Oxford Street

For other uses, see Oxford Street (disambiguation).
Oxford Street

View west along Oxford Street in December 2006, showing Selfridges department store in the background
Former name(s)

Via Trinobantina

Tyburn Road

Maintained by Transport for London
Length 1.2 mi (1.9 km)
Location London, United Kingdom
Postal code W1
Nearest tube station
Coordinates 51°30′55″N 0°08′31″W / 51.515312°N 0.142025°W / 51.515312; -0.142025Coordinates: 51°30′55″N 0°08′31″W / 51.515312°N 0.142025°W / 51.515312; -0.142025
West end Marble Arch
East end Tottenham Court Road / Charing Cross Road
Known for
Website oxfordstreet.co.uk

Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, and as of 2012 had approximately 300 shops. It is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, and traffic is regularly restricted to buses and taxis.

The road was originally a Roman road, part of the Via Trinobantina between Essex and Hampshire via London. It was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages and was once notorious as a street where prisoners from Newgate Prison would be transported towards a public hanging. It became known as Oxford Road and then Oxford Street in the 18th century, and began to change character from a residential street to commercial and retail purposes by the late 19th century, also attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution. The first department stores in Britain opened on Oxford Street in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis and HMV. Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket street trading alongside more prestigious retail stores. The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, and several longstanding stores including John Lewis were completely destroyed and rebuilt from scratch.

Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross shopping centre, Oxford Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains hosting their flagship stores on the street, and has a number of listed buildings. The annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. However, the combination of a very popular retail area and a main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis has caused significant problems with traffic congestion, safety and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been proposed by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, and improved pedestrian crossings.


Oxford Street runs for approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). From Marble Arch, where it meets Park Lane, Edgware Road, and its westward continuation Bayswater Road, it runs east past Vere Street, New Bond Street and Bond Street station, up to Oxford Circus, where it meets Regent Street.[1]

Beyond Oxford Circus, it meets Great Portland Street, Wardour Street and Rathbone Place and ends at St Giles Circus, the junction with Charing Cross Road and Tottenham Court Road, next to Tottenham Court Road station. The eastward continuation is New Oxford Street, and then Holborn. The road is entirely within the City of Westminster.[1]

The street is classified as part of the A40, most of which is a trunk road running from London to Fishguard (via Oxford, Cheltenham, Brecon and Haverfordwest), although like many roads in Central London that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with the road number. It is within the London Congestion Charging Zone.[1] Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207.[2]


Early history

Nos. 399–405 Oxford Street, c. 1882. These buildings have now been demolished.

Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum (near Silchester, Hampshire) with Camulodunum (now Colchester) via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city.[3]

Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road (after the River Tyburn that ran just to the south of it, and now flows underneath it), Uxbridge Road (this name is still used for the portion of the London-Oxford road between Shepherds Bush and Uxbridge), Worcester Road and Oxford Road.[4] On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described partly as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by "Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.[5]

Despite being a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road.[4] It became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators drunkenly jeered at prisoners as they carted along the road, and could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns.[6] By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street.[5]

The street began to be redeveloped in the 18th century after many of the surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford.[6] In 1739, local gardener Thomas Huddle began to build property on the north side.[7] John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property thereafter. Buildings began to be erected on the corner of Oxford Street and Davies Street in the 1750s.[8] Further development along the street occurred between 1763 and 1793. The Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.[7]

The street became popular with entertainers including bear-baiters, theatres and public houses.[9] However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and St Giles, then a notorious rookery, or slum.[6] The gallows were removed in 1783, and by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment.[6][7] The Princess's Theatre opened in 1840, and is now the site of Oxford Walk shopping area.[7]

Retail development

View west down Oxford Street in 1961, outside Bond Street tube station

Oxford Street changed character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers, cobblers and furniture stores began to appear on the street, and were later expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors began to sell tourist souvenirs on the street during this time.[7] A plan of Oxford Street in Tallis's London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that almost all the street, save for the far western end, was primarily retail.[4] John Lewis started in 1864 as a small shop at No. 132,[10] while Selfridges opened on 15 March 1909 at No. 400.[11] Most of the southern side of Oxford Street west of Davies Street was completely rebuilt between 1865 and 1890, allowing a more uniform freehold ownership.[4] By the 1930s, the street was almost entirely retail, a position that remains today. However, unlike nearby streets such as Bond Street and Park Lane, there remained a seedy element including street traders and prostitutes.[12] Aside from a number of fixed places on the street, there are no provisions for selling licensed goods on Oxford Street. The advent of closed-circuit television has reduced the attraction of the area to scam artists and illegal street traders.[13][14]

