For other uses, see Nerd (disambiguation).

Nerd (adjective: nerdy) is a descriptive term, often used pejoratively, indicating a person that is overly intellectual, obsessive, or lacking social skills. Such a person may spend inordinate amounts of time on unpopular, little known, or non-mainstream activities, which are generally either highly technical, abstract, or relating to topics of fiction or fantasy, to the exclusion of more mainstream activities.[1][2][3] Additionally, many so-called nerds are described as being shy, quirky, pedantic, and unattractive,[4] and may have difficulty participating in, or even following, sports. Though originally derogatory, Nerd is a stereotypical term, but as with other pejoratives, it has been reclaimed and redefined by some as a term of pride and group identity.

People with autism, or its milder variant, Asperger's syndrome, are biologically disposed to have extreme S-brains. People described as nerds may stand squarely on the S-brain side of the spectrum, but not necessarily to such an extreme as to be diagnosed as Asperger's or autism. While not directly equatable with Asperger's, they have a lot in common.[5]


The first documented appearance of the word nerd is as the name of a creature in Dr. Seuss's book If I Ran the Zoo (1950), in which the narrator Gerald McGrew claims that he would collect "a Nerkle, a Nerd, and a Seersucker too" for his imaginary zoo.[3][6][7] The slang meaning of the term dates to the next year, 1951, when Newsweek magazine reported on its popular use as a synonym for drip or square in Detroit, Michigan.[8] By the early 1960s, usage of the term had spread throughout the United States, and even as far as Scotland.[9][10] At some point, the word took on connotations of bookishness and social ineptitude.[6]

An alternate spelling,[11] as nurd or gnurd, also began to appear in the mid-1960s or early 1970s.[12] Author Philip K. Dick claimed to have coined the nurd spelling in 1973, but its first recorded use appeared in a 1965 student publication at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.[13][14] Oral tradition there holds that the word is derived from knurd (drunk spelled backward), which was used to describe people who studied rather than partied. The term gnurd (spelled with the "g") was in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by 1965.[15] The term nurd was also in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as early as 1971 but was used in the context for the proper name of a fictional character in a satirical "news" article.[16]

The Online Etymology Dictionary speculates that the word is an alteration of the 1940s term nert (meaning "stupid or crazy person"), which is itself an alteration of "nut".[17]

The term was popularized in the 1970s by its heavy use in the sitcom Happy Days.[18]

Typical stereotype

Because of the nerd stereotype, many smart people are often thought of as nerdy. This belief can be harmful, as it can cause high-school students to "switch off their lights" out of fear of being branded as one of them,[19] and cause otherwise appealing people to be nerdy simply for their intellect. It was once thought that intellectuals were nerdy because they were envied. However, Paul Graham stated in his essay, "Why Nerds are Unpopular", that intellect is neutral, meaning that you are neither loved nor despised for it. He also states that it is only the correlation that makes smart teens automatically seem nerdy, and that a nerd is someone that is not socially adept enough. Additionally, he says that the reason why many smart kids are unpopular is that they "don't have time for the activities required for popularity."[20]

A child dressed up as a stereotypical nerd

Stereotypical nerd appearance, often lampooned in caricatures, includes very large glasses, braces, severe acne and pants worn high at the waist. In the media, many nerds are white males, portrayed as being physically unfit, either overweight or skinny due to lack of physical exercise .[21][22] It has been suggested by some, such as linguist Mary Bucholtz, that being a nerd may be a state of being "hyperwhite" and rejecting African-American culture and slang that "cool" white children use.[23] However, after the Revenge of the Nerds movie franchise (with multicultural nerds), and the introduction of the Steve Urkel character on the television series Family Matters, nerds have been seen in all races and colors as well as more recently being a frequent young Asian or Indian male stereotype in North America. Portrayal of "nerd girls", in films such as She's Out of Control, Welcome to the Dollhouse and She's All That depicts that smart but nerdy women might suffer later in life if they do not focus on improving their physical attractiveness.[24]

In the United States, a 2010 study published in the Journal of International and Intercultural Communication indicated that Asian Americans are perceived as most likely to be nerds, followed by White Americans, while non-White Hispanics and Black Americans were perceived as least likely to be nerds. These stereotypes stem from concepts of Orientalism and Primitivism, as discussed in Ron Eglash's essay Race, Sex, and Nerds: From Black Geeks to Asian American Hipsters.[25] Among Whites, Jews are perceived as the most nerdy and are stereotyped in similar ways to Asians.[26]

