The flag of Kurdistan which Peshmerga uses as their emblem.
Active Early 1920s–present
Allegiance Iraqi Kurdistan
Branch Army
Size 150,000[1]–200,000[2]
Headquarters Erbil (Hewlêr)
March Ey Reqîb
Commander-in-Chief Masoud Barzani
Minister of Peshmerga Affairs Mustafa Qadir Mustafa Aziz
Chief of Staff Lieutenant General Jabar Yawar

Peshmerga (Central Kurdish: پێشمەرگە, translit. Pêşmerge, IPA: [peːʃmɛɾˈɡɛ]) are the military forces of the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan. The overall formal head of the peshmerga is the President of Iraqi Kurdistan. The peshmerga force itself is largely divided and controlled separately by the Democratic Party of Kurdistan and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, although both pledge allegiance to the Kurdistan Regional Government. Efforts are under way to gather the entire force under the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs.[3] Peshmerga forces are responsible for defending the land, people and institutions of the Kurdistan Region.[4]

Because the Iraqi Army is forbidden by law from entering Iraqi Kurdistan,[5][6] the peshmerga, along with other Kurdish security subsidiaries, are responsible for the security of the Kurdish Region.[7][8][9] These subsidiaries include Asayish (official intelligence agency), Parastin u Zanyarî and (Dzha Terror) (assisting intelligence agency) and the Zeravani (military police).

In 2003, during the Iraq War, peshmerga are said to have played a key role in the mission to capture Saddam Hussein.[10][11] In 2004, Kurdish anti-terror forces captured al Qaeda key figure Hassan Ghul, who revealed the identity of Osama Bin Laden's messenger, which eventually led to Operation Neptune Spear and the death of Osama Bin Laden.[12][13]

Following an unexpected large-scale ISIS offensive against Iraqi Kurdistan in August 2014, peshmerga and other Kurdish forces from neighboring countries have been waging war against ISIS in both Iraq and Syria.


Main article: History of Peshmerga
Mustafa Barzani was the primary political and military leader of the Kurdish cause until his death in 1979

The Kurdish warrior tradition of rebellion has existed for thousands of years along with aspirations for independence, and early Kurdish warriors fought against the various Persian empires, the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.[14] However, the term "peshmerga" was only coined in the mid-20th century, by the Kurdish writer Ibrahim Ahmad.[15] Peshmerga means "one who confronts death" or "one who faces death". "Pesh" means to stand in front of (loosely translated as to confront or face) while "merga" means death.[16][17]

Historically the peshmerga existed only as guerilla organizations, but under the self-declared Republic of Mahabad (1946–1947), the peshmerga led by Mustafa Barzani became the official army of the republic.[18][19] After the fall of the republic and the execution of head of state Qazi Muhammad, peshmerga forces reemerged as guerilla organizations that would go on to fight the Iranian and Iraqi governments for the remainder of the century.[20]

In Iraq, most of these peshmerga were led by Mustafa Barzani of the Kurdistan Democratic Party.[19] In 1975 the peshmerga were defeated in the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Jalal Talabani, a leading member of the KDP, left the same year to revitalize the resistance and founded the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. This event created the baseline for the political discontent between the KDP and PUK that to this day divides peshmerga forces and much of Kurdish society in Iraqi Kurdistan.

After Mustafa Barzani's death in 1979, his son Masoud Barzani took his position.[19] As tension increased between KDP and PUK, most peshmerga fought to keep a region under their own party's control, while also fighting off Iraqi Army incursions. Following the First Persian Gulf War, Iraqi Kurdistan fell into a state of civil war between the two major Kurdish parties, the KDP and the PUK, and peshmerga forces were used to fight each other. The civil war officially ended in September 1998, when Barzani and Talabani signed the Washington Agreement establishing a formal peace treaty.[21] In the agreement, the parties agreed to share revenue and power, deny the use of northern Iraq to the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), and not allow Iraqi troops into the Kurdish regions. By then, around 5,000 Kurds had been killed from both sides, and many more had been evicted for being on the wrong side.[22] In the years after, tension remained high, but both parties moved towards each other and in 2003 they both took part in the overthrowing of the Saddam regime as part of the Iraq War. They remained on good terms, forming what is now Iraqi Kurdistan. Unlike other militia forces, the peshmerga were never prohibited by Iraqi law.[23]