Stanley Green advertising on Oxford Street in 1974

Oxford Street suffered considerable bombing during the Second World War. During the night and early hours of 17 to 18 September 1940, 268 Heinkel He 111 and Dornier Do 17 bombers targeted the West End, particularly Oxford Street. Many buildings were damaged, either from a direct hit or subsequent fires, including four department stores: John Lewis, Selfridges, Bourne & Hollingsworth and Peter Robinson. George Orwell wrote in his diary for 24 September that Oxford Street was "completely empty of traffic, and only a few pedestrians", and saw "innumerable fragments of broken glass".[15] John Lewis caught fire again on 25 September and was reduced to a shell. It remained a bomb site for the remainder of the war and beyond, finally being demolished and rebuilt between 1958 and 1960. Peter Robinson partially reopened on 22 September, though the main storefront remained boarded up. The basement was converted into studios for the BBC Eastern Service. Orwell made several broadcasts here from 1941 to 1943.[15]

Selfridges was bombed again on 17 April 1941, suffering further damage, including the destruction of the Palm Court Restaurant. The basement was converted to a communications base, with a dedicated line run along Oxford Street to Whitehall, and allowed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to make secure and direct telephone calls to the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The store was damaged again on 6 December 1944 after a V2 rocket exploded on nearby Duke Street, causing its Christmas tree displays to collapse into the street outside. Damage was quickly repaired and the shop re-opened the following day.[15]

A view of Oxford Street in 1987, with Selfridges on the right

In September 1973 a shopping-bag bomb was detonated by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at the offices of the Prudential Assurance Company on Oxford Street, injuring six people.[16] A second bomb was detonated by the IRA on the street in December, injuring three people.[17]

The human billboard Stanley Green began selling on Oxford Street in 1968, advertising his belief in the link of proteins to sexual libido and the dangers therein. He regularly patrolled the street with a placard headlined "less passion from less protein",[12] and advertised his pamphlet Eight Passion Proteins with Care until his death in 1993. His placards are now housed in the British Museum.[18]

Centre Point, just beyond the eastern end of Oxford Street next to Tottenham Court Road station, was designed by property developer Harry Hyams and opened in 1966. It failed to find a suitable tenant and sat empty for many years, eventually being occupied by squatters who used it as a centre of protest against the lack of suitable accommodation in Central London. In 2015, the building began to be converted into residential flats, with development expected to finish in 2017.[19]

Notable buildings

A blue plaque at No. 363 Oxford Street commemorating the founding of HMV in 1921

Oxford Street is home to a number of major department stores and flagship retail outlets, containing over 300 shops as of 2012.[20] It is the most frequently visited shopping street in Inner London, attracting over half a million daily visitors in 2014,[21] and is one of the most popular destinations in London for tourists, with an annual estimated turnover of over £1 billion.[22] It forms part of a shopping district in the West End of London, along with other streets including Covent Garden, Bond Street and Piccadilly.[23]

The New West End Company, formerly the Oxford Street Association, is a group that oversees stores and trade along the street; its objective is to make the place safe and desirable for shoppers. They have been critical of the overcrowding and quality of shops and started to clamp down on abusive traders, who have then been refused licences.[22][24]

Several British retail chains regard their Oxford Street branch as the flagship store. Debenhams originally opened as Marshall & Snelgrove in 1870; in 1919 they merged with Debenhams, which had opened in nearby Wigmore Street in 1778. The company was owned by Burton between 1985 and 1998.[25] The London flagship store of the House of Fraser began as D H Evans in 1879 and moved to its current premises in 1935.[26] It was the first department store in the UK with escalators serving every floor.[27] Selfridges, Oxford Street, the second-largest department store in the UK and flagship of the Selfridges chain, has been in Oxford Street since 1909.[28]

The 100 Club has been a live music venue in the basement of No. 100 Oxford Street since 1942, and has been an important venue for trad jazz, British Rhythm and Blues and punk bands.

