Not to be confused with New Siberia.
Novosibirsk (English)
Новосибирск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

View of Novosibirsk

Location of Novosibirsk Oblast in Russia
Location of Novosibirsk in Novosibirsk Oblast
Coordinates: 55°03′N 82°57′E / 55.050°N 82.950°E / 55.050; 82.950Coordinates: 55°03′N 82°57′E / 55.050°N 82.950°E / 55.050; 82.950
Coat of arms
Anthem none[2]
City Day Last Sunday of June[3]
Administrative status (as of 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Novosibirsk Oblast[4]
Administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast,[4] City of Novosibirsk,[5] Novosibirsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2014)
Urban okrug Novosibirsk Urban Okrug[6]
Administrative center of City of Novosibirsk,[7] Novosibirsky Municipal District[8]
Head (Mayor)[9] Anatoly Lokot[10]
Representative body Council of Deputies[9]
Area (January 2015) 502.7 km2 (194.1 sq mi)[11]
Population (2010 Census) 1,473,754 inhabitants[12]
- Rank in 2010 3rd
Population (January 2015 est.) 1,567,087 inhabitants[13]
Density 2,932/km2 (7,590/sq mi)[14]
Time zone KRAT (UTC+07:00)[15]
Founded 1893[16]
City status since January 10, 1904 [O.S. December 28, 1903][17]
Previous names Novonikolayevsk (until February 12, 1926)[17]
Postal code(s)[18] 630000, 630001, 630003–630005, 630007–630011, 630015, 630017, 630019, 630020, 630022, 630024, 630025, 630027–630030, 630032–630037, 630039–630041, 630045–630049, 630051, 630052, 630054–630061, 630063, 630064, 630066, 630068, 630071, 630073, 630075, 630077–630080, 630082–630084, 630087–630092, 630095–630100, 630102, 630105–630112, 630114, 630116, 630117, 630119–630121, 630123, 630124, 630126, 630128, 630129, 630132, 630133, 630136, 630200, 630201, 630700, 630880, 630885, 630890, 630899–630901, 630910, 630920–630926, 630970–630978, 630980–630983, 630985, 630988, 630989, 630991–630993, 901026, 901036, 901073, 901076, 901078, 901095, 901243, 901245, 901246, 991214
Dialing code(s) +7 383
Official website
Novosibirsk on Wikimedia Commons

Novosibirsk (Russian: Новосиби́рск; IPA: [nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk]) is the third most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,473,754 as of the 2010 Census.[12] It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District. The city is located in the southwestern part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River adjacent to the Ob River Valley, near the large water reservoir formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant,[19] and occupies an area of 502.1 square kilometers (193.9 sq mi).[11]


Novonikolayevsk in 1895

Novosibirsk, founded in 1893[16] at the future site of a Trans-Siberian Railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river of Ob, first received the name Novonikolayevsk (Новониколаевск),[17] in honor both of Saint Nicholas and of the reigning Tsar Nicholas II in place of Krivoshchekovskaya village, which was founded in 1696. The bridge was completed in the spring of 1897, making the new settlement the regional transport hub. The importance of the city further increased with the completion of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway in the early 20th century. The new railway connected Novonikolayevsk to Central Asia and the Caspian Sea.[20]

At the time of the bridge's opening, Novonikolayevsk hosted a population of 7,800 people. Its first bank opened in 1906, with a total of five banks operating by 1915. In 1907, Novonikolayevsk, now with a population exceeding 47,000, was granted town status with full rights for self-government. The pre-revolutionary period saw the population of Novonikolayevsk reach 80,000. During this period the city experienced steady and rapid economic growth, becoming one of the largest commercial and industrial centers of Siberia and developing a significant agricultural processing industry,[21] as well as a power station, iron foundry, commodity market, several banks, and commercial and shipping companies. By 1917, Novonikolayevsk possessed seven Orthodox churches and one Roman Catholic church, several cinemas, forty primary schools, a high school, a teaching seminary, and the Romanov House non-classical secondary school. In 1913, Novonikolayevsk became one of the first places in Russia to institute compulsory primary education.[20]

The Russian Civil War took a toll on the city, with wartime epidemics, especially typhus and cholera, claiming thousands of lives. In the course of the war the Ob River Bridge was destroyed and for the first time in its history the population of Novonikolayevsk began to decline. The Soviet Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies of Novonikolayevsk took control of the city in December 1917. In May 1918, the Czechoslovak Legions rose in opposition to the revolutionary government and, together with the White Guards, captured Novonikolayevsk. The Red Army took the city in 1919, retaining it throughout the rest of the Civil War.[20]

Novonikolayevsk began reconstruction in 1921 at the start of Lenin's New Economic Policy. It was a part of Tomsk Governorate and served as its administrative center from December 23, 1919 to March 14, 1920. Between June 13, 1921 and May 25, 1925, it served as the administrative center of Novonikolayevsk Governorate, which was separated from Tomsk Governorate. The city was given its present name on September 12, 1926.[17]

When governorates were abolished, the city served as the administrative center of Siberian Krai until July 23, 1930, and of West Siberian Krai until September 28, 1937, when that krai was split into Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai.[22] Since then, it has served as the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast.[22]

One of the best examples of the early Soviet history is the Monument to the Heroes of the Revolution. It is located right in the center of the city and was one of the main historic sites (essentially every child had to visit the monument on school field trips during Soviet years). Then it was neglected in the 1990s and as a result somewhat ironically it turned out to be one of the best preserved Soviet-era sites.