In 2015, for the first time, peshmerga soldiers received urban warfare and military intelligence training from foreign trainers, the Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve.[24]

In January 2016, Amnesty International released a report describing how the Peshmerga of KRG were destroying Arab villages in Iraq. Houses belonging to Arabs where burned down and blown up. It was also reported that Arabs that fled the area were not allowed to return to their homes by the Peshmerga. Satellite images showed how villages were totally razed to the ground.[25]


Peshmerga special unit near the Syrian border on June 23, 2014

The exact size of peshmerga forces is unknown as there are different estimates ranging from as few as 80,000 all the way up to 250,000.[26] These forces are organized into 36 military brigades, controlled separately with little to no inter-coordination, by the KDP, PUK and Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs.[27]

The peshmerga force, like much of Iraqi Kurdistan, is plagued by frequent allegations of corruption, partisanship, nepotism, and fraud.[28][29][30][31][32][33] These allegations include giving high-ranking military positions only to fellow clansmen and/or party members, fighting for political parties rather than the Kurdish people as a whole, and the use of "ghost soldiers" to gain peshmerga benefits and salary. Much of this is due to the fact that peshmerga forces are still unofficially divided along the main party lines, although with arguably less tension than during the Kurdish Civil War. Peshmerga with ties to the Kurdistan Democratic Party are responsible for the Dohuk Governorate and Erbil Governorate, while those with ties to the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan oversee the security in Sulaymaniyah Governorate.[34] Following the June 2014 ISIS invasion of Iraq and the retreat of the Iraqi Army, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) filled the void and took control of almost all disputed areas.[35] These areas have since also been divided between KDP and PUK peshmerga.

As a result of the split nature of the peshmerga force, there is no central command center in charge of the entire force, and peshmerga units instead follow separate military hierarchies depending on political allegiance.[36] Efforts have since been made to minimize partisanship, including the banning of partisan flags from the battlefield.[37] A political reform is also currently underway to place the entire force under the single command of the regional government.[3] As of January 2015, 12 out of the 36 brigades have reportedly been put under the control of the KRG, with the remaining 70% of peshmerga forces still controlled by the regions' two main parties.[38]

Due to limited funding and the vast size of the peshmerga forces, the KRG has long planned to greatly downsize its forces from large numbers of low-quality forces to a smaller but much more effective and well-trained force.[39][40] Consequently, in 2009, the KRG and Baghdad engaged in discussions about incorporating parts of the peshmerga forces into the Iraqi Army, in what would be the 15th and 16th Iraqi Army divisions.[41][42] However, after increasing tension between Erbil and Baghdad regarding the disputed areas, the transfer was largely put on hold. Some peshmerga were already transferred but reportedly deserted again, and there are allegations that former peshmerga forces remain loyal to the KRG rather than their Iraqi chain of command.[43][44]

Peshmerga soldier with his M16A3

While the majority of the peshmerga forces are Muslims, there are also Assyrian Christian and Yezidi units fighting under the direction of peshmerga forces.[45][46]

Although almost entirely made up of men, peshmerga forces have been known to include small numbers of women since its formation, and currently have 600 women in their ranks.[47] In the KDP, these female peshmerga have so far been refused access to the frontline and are mostly used in logistics and management positions,[48] but female PUK peshmerga are deployed in the frontlines and are actively fighting ISIS.[49][50]

As of January 2015, the peshmerga forces are still divided among three entities: the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs, KDP, and PUK.

The units under command of the KDP politburo, unofficially called Yakray 80:

  1. Hezakanî Gulan (Gulan Forces), an elite force tasked with defending the president and the presidential compound.
  2. Hezakanî Barzan (Barzan Forces), another brigade formation, consisting of men recruited from the president's own clan.
  3. Ten additional brigades constitute a 20,000-strong force.[51]
  4. Zeravani units, administratively supported by the Ministry of the Interior.