Marks & Spencer has two stores on Oxford Street. The first, Marks & Spencer Marble Arch, is at the junction with Orchard Street. A second branch between Regent Street and Tottenham Court Road stands on the former site of the Pantheon.[29]

The music retailer HMV was opened at No. 363 Oxford Street in 1921 by Sir Edward Elgar. The Beatles made their first recording in London in 1962, when they cut a 78rpm demo disc in the store.[30] A larger store at No. 150 was opened in 1986 by Sir Bob Geldof, and was the largest music shop in the world at 60,000 square feet (6,000 m2). As well as music and video retail, the premises supported live gigs in the store. Due to financial difficulties, the store closed in 2014, with all retail moving to No. 363.[31]

The 100 Club, in the basement of No. 100, has been running as a live music venue since 24 October 1942. It was thought to be safe from bombing threats due to its underground location, and played host to jazz musicians, including Glenn Miller. It was renamed the London Jazz Club in 1948, and subsequently the Humphrey Lyttelton Club after Lyttelton took over the lease in the 1950s. Louis Armstrong played at the venue during this time. It became a key venue for the trad jazz revival, hosting gigs by Chris Barber and Acker Bilk. It was renamed the 100 Club in 1964 after Roger Horton bought a stake in the venue, adding an alcohol licence for the first time. The venue hosted gigs by several British rhythm and blues bands, included the Who, the Kinks and the Animals. It was an important venue for punk rock in the UK and hosted the first British punk festival on 21 September 1976, featuring the Sex Pistols, the Damned and the Buzzcocks.[32]

The Tottenham is a Grade II* listed public house at No. 6 Oxford Street, near Tottenham Court Road. It was built in the mid-19th century and is the last remaining pub in the street, which once had 20.[33][34][35]

The London College of Fashion has an Oxford Street campus, which is on John Prince's Street near Oxford Circus. The college is part of the University of the Arts London, formerly the London Institute.[36]

The cosmetics retailer Lush opened a store in Oxford Street in 2015. Measuring 9,300 square feet (860 m2) and containing three floors, it is the company's largest retail premises.[37]

Oxford Street is served by many major bus routes and by four tube stations of the London Underground. From Marble Arch eastwards, these stations are as follows:

The four stations serve an average of 100 million passengers every year, with Oxford Circus being the busiest.[38]

Crossrail, a major project involving an east-west rail route across London, will have two stations serving Oxford Street, at Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road. Each station will be "double-ended", with exits through the existing tube station and also some distance away: to the east of Bond Street, in Hanover Square near Oxford Circus;[39] to the west of Tottenham Court Road, in Dean Street.[40]


On average, half a million people visit Oxford Street every day, and foot traffic is in severe competition with buses and taxis.

Oxford Street has been ranked as the most important retail location in Britain and the busiest shopping street in Europe.[41] The street is often congested both on the pavements, due to the large number of shoppers and tourists, many of whom arrive at one of the tube stations, and on the roadway as a result of the many buses routed along the street.[42]

There is heavy competition between foot and bus traffic on Oxford Street, which is the main east-west bus corridor through Central London. Around 175,000 people get on or off a bus on Oxford Street every day, along with 43,000 further through passengers. Taxis are popular, particularly along the stretch between Oxford Circus and Selfridges.[41] Between 2009 and 2012, there were 71 accidents involving traffic and pedestrians.[43] In 2016, a report suggested buses generally did not travel faster than 4.6 miles per hour (7.4 km/h), compared to a typical pedestrian speed of 3.1 miles per hour (5.0 km/h).[44]

There have been several proposals to reduce congestion on Oxford Street. Horse-drawn vehicles were banned in 1931, and traffic signals were installed in the same year.[45][46] To alleviate congestion and help traffic flow of buses, most of Oxford Street is designated a bus lane during peak daytime hours, when private vehicles are banned. It is only open to buses, taxis and two-wheeled vehicles between 7:00am and 7:00pm on all days except Sundays.[41] The ban was introduced experimentally in June 1972. It was considered a success, with an estimated increase of £250,000 in retail sales.[47][48] In 2009, a new diagonal crossing opened at Oxford Circus, allowing pedestrians to cross from one corner of Oxford Street to the opposite corner without having to cross the road twice or use the pedestrian underpass. This doubles the pedestrian capacity at the junction.[49]