During Stalin's industrialization, Novosibirsk secured its place as one of the largest industrial centers of Siberia. Several massive industrial facilities were created in there, including the 'Sibkombain' plant, specializing in the production of heavy mining equipment. Additionally a metal processing plant, a food processing plant and other industrial enterprises and factories were built, as well as a new power station. The Great Soviet Famine saw the influx of more than 170,000 refugees to Novosibirsk. The new arrivals settled in barracks at the outskirts of the city, giving rise to slums such as Bolshaya Nakhalovka, Malaya Nakhalovka, and others.[20]

Rapid growth and industrialization were the reasons behind Novosibirsk's nickname: the "Chicago of Siberia".[23]

Tram rails were laid down in 1934, by which time the population had reached 287,000, making Novosibirsk the largest city in Siberia. The following year the original bridge over the Ob River was replaced by the new Kommunalny bridge.[20]

Between 1940 and 1942 more than 50 substantial factories were crated up and relocated from western Russia to Novosibirsk in order to reduce the risk of their destruction through war, and at this time the city became a major supply base for the Red army. During this period the city also received more than 140,000 refugees.

The rapid growth of the city prompted the construction during the 1950s of a hydroelectric power station with a capacity of 400 megawatts,[24] necessitating the creation of a giant water reservoir, now known as the Ob Sea. As a direct result of the station's construction vast areas of fertile land were flooded as were relic pine woods in the area; additionally, the new open space created by the reservoir's surface caused average wind speeds to double, increasing the rate of soil erosion.[20]

In the 1950s, the Soviet Government directed that a center for scientific research be built in Novosibirsk, and in 1957 the multi-facility scientific research complex of Akademgorodok was constructed about 30 kilometers (19 mi) south of the city center. The Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences has its headquarters in Akademgorodok, and the town hosts more than 35 research institutes and universities, among them Novosibirsk State University, one of the top Russian schools in Natural Sciences and Mathematics. Although it possesses a fully autonomous infrastructure, Akademgorodok is administered by Novosibirsk.

On September 2, 1962, the population of Novosibirsk reached one million. At that time, it was the youngest city in the world with over a million people. Novosibirsk took fewer than seventy years to achieve this milestone.[25]

In 1979, work began on the Novosibirsk Metro Transit System, culminating in the opening of the first line in 1985.[20]

On August 1, 2008, Novosibirsk was in the center of the path of a solar eclipse, with a duration of 2 minutes and 20 seconds.

Administrative and municipal status

The administrative building of Novosibirsk Oblast

Novosibirsk is the administrative center of the oblast[4] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Novosibirsky District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[5] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Novosibirsk[5]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Novosibirsk is incorporated as Novosibirsk Urban Okrug.[6]


Novosibirsk population
2010 Census 1,473,754[12]
2002 Census 1,425,508[26]
1989 Census 1,436,516[27]
1979 Census 1,312,480[28]

According to the Federal State Statistics Service, in January 2015 the number of residents came to 1,567,087.[13] This is an increase compared to the 2010 Census, when the population of the city was 1,473,754.[12]

People from over eighty ethnicities and nationalities reside in Novosibirsk. The largest groups are Russian, German, Ukrainian, Tatar, Jewish, and Belarusian.[29]



The best-known trees native to Novosibirsk are birch, pine, and aspen. Some mountain ash, hawthorn, spruce, and fir are also present. European species of apple, ash, elm, linden, and oak have been successfully introduced.


Large mammals native to the Novosibirsk area include the brown bear, reindeer, moose (elk), wolf and fox. Also present are wolverine, ermine, marten, weasel, and polecat. The predators among them are supported by populations of beaver, hare, mouse, hamster, vole, shrew, squirrel, and chipmunk. More than 350 species of birds have been recorded in the area. On the other hand, only a few cold-blooded vertebrate species live on land, but they include the venomous adder and the swift grass snake. Perch and carp are prominent among the fish, of which there are more than thirty species. The carp often host a dangerous parasite, the liver fluke. Ticks in the area are frequent carriers of viral encephalitis.



The city stands on the banks of the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. To the south of the city lies The Priobskoye Plateau.