Nerd pride

The rise of Silicon Valley and the American computer industry at large has allowed many so-called nerdy people to accumulate large fortunes. Many stereotypically nerdy interests, such as superhero and science fiction works, are now popular culture hits.[27] Some measures of nerdiness are now allegedly considered desirable, as, to some, it suggests a person who is intelligent, respectful, interesting, and able to earn a large salary. Stereotypical nerd qualities are evolving, going from awkwardness and social ostracism to an allegedly more widespread acceptance and sometimes even celebration of their differences.[28]

In the 1984 film Revenge of the Nerds Robert Carradine worked to embody the nerd stereotype; in doing so, he helped create a definitive image of nerds.[29] Additionally, the storyline presaged, and may have helped inspire, the "nerd pride" that emerged in the 1990s. American Splendor regular Toby Radloff claims this was the movie that inspired him to become "The Genuine Nerd from Cleveland, Ohio."[30] In the American Splendor film, Toby's friend, American Splendor author Harvey Pekar, was less receptive to the movie, believing it to be hopelessly idealistic, explaining that Toby, an adult low income file clerk, had nothing in common with the middle class kids in the film who would eventually attain college degrees, success, and cease being perceived as nerds. Many, however, seem to share Radloff's view, as "nerd pride" has become more widespread in the years since. MIT professor Gerald Sussman, for example, seeks to instill pride in nerds:

My idea is to present an image to children that it is good to be intellectual, and not to care about the peer pressures to be anti-intellectual. I want every child to turn into a nerd – where that means someone who prefers studying and learning to competing for social dominance, which can unfortunately cause the downward spiral into social rejection.
Gerald Sussman, quoted by Katie Hafner, The New York Times, 29 August 1993[31]

Bryan Caplan, a professor of economics at George Mason University, refers to himself as "an openly nerdy man"[32] and has written of a "Jock/Nerd Theory of History".[33] He believes that income redistribution is a tactic by Jocks to prevent Nerds from gaining power over them.

The popular computer-related news website Slashdot uses the tagline "News for nerds. Stuff that matters." The Charles J. Sykes quote "Be nice to nerds. Chances are you'll end up working for one" has been popularized on the Internet and incorrectly attributed to Bill Gates.[34] In Spain, Nerd Pride Day has been observed on May 25 since 2006,[35] the same day as Towel Day, another somewhat nerdy holiday.[36] The date was picked because it's the anniversary of the release of Star Wars: A New Hope.[37]

An episode from the animated series Freakazoid, titled "Nerdator", includes the use of nerds to power the mind of a Predator-like enemy. Towards the middle of the show, he gave this speech. :

...most nerds are shy ordinary-looking types with no interest in physical activity. But, what they lack in physical prowess they make up in brains. Tell me, who writes all the best selling books? Nerds. Who makes all the top grossing movies? Nerds. Who designs computer programs so complex that only they can use them? Nerds. And who is running for high public office? No one but nerds. ... Without nerds to lead the way, the governments of the world will stumble, they'll be forced to seek guidance from good-looking, but vapid airheads.[38]

The Danish reality TV show FC Zulu, known in the internationally franchised format as FC Nerds, established a format wherein a team of nerds, after two or three months of training, competes with a professional soccer team.[39]

Some commentators consider that the word is devalued when applied to people who adopt a sub-cultural pattern of behaviour, rather than being reserved for people with a marked ability.[40]

Although originally being predominately an American stereotype, Nerd culture has grown across the globe and is now more acceptable and common than ever. Australian events such as Oz Comic-Con (a large comic book and Cosplay convention, similar to San Diego Comic-Con International) and Supernova, are incredibly popular events among the culture of people who identify themselves as nerds. In 2016, Oz Comic-Con in Perth saw almost 20,000 cos-players and comic book fans meet to celebrate the event, hence being named a "professionally organised Woodstock for geeks".[41]


People who tend to possess so-called nerdy characteristics can often be the subject of bullying in the workplace and in schools especially. With the rise of Cyberbullying, antisocial behaviour towards people described as nerdy continues. A 2012 study in a Victorian high school, reported that "72% of boys and 65% of girls" had experienced relational aggression.[42] Nerds are often the target of bullying due to a range of reasons that may include, physical appearance or social background.[21]

In film and television

Film has seen several memorable nerdy characters including, but not limited to: Anthony Michael Hall's character of Brian Johnson in The Breakfast Club, Fogell from Superbad (film), Peter Parker from the Spider-Man franchise, Hermione Granger from the Harry Potter franchise, Lewis Skolnick and Gilbert Lowe from Revenge of the Nerds, Steve Carell's character of Andy Stitzer in The 40-Year-Old Virgin, and the cast of The Big Bang Theory.[43]