From 2005 to 2012, Oxford Street was completely traffic-free on a Saturday before Christmas, which became known as VIP Day (for "Very Important Pedestrians"). The scheme was popular and boosted sales by over £17m in 2012. In 2013, the New West End Company announced that the scheme would not go ahead that year as it wanted to do "something new".[50] In 2014 Liberal Democrat members of the London Assembly proposed that Oxford Street should be pedestrianised by 2020.[51]

In 2006, the New West End Company and the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, put forward proposals to pedestrianise Oxford Street with a tram service running end to end.[52] However the next Mayor, Boris Johnson, elected in 2008, announced that the scheme would not go ahead as it was not cost effective and too disruptive. In response to a request from Johnson, Transport for London undertook to reduce the bus flow in Oxford Street by 10% in both 2009 and 2010.[53] Subsequently, the New West End Company called for a 33% reduction in bus movements in Oxford Street.[54]

In 2014, Transport for London suggested that pedestrianisation may not be a suitable long-term measure due to Crossrail reducing the demand for bus services along Oxford Street, and proposed to ban all traffic except buses and cycles during peak shopping times.[42] Optimisation of existing traffic signals along the street, including Pedestrian Countdown signals, have also been proposed.[55] Transport for London is concerned that in the long term traffic problems may affect trade on Oxford Street, which is now competing with shopping centres such as Westfield London, Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross shopping centre.[43] In 2015, while campaigning for election as London Mayor, Labour's Sadiq Khan favoured the full pedestrianisation of Oxford Street, which was supported by other parties.[56] After winning the election, he pledged the street would be completely pedestrianised by 2020, including a ban on buses and taxis.[44]


In 2014, a report by a King's College, London scientist showed that Oxford Street had the world's highest concentration of nitrogen dioxide pollution, at 135 micrograms per cubic metre of air (μg/m3). However, this figure was an average that included night-time, when traffic was much lower. At peak times during the day, levels up to 463 μg/m3 were recorded – over 11 times the permitted EU maximum of 40 μg/m3.[57][58] Because of the diesel-powered traffic in the street (buses and taxis), annual average NO2 concentrations on Oxford Street are around 180 μg/m3. This is 4.5 times the EU target of 40 μg/m3 (Council Directive 1999/30/EC).[59]

Christmas lights

The 2011 Oxford Street Christmas lights

Every Christmas, Oxford Street is decorated with festive lights. The tradition of Christmas lights began in 1959, five years after the neighbouring Regent Street. There were no light displays in 1976 or 1977 due to economic recession, but the lights returned in 1978 when Oxford Street organised a laser display, and they have been there every year since.[60]

Current practice involves a celebrity turning the lights on in mid- to late-November, and they remain lit until 6 January (Twelfth Night). The festivities were postponed in 1963 due to the assassination of John F. Kennedy and in 1989 to fit Kylie Minogue's touring commitments.[60] In 2015, the lights were switched on earlier, on Sunday 1 November, resulting in an unusual closure of the street to all traffic.[61]

The following celebrities have turned on the lights since 1981:

Listed buildings

No. 147 Oxford Street was built in 1897 and has been Grade II listed since 2009.

Oxford Street has several Grade II listed buildings. In addition, the facades to Oxford Circus tube station are also listed.[85][86]

Number Grade Year listed Description
6 II* 1987 The Tottenham[35]
34 & 36 II 1987 Built 1912[87]
35 II 2009 Built for Richards & Co. jewellers in 1909[88]
105–109 II 1986 Built c. 1887 for the hatter Henry Heath[89]
133–135 II 2009 Pembroke House, built 1911[90]
147 II 2009 Built in 1897 for the chemist John Robbins.[91]
156–162 II* 1975 Built 1906–08; an early example of a steel-framed structure[92]
164–182 II 1973[93]
173 II 2009 The Pantheon, now Marks and Spencer[29]
219 II 2001[94]
313 II 1975 Built c. 1870–1880[95]
360–366 II 1987[96]
368–370 II 2008 Early 20th-century construction with 1930s facade[97]

Cultural references

Oxford Street is mentioned in several works by Charles Dickens. In A Tale of Two Cities, the street (as Oxford Road) is described as having "very few buildings", though in fact it was heavily built up by the late 18th century. It is also referred to in Sketches by Boz and Bleak House.[98]

The street is a square on the British Monopoly game board, forming part of the green set (together with Regent Street and Bond Street). The three streets were grouped together as they are all primarily retail areas.[6] In 1991, music manager and entrepreneur Malcolm McLaren produced The Ghosts of Oxford Street, a musical documentary about life and history in the local area.[99]