The units under command of the PUK politburo, unofficially called Yakray 70:

  1. Dizha Tiror (Counterterrorism Group) an elite anti-terror formation.
  2. Two presidential brigades, tasked with defending the Iraqi president.
  3. Hezekanî Kosrat Rasul, another brigade tasked with defending the vice president.
  4. 15 brigades consisting of men loyal to PUK.[51]


Peshmerga on a T-55 tank outside Kirkuk in June 2014

The peshmerga arsenal is limited and confined by restrictions because the Kurdish Region is not an independent state. Due to disputes between the KRG and the Iraqi government, arms flow from Baghdad to Iraqi Kurdistan has been almost nonexistent, as Baghdad fears Kurdish aspirations for independence.[52][53] Peshmerga forces instead largely rely on old arms captured from the old Iraqi Army during the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, in which peshmerga forces were active. Before that, some weapons were also captured during the 1991 Iraqi uprisings.[54] Following the retreat of the new Iraqi Army during the June 2014 ISIS offensive, peshmerga forces reportedly again managed to get hold on some weapons left behind by the Army.[55] Since August 2014, peshmerga forces have also captured some weapons from ISIS.[56]

After the ISIS offensive of August 2014, multiple governments decided to arm the peshmerga with some light equipment, such as light arms, night goggles and ammunition.[57][58][59] However, Kurdish officials and peshmerga have stressed that they are not receiving enough. They also stress that Baghdad is blocking even small arms from reaching the KRG, emphasizing the need for weapons to be sent directly to the KRG and not through Baghdad.[60][61][62][63]