The weather in Novosibirsk is like the rest of typical Siberia, with a clear sky and far below freezing winter temperatures. The reason for these temperatures is the absence of nearby ocean, the Ural Mountains, barring Atlantic air masses from reaching Siberia, and the lack of tall mountains at the north of Novosibirsk, that could have held back freezing Arctic winds. In fact, Novosibirsk is the second farthest substantially populated city from the ocean, the first being Ürümqi, China.

The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb), with warm summers and severely cold winters. Snow is frequent, falling on almost half of all winter days, but individual snowfalls are usually light. On average temperatures range in summer from +15 °C (59 °F) to +26 °C (79 °F) and in winter from −20 °C (−4 °F) to −12 °C (10 °F). However, winter temperatures can go as low as −30 °C (−22 °F) to −35 °C (−31 °F), and summer temperatures can go as high as +30 °C (86 °F) to +35 °C (95 °F). The difference between the highest and lowest recorded temperatures is 88 °C (158 °F). Most days the weather is sunny, with an average of 2,880 hours of sunshine per year, but heavy rain is possible in summer.

Travelers coming from countries with mild climates may find Novosibirsk’s winter tough, but it may not be extraordinary for those from northern countries. At times, bitter cold may hold for some days, but temperatures of −40 °C (−40 °F) and lower do not occur every year. In the springtime, streets and roads become dirty as a result of mud and melting snow, while the weather is still cold.

Climate data for Novosibirsk (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.1
Average high °C (°F) −12.1
Daily mean °C (°F) −16.5
Average low °C (°F) −20.9
Record low °C (°F) −46.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25
Average rainy days 1 1 2 8 13 14 14 14 16 12 5 1 101
Average snowy days 23 19 15 9 3 0.1 0 0 1 11 20 25 126
Average relative humidity (%) 82 81 77 65 58 66 73 75 75 78 83 83 75


Novosibirsk is home to Russia's most powerful shortwave relay station east of the Ural mountains. This relay station can reach most of South Asia, the Middle East, and China. The Magadan and Vladivostok relay stations when operated in conjunction with Novosibirsk can guarantee that the Voice of Russia or any other broadcaster renting time at Novosibirsk is heard in the intended target area.


Novosibirsk Trans-Siberian railway station
Tolmachevo Airport

Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia (after Moscow and St. Petersburg) and the first in Siberia in which a metro system was established (the Novosibirsk Metro, opened in 1985). It is a major stop on the Trans-Siberian Railway and north end of Turkestan–Siberia Railway. The city is served by Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport with regular flights to Europe and Asia as well as to other Russian cities. Tolmachevo is the hub for S7 Airlines. There is also the auxiliary Yeltsovka Airport. A smaller field for general aviation at Novosibirsk Severny Airport was closed in 2012.

From other modes of transport there is a bus (launched in 1923), tram (launched in 1934), trolleybus (launched in 1957) and marshrutkas.


One of the city's new high-rises, photo from 2006

Novosibirsk is a large industrial center. The industrial complex consists of 214 large and average sized industrial enterprises. These produce more than two-thirds of all industrial output of the Novosibirsk region. Leading industries are airspace (Chkalov's Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant), nuclear fuel (Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant), turbo- and hydroelectric generators (NPO ELSIB), textile machinery (Textilmach), agriculture machinery (NPO "Sibselmash"), electronics components and devices production (Novosibirsk Factory and Design Bureau of Semiconductor Devices, OXID Novosibirsk Plant of Radio components), metallurgy and metal working (Kuzmina's Novosibirsk Metallurgical Plant, Novosibirsk Tin Plant" OJSC, and JSC "Plant of Rare Metals).

According to the television station RBC Novosibirsk took third place in 2008 in the list of the cities of Russia most attractive to business (in 2007 it was placed thirteenth).

Before the relocation of its headquarters to Ob, S7 Airlines had its head office in Novosibirsk.[31]

The headquarters of a number of large Russian companies are located in Novosibirsk:[32]


Several professional sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current league League
Sibir Novosibirsk Football 1934 National Football League 2nd Spartak Stadium
Sibir Novosibirsk Ice Hockey 1962 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Ice Sports Palace Sibir
Sibselmash Novosibirsk Bandy 1937 Russian Bandy Super League 1st Sibselmash Stadium
BC Novosibirsk Basketball 2011 Basketball Super League 2nd SKK Sever
Dynamo-GUVD Novosibirsk Basketball 1955 Women's Basketball Premier League 1st SKK Sever
Lokomotiv Novosibirsk Volleyball 1977 Volleyball Super League 1st SKK Sever
Sibiryak Novosibirsk Futsal 1988 Futsal Super League 1st NSAAA Sports Hall

Novosibirsk is the home town of several former Olympians, including Alexander Karelin, a twelve-time world Greco-Roman wrestling champion who has been voted the greatest Greco-Roman wrestler of the twentieth century by FILA.

