee, Kalinga Seneviratne. ISBN 9789814136013
- Wade, Mark. "Gorizont". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
- The "Glory Days" of Satellite
- Browne, Ray (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Madison, Wisconsin: Popular Press. p. 706. ISBN 9780879728212. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Giarrusso, Michael (28 July 1996). "Tiny Satellite Dishes Sprout in Rural Areas". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Keating, Stephen (1999). "Stealing Free TV, Part 2". The Denver Post. Denver, CO: The Denver Post. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Stein, Joe (1989-01-24). "Whatta dish : Home satellite reception a TV turn-on". Evening Tribune. p. C-8.
- "Earth Station Is Very Popular Dish". Reading Eagle. Kansas City, Missouri. 21 December 1980. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Brooks, Andree (10 October 1993). "Old satellite dish restrictions under fire New laws urged for smaller models". The Baltimore Sun. Baltimore, MD: The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Nye, Doug (14 January 1990). "SATELLITE DISHES SURVIVE GREAT SCRAMBLE OF 1980S". Deseret News. Salt Lake City: Deseret News. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- Ku-Band Satellite TV: Theory, Installation and Repair. Frank Baylin et al. ISBN 9780917893148.
- Stecklow, Steve (1984-07-07). "America's Favorite Dish". The Miami Herald. Knight-Ridder News Service. p. 1C.
- Reibstein, Larry (1981-09-27). "Watching TV Via Satellite Is Their Dish". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. E01.
- Dawidziak, Mark (1984-12-30). "Satellite TV Dishes Getting Good Reception". Akron Beacon-Journal. p. F-1.
- "Broadband Cable 10th Anniversary". TinyPic. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Industry History". sbca.com. Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association. 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- Stecklow, Steve (1984-10-25). "Research Needed in Buying Dish: High Cost Is Important Consideration for Consumer". Wichita Eagle. Knight-Ridder News Service. p. 6C.
- Takiff, Jonathan (1987-05-22). "Satellite TV Skies Brighten As War With Programmers Ends". Chicago Tribune. Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- Wolf, Ron (1985-01-20). "Direct-Broadcast TV Is Still Not Turned On". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. C01.
- Lyman, Rick; Borowski, Neill (April 29, 1986). "On The Trail Of 'Captain Midnight'". Philly. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Paradise, Paul R. (1 January 1999). Trademark Counterfeiting, Product Piracy, and the Billion Dollar Threat to the U.S. Economy. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 147. ISBN 1567202500. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "Scrambled NBC Bad News for Satellite Pirates". The San Francisco Chronicle. United Press International. 1988-11-03. p. E3.
- Article STATUTE-106-Pg1460.pdf, Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992, Act No. 1460 of 8 October 1992 (in English). Retrieved on 3 July 2014.
- "ASTRA 1A Satellite details 1988-109B NORAD 19688". N2YO. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Grant, August E. Communication Technology Update (10th ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-240-81475-9.
- Bell-Jones, Robin; Berbner, Jochen; Chai, Jianfeng; Farstad, Thomas; Pham, Minh (June 2001). "High Technology Strategy and Entrepreneurship" (PDF). INSEAD journal. Fontainebleau: INSEAD.
- Mirabito, M., and Morgenstern, B. (2004). Satellites: Operations and Applications: The New Communication Technologies (fifth edition). Burlington: Focal Press.
- Khaplil, Vidya R.; Bhalachandra, Anjali R. (April 2008). Advances in Recent Trends in Communication and Networks. New Delhi: Allied Publishers. p. 119. ISBN 1466651709. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- "Rain fade: satellite TV signal and adverse weather". Dish-cable.com. Dish-cable.com. 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- Pattan, Bruno (31 March 1993). Satellite Systems:Principles and Technologies. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780442013578. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Mott, William H.; Sheldon, Robert B. Laser Satellite Communication: The Third Generation. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 235. ISBN 978-1567203295. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- Tirró, S. (30 June 1993). Satellite Communication Systems Design. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 279–80. ISBN 978-0306441479. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Minoli, Daniel (3 February 2009). Satellite Systems Engineering in an IPv6 Environment. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1420078688. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Dodd, Annabel Z. (2002). The Essential Guide to Telecommunications (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 307–10. ISBN 0130649074. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Prentiss, Stan (1989). TVRO Technology. Prentiss Hall. ISBN 9780139333262. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Media related to Satellite television at Wikimedia Commons
- Channels and satellite fleets
- Lyngemark Satellite Charts
- Worldwide satellite locations
- Eutelsat satellite fleet
- Eutelsat TV channel guide
- SES fleet information and map
- SES guide to receiving Astra satellites
- SES guide to channels broadcasting on Astra satellites
- Linowsat PID-Lists and Videobitrate Charts
- Tracking and utilities
- Online Satellite Calculations
- Online Satellite Finder Based on Google Maps
- Dish Alignment Calculator with Google Maps