Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Euopisthobranchia[1]
clade Runcinacea[2]

Superfamily: Runcinoidea[3]
H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854

See text

Runcinoidea is a taxonomic superfamily (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005) or a clade Runcinaecea (according to the Malaquias et al. (2009)[2]) of sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Euopisthobranchia.[1]


2005 taxonomy

Runcinoidea was recognized as a superfamily in the clade Cephalaspidea, within the informal group Opisthobranchia in the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005).[3]

They also recognized two families, Runcinidae and Ilbiidae.[3]

2009 taxonomy

Malaquias et al. (2009)[2] reinstated Runcinacea as a valid taxon outside the Cephalaspidea.

They also recognized two families Runcinidae (with genus Runcina) and Ilbiidae,[2] but they did not mention superfamilies.

2010 taxonomy

Jörger et al. 2010[1] moved Runcinacea to the Euopisthobranchia.


Families within the Runcinoidea include:


  1. 1 2 3 Jörger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T. & Schrödl M. (2010). "On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 323. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-323.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Malaquias M. A. E., Dodds J. M., Bouchet P. & Reid D. G. (2009). "A molecular phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Euthyneura): Architectibranchia redefined and Runcinacea reinstated". Zoologica Scripta 38(1): 23-41. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00354.x.
  3. 1 2 3 Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P.; Frýda J.; Hausdorf B.; Ponder W.; Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
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