Small arms

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
NATO Standard
Walther P1  Germany Pistol 9×19mm 8,000 supplied by Germany[64]
Walther P99  Germany Pistol 9×19mm 1
SIG Sauer P226   Switzerland Pistol 9×19mm
Browning Hi-Power  Belgium Pistol 9×19mm
Glock  Austria Pistol 9×19mm
Beretta 92  Italy Pistol 9×19mm
Beretta M1951  Italy Pistol 9×19mm
HS2000  Croatia Pistol 9×19mm
Smith & Wesson M&P  United States Pistol 9×19mm
M1911 pistol  United States Pistol 11.43×23mm
MP5  Germany Submachine Gun 9×19mm
Beretta M12  Italy Submachine Gun 9×19mm
Sterling submachine gun  United Kingdom Submachine Gun 9×19mm
PM-98 Glauberyt  Poland Submachine Gun 9×19mm
M4A1  United States Carbine 5.56×45mm 123
G36[65]  Germany Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 12,000 supplied by Germany[64][66][67][68]
HS Produkt VHS[69]  Croatia Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 20,000 bought from Croatia 1
M16A4[70]  United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 123
AR-15  United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 1
Heckler & Koch G3  Germany Battle rifle 7.62×51mm 12,000 supplied by Germany[64]
FAMAS  France Assault rifle 5.56×45mm 1
FN FAL  Belgium Battle rifle 7.62×51mm 1
Norinco HP9-1  China Combat shotgun 18.5×70mm 1
Mossberg 500  United States Shotgun 18.5×76mm
Winchester Model 1200  United States Pump-action shotgun 18.5×76mm
FN Minimi  Belgium Light machine gun 5.56×45mm
M249  United States Light machine gun 5.56×45mm 123
M240  United States General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm 12
Rheinmetall MG 3[65]  Germany General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm 47 supplied by Germany [71]
Beretta MG 42/59  Italy General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm 100 supplied by Italy [72]
M2 Browning  United States Heavy machine gun 12.7×99mm +100 supplied by Italy, France and the United Kingdom 1
M-40  United States Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
M-24  United States Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
Mk 14 EBR  United States Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm
PSG1  Germany Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
Steyr SSG 69  Austria Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm
L96A1  United Kingdom Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm 1
Barrett M82A1  United States Anti-materiel sniper rifle 12.7×99mm 12
Steyr HS .50  Austria Anti-materiel sniper rifle 12.7×99mm 123
Karabiner 98k  Germany Rifle 7.92×57mm 1
Lee–Enfield  United Kingdom Rifle .303 Mk VII SAA Ball
Soviet Standard
Makarov pistol  Soviet Union Pistol 9×18mm
TT pistol  Soviet Union Pistol 7.62×25mm Tokarev
CZ 75  Czechoslovakia Pistol 9×19mm
Zastava CZ 99  Serbia Pistol 9×19mm
Škorpion vz. 61  Czechoslovakia Submachine Gun 9×18mm
PM-63 RAK  Poland Submachine Gun 9×18mm
PPSh-41  Soviet Union Submachine Gun 7.62×25mm
Zastava M92  Serbia Carbine 7.62×39mm 1
AKS-74U  Soviet Union Carbine 5.45×39mm
AK-47  Soviet Union Assault rifle 7.62×39mm Standard Assault Rifle (along with AKM) of the peshmerga
AKM  Soviet Union Assault rifle 7.62×39mm Standard Assault Rifle (along with AK-47) of the peshmerga
AK-74  Soviet Union Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
AK-74M  Russia Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
Type 56  China Assault rifle 7.62×39mm 123
Sa vz.58  Czechoslovakia Assault rifle 7.62×39mm 1
PM md. 63/65 Romania Socialist Republic of Romania Assault rifle 7.62×39mm 12
Kbk wz. 1988 Tantal  Poland Assault rifle 5.45×39mm
MPi-KM  East Germany Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
Zastava M70  Yugoslavia Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
AK-63  Hungary Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
AMD 65  Hungary Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
RPD machine gun  Soviet Union Light machine gun 7.62×39mm
RPK  Soviet Union Light machine gun 7.62×39mm 1
Zastava M72  Yugoslavia Light machine gun 7.62×39mm
PK  Soviet Union General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Pecheneg machine gun  Russia General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Zastava M84  Yugoslavia General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR 123
Type 67 machine gun  China General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Type 80 machine gun  China General-purpose machine gun 7.62×54mmR
Saiga-12  Russia Shotgun 12×70
DShK  Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 12.7×108mm 1, 2
NSV machine gun  Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 12.7×108mm
KPV heavy machine gun  Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 14.5×114mm
SKS  Soviet Union Semi-automatic rifle 7.62×39mm
Mosin–Nagant  Soviet Union Rifle 7.62×54mmR
SVD Dragunov  Soviet Union Designated marksman rifle 7.62×54mmR 12
Tabuk Sniper Rifle  Iraq Sniper rifle 7.62×39mm 1
Dragunov SVU  Russia Designated marksman rifle 7.62×54mmR
PSL Romania Socialist Republic of Romania Sniper rifle 7.62×54mmR 12
Zastava M91  FR Yugoslavia Sniper rifle 7.62×54mmR
Zastava M76  Yugoslavia Sniper rifle 7.92×57mm Mauser 1
Zastava M98  FR Yugoslavia Sniper rifle 7.92×57mmR 1
KSVK 12.7  Russia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm
OSV-96  Russia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm
Zastava M93 Black Arrow  Serbia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm 123
AMR-2  China Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm 1
Zijiang M99  China Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×108mm 1