See also



  1. 1 2 3 A40, London W1D UK to 537 Oxford St, London W1C 2QP, UK (Map). Google Maps. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  2. "Central London Bus Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  3. Knight, Stephen (October 2014). Oxford Street – the case for pedestrianisation (PDF) (Report). p. 2. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Oxford Street: The Development of the Frontage, in Survey of London: volume 40: The Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair, Part 2 (The Buildings). 1980. pp. 171–173. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  5. 1 2 "36". Tottenham Court Road, in Old and New London: Volume 4. 1878. pp. 467–480. Retrieved 7 July 2015. "Rathbone Place, Oxford Street, 1718," fixes the date of its erection. As the "Tyburn Road" does not appear to have been generally known as "Oxford Street" till some ten or eleven years later
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Moore 2003, p. 241.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Hibbert & Weinreb 2010, p. 611.
  8. Oxford Street: The Development of the Frontage, in Survey of London: volume 40: The Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair, Part 2 (The Buildings) – section 2. 1980. pp. 171–173. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  9. Bracken 2011, p. 178.
  10. Hibbert & Weinreb 2010, p. 443.
  11. Hibbert & Weinreb 2010, p. 828.
  12. 1 2 Moore 2003, p. 243.
  13. Moore 2003, p. 244.
  14. "Oxford, Regents and Bond Streets Safer Neighbourhoods team target illegal street traders". London Metropolitan Police. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  15. 1 2 3 "The Blitz: Oxford Street's store wars". BBC News. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  16. "Shopping-bag bomb explodes in London". The Miami News. 12 September 1973. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  17. "London's Oxford St. bombed". The Gazette. Montreal. 20 December 1974. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  18. Moore 2003, pp. 243–244.
  19. Osborne, Hilary (26 January 2015). "Work begins on luxury flat conversion of London landmark Centre Point". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  20. Kye, Simon (2012). GLA Economics (PDF) (Report). Greater London Council. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  21. TfL 2014, p. 136.
  22. 1 2 Moore 2003, p. 245.
  23. Campbell, Sophie. "West End London shopping". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  24. "Oxford Street Revisited". Time Out. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  25. Glinert 2012, p. 304.
  26. Inwood 2012, p. 267.
  27. Piper & Jervis 2002, p. 81.
  28. Moore 2003, p. 242.
  29. 1 2 "The Pantheon (Marks and Spencers), Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  30. Inwood 2012, p. 269.
  31. Shaikh, Thair (14 January 2014). "HMV closes historic Oxford Street store". The Independent. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  32. Kronenburg 2013, pp. 19–20.
  33. Sullivan 2000, p. 194.
  34. Jephcote, Geoff Brandwood & Jane (2008). London heritage pubs: an inside story. St. Albans: Campaign for Real Ale. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-85249-247-2.
  35. 1 2 "The Tottenham public house". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  36. "University of the Arts London". The Independent. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  37. "In pictures: Lush unveils radical new look on Oxford Street". Retail Week. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  38. Moore 2003, p. 251.
  39. "Bond Street Station – design". Crossrail. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
  40. "Tottenham Court Road – design". Crossrail. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
  41. 1 2 3 TfL 2014, p. 138.
  42. 1 2 TfL 2014, p. 137.
  43. 1 2 TfL 2014, p. 141.
  44. 1 2 "Oxford Street to be pedestrianised by 2020". BBC News. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  45. "Traffic Regulations (London)". Hansard. 25 February 1931. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  46. "Traffic regulations, Oxford Street". Hansard. 1 July 1931. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  47. "Through traffic ban for Oxford Street". Commercial Motor. 30 June 1972. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  48. "Urban Transport Planning Expenditure". Hansard. 9 July 1973. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  49. "Oxford Circus 'X-crossing' opens". BBC News. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  50. "Traffic-free shopping day in London's West End scrapped". BBC News. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  51. "Oxford Street doomed to decline, report claims". BBC News. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  52. "Mayor's Oxford Street tram vision". BBC. 31 August 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  53. "Streets ahead: Relieving congestion on Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street" (PDF). London Assembly Transport Committee. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010. See Appendix 1.
  54. "Way To Go January 2009". New West End Company. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  55. TfL 2014, p. 142.
  56. "London Mayoral candidates back the pedestrianisation of Oxford Street". BBC News. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  57. "Diesel fumes choke Tox-ford Street". The Sunday Times. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  58. "Oxford Street air pollution 'highest in the world'". Air Quality Times. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  59. "Developing a new Air Quality Strategy and Action Plan – Consultation on Issues" (PDF). Westminster City Council. August 2008. See p 10