The City also hosts a number of National and International Ice Speedway events. Siberia Novosibirsk competed in the Russian Ice Speedway Premier League in 2012/13, and will do so again in 2013/2014.


Several contemporary classical violinists, such as Vadim Repin, the late Alexander Skwortsow, Natalia Lomeiko, and Maxim Vengerov, are natives of Novosibirsk. Also born in the city were punk legend, poet and singer-songwriter Yanka Dyagileva, tragic punk rocker Dmitry Selivanov, folk/folk–rock singer Pelageya Khanova and cellist Tatjana Vassiljeva.

The city possesses a Conservatory (named in honor of Mikhail Glinka); Novosibirsk State Philharmony, that is home for Novosibirsk Academic Symphony Orchestra, Novosibirsk Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra, Russian Academic Orchestra of Folk Instruments, and other musical groups; Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theater, and several notable music venues.


Airphoto of Akademgorodok

Novosibirsk is home to the following high educational institutions (masters level degree and PhD):

Akademgorodok is a suburb of Novosibirsk dedicated to science. It houses the Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and is the location of Novosibirsk State University. (All other higher education institutions are located in the central part of the city.)

The Quality Schools International QSI International School of Novosibirsk, previously located in Akademgorodok, opened in 2008.[34]





16 cinemas, including Cinema Park which supports IMAX and IMAX 3D.



Novosibirsk Planetarium (2012)[35] was awarded in 2015 as the best social infrastructure object in Russia.[36]

Botanical Garden

Novosibirsk Zoo

The Novosibirsk Zoo is a world-renowned scientific institution as well as a popular tourist attraction. The zoo has over four thousand animals and is an active participant in thirty-two different captive breeding programmes for endangered species. On average, around 700,000 people visit the zoo each year.

Twin towns and sister cities

Novosibirsk is twinned with:

Notable residents

Violinist Mikhail Simonyan, playwright and prose writer Nina Mikhailovna Sadur, and three-time Olympic Greco-Roman wrestling champion Aleksandr Karelin were born and raised in Novosibirsk.

See also



  1. 1 2 3 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 50 240», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 50 240, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  2. Article 5 of the Charter of Novosibirsk lists a flag and a coat of arms but not an anthem among the symbols of the city.
  3. Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 1
  4. 1 2 3 Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast, Article 5
  5. 1 2 3 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 50 401», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 50 401, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  6. 1 2 Law On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Novosibirsk Oblast
  7. Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Федеральное агентство по технологическому регулированию и метрологии. №ОК 033-2013 1 января 2014 г. «Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований. Код 50 701». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 50 701. ).
  8. Law On the Administrative Centers of the Municipal Districts and Rural Settlements of Novosibirsk Oblast
  9. 1 2 Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 27
  10. Official website of Novosibirsk. Anatoly Yevgenyevich Lokot, Mayor of Novosibirsk (Russian)
  11. 1 2 Official website of Novosibirsk. General Information (Russian)
  12. 1 2 3 4 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  13. 1 2 Novosibirsk Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения по муниципальным районам и городским округам Новосибирской области на 1 января 2015 года и в среднем за 2014 год (Russian)
  14. The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  15. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  16. 1 2 Official website of Novosibirsk. History (Russian)
  17. 1 2 3 4 Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 1.1
  18. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  19. Новосибирская ГЭС. Вокруг здания ГЭС, водосливная плотина :: Gelio | Слава Степанов. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 AllSiberia
  21. "Сельское хозяйство :: Бизнес-журнал, новости Новосибирска и Новосибирской области". Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  22. 1 2 Decision of Central Execution Committee of USSR dated 28 of September of 1937 (link to law base provided by official legal service "Consultant Plus")
  23. "From Novosibirsk to Komsomolsk". TIME. May 4, 1942. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  24. "Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia History & Info". Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  25. "Novosibirsk Mayor Office Web Site, City History Page". Novosibirsk Mayor Office. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
  26. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  27. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  28. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России. (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (All-Union Population Census of 1979) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1979. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  29. Официальный сайт города Новосибирска:. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  30. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Novosibirsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  31. "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 30 - April 5, 2004. 68.
  32. "Siberian business portal KSONLINE .
  33. "Государственные вузы Новосибирской области". Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  34. "Home." QSI International School of Novosibirsk. October 2, 2009. Retrieved on May 15, 2016.
  35. Детский Юношеский Центр "Планетарий"
  36. Ministry of Housing and Building of Russian Federation official website
  37. "Central Siberian Botanical Garden/Центральный сибирский ботаническй сад СО РАН". Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  38. (Japanese) 札幌市 - 国際交流 - 姉妹都市
  39. (Japanese) Sister Cities | International Community Bureau
  40. Novosibirsk official site


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