Anti-tank weaponry

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
RPG-7  Soviet Union Rocket-propelled grenade 40mm
Type 69 RPG  China Rocket-propelled grenade 40mm 123
RB M57  Yugoslavia Rocket-propelled grenade 44mm
Panzerfaust 3[65][73]  Germany Rocket-propelled grenade 60mm 400 Units with 5,800 missiles.[74][75]
M72 LAW  United States Anti-tank weapon 66mm
AT4  Sweden /  United States Anti-tank weapon 84mm 1,000 units [76]
Carl Gustaf[64]  Sweden /  Germany Anti-tank weapon 84mm 40 Units with 1,000 Shells.
M79 Osa  Yugoslavia Anti-tank weapon 90mm
M80 Zolja  Yugoslavia Anti-tank weapon 64mm
HJ-8[77]  People's Republic of China Anti-tank missile 120mm
AT-4 Spigot  Soviet Union Anti-tank missile 120mm
AT-14 Spriggan  Russia Anti-tank missile 152mm 123
AT-5 spandrel  Russia Anti-tank missile 115mm 122
AT-3 Sagger  Soviet Union Anti-tank missile 1
MILAN[73][75][78][79]  France /  Germany Anti-tank missile 115mm 60 Units with 1,200 missiles.
BGM-71 TOW  United States Anti-tank missile 152mm
M40 recoilless rifle[80]  United States Recoilless Rifle 106mm
SPG-9  Soviet Union Recoilless Rifle 73mm 1
Breda Folgore[81]  Italy Recoilless Rifle 80mm 1

Grenade launchers

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
Denel Y3 AGL  South Africa grenade launcher 40×53mm 1
QLZ-87  China grenade launcher 35x80mm 123
GL-06   Switzerland grenade launcher 40×46mm 123
AGS-30  Soviet Union grenade launcher 30x29mmB 1
AGS-17  Soviet Union grenade launcher 30x29mmB 12
Mk 47 Striker  United States grenade launcher 40×53mm 1
M203 grenade launcher  United States grenade launcher 40×46mm SR
M79 grenade launcher  United States grenade launcher 40×46mm SR 1
GP-25  Russia grenade launcher 40 mm


Name Country of origin Type Caliber
Vasilek  Soviet Union Mobile Mortar 82mm
M224  United States Mortar 60mm
M252  United Kingdom Mortar 81mm
M-29  United States Mortar 81mm
M1938 mortar  Soviet Union Mortar 120mm

Man-portable air-defence systems

Name Country of origin Type Caliber
SA-7 Grail  Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
SA-16 Gimlet  Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
SA-18 Grouse  Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
SA-24 Grinch  Soviet Union MANPADS 72 mm
FIM-92 Stinger  United States MANPADS 70.1mm
FN-6  China MANPADS 72mm


Armored vehicles

Name Country of origin Type Quantity Notes
T-72[82][83]  Soviet Union Main battle tank < 30 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
T-62  Soviet Union Main battle tank 150-170 100–120 with PUK peshmerga forces, and 50 with KDP peshmerga forces.[84] Ammunition is limited.
T-54/T-55[82] / Type 69/79  Soviet Union /  China Main battle tank 95/215 95 in active service as of 2011, and 120 in need of an overhaul.[84]
PT-76  Soviet Union Light tank < 70 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
BMP-1  Soviet Union Infantry fighting vehicle < 30 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
BRDM-2  Soviet Union Armored Car < 10 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
MT-LB  Soviet Union Armoured personnel carrier < 80 Taken during 2003 Iraq War.
YW701  China Armoured personnel carrier < 30 12
EE-9  Brazil Infantry fighting vehicle 12
EE-11 Urutu  Brazil Infantry fighting vehicle 123
M1117  United States Armored Car < 45 Seized from the deserting Iraqi Army.
ILAV MRAP  United States Armoured personnel carrier 45 + 30-40 seized from the deserting Iraqi Army. Delivered by USA.
Dingo  Germany Armoured personnel carrier 20 20 delivered by Germany. 1 destroyed in 2014 war.[85][86][87]
Reva  South Africa Armoured personnel carrier (4x4 7,8-tons) 123
Spartan Armored personnel carrier
Guardian[88] Armored personnel carrier In use by anti-terror forces