  60. 1 2 3 "London's bright past". BBC News. 22 December 1997. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  61. 1 2 "Oxford Street Christmas Lights". Time Out. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Swinnerton 2004, p. 24.
  63. Sinclair, David (2004). Wannabe: how the Spice Girls reinvented pop fame. Omnibus Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7119-8643-5.
  64. McGeever, Mike (20 December 1997). "Peter Andre's got the 'Time'". Billboard. p. 18. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  65. "Boyzone star gets in Christmas spirit". BBC. 19 November 1999.
  66. "Charlotte lighting up London". charlottechurch.net. 21 November 2000.
  67. Hu, Claire (1 November 2001). "Seven light up Oxford St heavens". Evening Standard. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  68. "Enrique Turns It on For London Shoppers". Sky News. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  69. "Enrique the Christmas hero". Mirror. 28 October 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  70. "Festive switch-on for Potter star". BBC. 16 November 2004.
  71. "Westlife switch on festive lights". BBC. 15 November 2005.
  72. "Westlife switch on London's Christmas lights". RTÉ Ten. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  73. "Energy row over Christmas lights". BBC. 9 November 2006.
  74. "Leona to turn on Christmas lights". BBC. 29 October 2007.
  75. Carmichael, Sri (8 November 2007). "Thousands see Oxford Street lit up by spirit of Christmas". Evening Standard. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  76. Pilkington, Diana (13 November 2008). "Christmas crackers: Sugababes light up West End as X Factor finalists sing for screaming crowds". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  77. "Sugababes switch on Oxford Street Christmas lights". The Telegraph. London. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  78. "Jim Carrey switches on Oxford Street Christmas lights". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  79. "Actor Carrey switches on lights". BBC News. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  80. "Rihanna lights up Westfield". Evening Standard. London. 5 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  81. "The Saturdays sing at Oxford Street Christmas lights switch-on". BBC News. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  82. "Gary Barlow tribute ends with Take That reunion". BBC News. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  83. "Jessie J turns on Oxford Street Christmas Lights". The Independent. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  84. "Oxford Street Christmas lights". London Evening Standard. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  85. "Listed Buildings in Westminster, Greater London, England". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  86. "Listed buildings". Westminster City Council. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  87. "34 and 36, Oxford Street W1, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  88. "35, Oxford Street, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  89. "105–109, Oxford Street W1". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  90. "133–135, Oxford Street, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  91. "147, Oxford Street, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  92. "156–162, Oxford Street W1, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  93. "164–182, Oxford Street W1, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  94. "219, Oxford Street, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  95. "313, Oxford Street, W1 – Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  96. "360–366, Oxford Street W1, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  97. "368–370, Oxford Street, Westminster". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  98. Hayward 2013, p. 120.
  99. "The Ghosts of Oxford Street". Channel 4. Retrieved 13 November 2015.


  • Bracken, G. Byrne (2011). Walking Tour London: Sketches of the city's architectural treasures ... Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-981-4435-36-9. 
  • Glinert, Ed (2012). The London Compendium. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-7181-9204-4. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher; Weinreb, Ben (2010). The London Encyclopedia. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5. 
  • Hayward, Arthur (2013). The Dickens Encyclopaedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-02758-2. 
  • Inwood, Stephen (2012). Historic London: An Explorer's Companion. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-75252-8. 
  • Kronenburg, Robert (2013). Live Architecture: Venues, Stages and Arenas for Popular Music. ISBN 978-1-135-71916-6. 
  • Moore, Tim (2003). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-943386-6. 
  • Piper, David; Jervis, Fionnuala (2002). The Companion Guide to London. Companion Guides. ISBN 978-1-900639-36-1. 
  • Sullivan, Edward (2000). Evening Standard London Pub Bar Guide 1999. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86840-0. 
  • Swinnerton, Jo (2004). The London Companion. Robson Books. ISBN 978-1-86105-799-0. 
  • London's street family: Theory and case studies (PDF) (Report). Transport for London. 2014. p. 138. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oxford Street.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/24/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.