Logistics and utility vehicles

Name Country of origin Type Number Notes
Ural-5323  Russia Heavy Transport (8x8 10-tons)
Mack-Granite Axle Back  United States Heavy Transport (4x6 10-tons) 25-40 Purchased from US originally for civilian use.
Mercedes-Benz Atego  Germany Medium Transport (4x4 5-tons) 5-25 Purchased from Germany.
Mercedes-Benz Zetros  Germany Medium Transport (4x4 7-tons) 123
Navistar 7000  United States Medium Transport (4x4 7-tons) 12
KrAZ-6322  Ukraine Light Transport (6x6 7-tons) 1
GAZ-33097  Russia Light Transport (4x4 2-tons)
GAZ-66  Soviet Union Light Transport (4x4 2-tons)
Ural-4320  Soviet Union Heavy Transport (6x6 7-tons) 1
UAZ  Soviet Union Light Utility Vehicle 1
UNIMOG  Germany Light Transport (4x4 2-tons) 40 Delivered by Germany.
Cougar  United States Infantry mobility vehicle (4x4) 12
Humvee[89]  United States Light Utility Vehicle
M939 Truck  United States Six-wheel drive (6x6 5-tons)
LKW Wolf  Germany Light Utility Vehicle 60 (includes 20 lightly armored type) Delivered by Germany.
Toyota Landcruiser[80]  Japan Light Utility Vehicle


Name Country of origin Type Notes
2S1  Soviet Union 122mm self-propelled artillery
BM-21 Grad  Soviet Union 122mm multiple rocket launcher
Type 63  China 107mm multiple rocket launcher
M-198  United States 155mm howitzer
M101 howitzer  United States 105mm howitzer
D-30  Soviet Union 122mm howitzer
M-30  Soviet Union 122mm howitzer
D-20  Soviet Union 152mm gun-howitzer
M-46  Soviet Union 130mm field gun
Ordnance QF 25-pounder[90]  United Kingdom 87.6mm gun-howitzer

Anti-aircraft guns

Name Country of origin Type Notes
ZPU  Soviet Union 14.5mm anti-aircraft gun 1
20mm Mle F2  France[91] 20mm anti-aircraft gun
ZU-23-2  Soviet Union 23mm anti-aircraft gun
ZSU-23-4  Soviet Union 23mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
KS-30  Soviet Union 130mm anti-aircraft gun
S-60  Soviet Union 57mm anti-aircraft gun pictures
ZSU-57-2  Soviet Union 57mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun 12
Type 63  China[92] 37 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun


Name Country of origin Type Notes
MD 530F[93]  United States Utility helicopter 12 ordered
MD 902 Explorer[93]  United States Utility helicopter 2 ordered
Mil Mi-8[93]  Soviet Union Transport helicopter
Mil Mi-17[93]  Soviet Union Transport helicopter 2 borrowed from Iraq
Eurocopter EC120 Colibri[93]  France Utility helicopter
Eurocopter EC135[93]  Germany Utility helicopter
Bell 206[93]  United States Utility helicopter
Bell OH-58 Kiowa  United States Helicopter
Sikorsky S-333[94][95][96]  United States Utility helicopter

See also


  1. "Are Iraq's renowned peshmerga fighters any match for Islamic State?". Los Angeles Times.
  2. Coles, Isabel (13 August 2014). "Outgunned and untested for years, Kurdish peshmerga struggle". Reuters. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  3. 1 2 Nawzad, Mahmoud (25 August 2014). "Sources: Barzani Orders Peshmerga Forces Reformed, United". Rudaw Media Network. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  4. "Summary of the most important tasks of the Ministry of Peshmerga". Ministry of Peshmerga. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  5. "Iraqi PM criticizes Kurdish region for barring army from Syrian border area". Xinhua News Agency. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  6. "Information about Kurdistan". Kurdistan Development Organization. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  7. Newton-Small, Jay (31 December 2012). "Destination Kurdistan: Is This Autonomous Iraqi Region a Budding Tourist Hot Spot?". Time. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  8. Druzin, Heath (29 September 2013). "Rare terrorist attack in peaceful Kurdish region of Iraq kills 6". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  9. Krajeski, Jenna (20 March 2013). "The Iraq War Was a Good Idea, If You Ask the Kurds". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  10. Rai, Manish (6 October 2014). "Kurdish Peshmerga Can Be A Game Changer In Iraq And Syria". Khaama Press. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  11. "Operation Red Dawn's eight-month hunt". The Sydney Morning Herald. 15 December 2003. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Ambinder, Marc (29 April 2013). "How the CIA really caught Bin Laden's trail". The Week. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roston, Arom (9 January 2014). "Cloak and Drone: The Strange Saga of an Al Qaeda Triple Agent". Vocativ. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  14. Lortz, Michael G. (28 October 2005). "Willing to Face Death: A History of Kurdish Military Forces – the Peshmerga – from the Ottoman Empire to Present-Day Iraq". MA Thesis. Florida State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  15. Stratton, Allegra (26 June 2006). "Hero of the people". New Statesman. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  16. Koerner, Brendan (2003-03-21). "What does the Kurdish word peshmerga mean?". Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  17. From the Kurdish pêş (پێش) "before" and merg مەرگ "death".
  18. Abdulla, Mufid (12 June 2011). "Mahabad – the first independent Kurdish republic". The Kurdistan Tribune. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  19. 1 2 3 "President". Kurdistan Regional Government Representation in Spain. 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  20. Meiselas, Susan (2008). Kurdistan: In the Shadow of History (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-51928-9.
  21. Abdulrahman, Frman (23 February 2012). "never ending mystery: what really happened to kurdish civil war missing". niqash. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  22. McDermid, Charles (20 February 2010). "New force emerges in Kirkuk". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  23. Profile: Who are the Peshmerga? BBC News. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  24. "EXCLUSIVE: Coalition helps Peshmerga muscle up on urban warfare". Rudaw. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  25. "Northern Iraq: Satellite images back up evidence of deliberate mass destruction in Peshmerga-controlled Arab villages.". Amnesty. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  26. Beaumont, Peter (12 June 2014). "How effective is Isis compared with the Iraqi army and Kurdish peshmerga?". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  27. Hawramy, Fazel (14 January 2015). "THE DESASTROUS COMMAND-NON-COMMAND-STRUCTURE". MESOP. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  28. Parkinson, Joe; Nissenbaum, Dion (2015). "U.S., Allies Training Kurds on Using Sophisticated Weaponry Against Islamic State". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2015. (subscription required (help)).
  29. "The Peshmerga of Iraq". 1 March 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  30. "KRG and the 'godfathers': 2006 secret US cable on Wikileaks". The Kurdistan Tribune. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  31. Devigne, Jacqueline (2011). ""Iraqoncilable" Differences? The Political Nature of the Peshmerga" (PDF). NIMEP Insights. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  32. "Presidency of the province renews its call to convert the Peshmerga Army National". The I.Q.D. Team Connection. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  33. "PUK official warns Peshmerga will not take orders from anyone else: Iraqi Kurdistan". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  34. Chapman, Dennis. Security Forces of Kurdistan Regional Government, US Army War College. 2009, page. 3.
  35. "Jihadist drive allows Iraq Kurds to take disputed areas". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  36. " - Kurdish Peshmerga Forces Have Room to Grow".
  37. "Barzani prevents lifting partisan flags in fighting fronts except for Kurdistan flag". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  38. "Kurdish peshmerga divisions hamper war effort - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  39. "Withdrawal from Iraq". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  40. "Iraqi Kurdistan Armed Forces, Peshmerga, to Lose 130,000 Soldiers". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  41. "Iraq and the United States". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  42. Chapman, Dennis. Security Forces of Kurdistan Regional Government, Us Army War College. 2009, page. 112.
  43. "1,000 Kurdish soldiers desert from Iraqi army - MIDEAST". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  44. "Iraq's Insurgency and the Road to Civil Conflict". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  45. "Iraqi Kurds, Yazidis fight Islamic State for strategic town of Sinjar". Reuters. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  46. "Rudaw". Rudaw. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  47. "Meet the Kurdish women fighting the Islamic State". 8 November 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  48. "No Frontline Deployment for Female Kurdish Troops". Rudaw. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  49. "KRG halts recruiting of female Peshmerga". Rudaw.
  50. "Meet the female peshmerga forces fighting IS - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.
  51. 1 2
  52. Hollie McKay. "Iraq's Peshmerga desperate for US arms in fight against ISIS". Fox News. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  53. "Arms for Kurdish peshmerga to affect military balance". DW.DE. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  54. "Iraqi Defense Ministry Asks KRG To Return Saddam-Era Weapons - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  55. Hugh Naylor. "As ISIL retreats, Iraqi Kurds gain new ammunition". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  56. Richard Spencer, The Telegraph (3 October 2014). "Kurdish forces captured an ISIS base after a two-day siege — but the ISIS fighters inside somehow slipped away". National Post. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  57. Nicholas Watt. "UK prepares to supply arms directly to Kurdish forces fighting Isis". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  58. "Seven western states join US to arm Iraqi Kurdistan: Pentagon". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  59. Spencer Ackerman. "US to directly arm Kurdish peshmerga forces in bid to thwart Isis offensive". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  60. "Iraqi Kurds to U.S.: We need heavy weapons to defeat Islamic State". The Washingtion Times. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  61. "Iraq's Kurds appeal for new U.S. arms to combat Islamic State". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  62. "Kurds to US: Give us the heavy weapons we need to fight ISIS". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  63. "Iraqi Kurds say West not providing enough arms to defeat Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  64. 1 2 3 4 "ISIS-terror im Nordirak". August 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
  65. 1 2 3 "Unterstützung der Regierung der Autonomen Region Irakisch-Kurdistan bei der Versorgung der Flüchtlinge und beim Kampf gegen den Islamischen Staat im Nordirak" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  66. "Weitere Lieferung: Material für Peschmerga". (in German). 2016-06-28. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  67. "Erneute Materiallieferung in den Nordirak". (in German). Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  68. "Nächste Lieferung: Gewehre und Munition für Peschmerga". (in German). Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  69. Duje Klarić (2014-09-12). "ZARADA U RATU S ISLAMISTIMA Vlada iračkoj vojsci prodaje oružjei opremu vrijednu 700 milijuna kn -Jutarnji List". Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  70. U.S. Department of Defense, "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq" (June 2007) p. 30, 39
  71. "Weiterer Materialtransport erreicht Nordirak". (in German). Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  72. "ECCO LA LISTA DELLE (POCHE) ARMI ITALIANE AI CURDI - Analisi Difesa". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  73. 1 2 "Mehr deutsche Waffen für Kurden". Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  74. Archived September 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  75. 1 2 "Weitere Munition aus Deutschland im Irak eingetroffen".
  76. "NRT - Facebook".
  77. "Peshmerga use HJ-8". 18 December 2014.
  78. "Irak: Deutschland schickt Kurden Panzerabwehrraketen". Spiegel Online (in German). 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  79. "Germany to Send Advanced Weapons to Peshmerga". BasNews. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  80. 1 2 "Peshmerga Forces Recruit Christian Fighters, says Local Official". Rudaw. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  81. "BasNews". Basnews. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  82. 1 2 Middle East Military Balance Archived August 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  83. "Iraq's T-72s: Payment Received". 2005-11-14. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  84. 1 2 "shex ja3far puk". YouTube. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  85. "German reference". 2014-08-31. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  86. "German reference". 2016-09-05. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  87. "German reference". 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  88. "Iraq Update: Kurdish Forces well... - International Armored Group (IAG) - Facebook". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  89. Holdanwicz, Grzegorz. "Iraqi armed forces get armoured vehicles". Jane's Defence Weekly
  90. Tim Lister, CNN (9 February 2015). "Kurdish fighters battle equipment woes as well as ISIS in northern Iraq". CNN. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  91. "French Giat 53T2 20mm Mle F2 guns delivered to Kurdistan". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  92. "Type 63 Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun System". Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  93. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "[ti]SW[/ti]SK Peshmerga". Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  94. "hurriyet - Kurdish authority buying 16 US-built helicopters from Saudi firm". 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  95. "Contract to Buy 16 Helicopters Signed by Kurdistan R. Govt. - Media monitor". Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  96. IWPR - Iraqi Press Monitor. "Contract to Buy 16 Helicopters Signed - Institute for War and Peace Reporting - P224". Retrieved 2014-08-18.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/5/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.