See also


  1. "Nerd | Define Nerd at", ", LLC" 2011, accessed May 13, 2011.
  2. nerd, n. Oxford English Dictionary online. Third edition, September 2003; online version September 2011. First included in Oxford English Dictionary second edition, 1989.
  3. 1 2 "Definition of NERD", Merriam-Webster, 2011, retrieved 2011-11-23
  4. DA Kinney (1993). "From nerds to normals: The recovery of identity among adolescents from middle school to high school". Sociology of Education. Sociology of Education. 66 (1): 21–40. doi:10.2307/2112783. JSTOR 2112783.
  6. 1 2 American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition, p. 1212, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston – New York – London, 1992
  7. Geisel, Theodor Seuss, If I Ran the Zoo, p. 47, Random House Books for Young Readers, New York, 1950
  8. Newsweek 'Jelly Tot, Square Bear-Man!' (1951-10-8), p. 28
  9. Gregory J. Marsh in Special Collections at the Swarthmore College library as reported in Humanist Discussion Group (1990-6-28) Vol. 4, No. 0235.
  10. Glasgow, Scotland, Sunday Mail (1957-2-10)
  11. The many spellings of Nurd, Fall 1970 (revised online 2015 )
  12. Current Slang: A Quarterly Glossary of Slang Expressions Currently In Use (1971), Vol. V, No. 4, Spring 1971, p. 17
  13. Personal Correspondence (1973-9-4) reported on the web
  14. RPI Bachelor (1965), V14 #1
  15. More Mathematical People (D.J. Albers, J.L. Alexanderson and C. Reid), Pg 105 (1990), Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich
  16. Golly, By (February 3, 1971). "The Daily Reamer – Volume 69, No 20, Pg 6" (PDF). The Tech. The Tech. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
  17. Harper, Douglas. "nerd". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  18. Fantle, David; Johnson, Tom (November 2003), ""Nerd" is the Word: Henry Winkler, August 1981", Reel to Real: 25 Years of Celebrity Interviews, Badger Books Inc., pp. 239–242
  19. Anderegg, Mr (12 January 2008). "In Praise of Nerds". The Economist.
  20. Graham, Paul. "Why Nerds are Unpopular".
  21. 1 2 Lori Kendall. "OH NO! I'M A NERD!": Hegemonic Masculinity on an Online Forum. Gender Society. 14: 256. (2000)
  22. Ron Eglash. Race, Sex, and Nerds. Social Text. 20: 49 (2002)
  23. Benjamin Nugent (July 29, 2007). "Who's a Nerd, Anyway?". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  24. Gateward, Frances K.; Murray Pomerance (2002). Sugar, spice, and everything nice: cinemas of girlhood. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2918-4. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
  25. Eglash, R. 'Race, Sex, And Nerds: FROM BLACK GEEKS TO ASIAN AMERICAN HIPSTERS'. Social Text 20.2 71 (2002): 49–64. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
  26. Benjamin Nugent. "How Stereotypes of Jews and Asians Evolved into the Nerd".
  27. Woyke, Elizabeth (19 September 2008). "Celebrity Nerds Come Out". Forbes. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  28. Cringely, Robert. "Triumph of the Nerds: A History of the Computer". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  29. Singer, Jon (2005-08-28). "Carradine hits the jackpot as Lewis Skolnick". Lumino
  30. Hensley, Dennis (2003-09-02). "Revenge of the nerd: American Splendor's Toby Radloff is out and proud about his sexuality and his nerddom". The Advocate
  31. Hafner, Katie (29 August 1993). "Woman, Computer Nerd – and Proud". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  32. "Bryan Caplan". Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  33. "Redistribution: Blocking the Revenge of the Nerds?". Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  34. Mikkelson, Barbara; Mikkelson, David P. (2000). "Some Rules Kids Won't Learn in School". Retrieved 2007-07-22
  35. Tassara-Twigg, Noemi (24 May 2010). "Celebrate Geek Pride Day 2010". Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  36. Price, Matthew (25 May 2010). "Happy Geek/Nerd Pride Day!". Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  37. Helmenstine, Anne Marie (25 May 2012). "Happy Geek Pride Day!". Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  38. YouTube. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  39. FC Zulu, 2004-09-13, retrieved 2016-05-16
  40. Westcott, Kathryn (16 November 2012). "Are 'geek' and 'nerd' now positive terms?". News Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  41. "Fantasy fans to flock Perth Oz Comic-Con spectacle". ABC News. 2016-04-01. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  42. Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta (2012-06-01). "Rates of bullying perpetration and victimisation: a longitudinal study of secondary school students in Victoria, Australia". Pastoral Care in Education. 30 (2): 99–112. doi:10.1080/02643944.2012.679953. ISSN 0264-3944.
  43. McKee, Ryan (2010-08-06). "Top 25 Geeks in Movies: The Few, the Obsessed, the Socially Awkward". AOL Moviefone. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  44. Nugent, Benjamin (July 1, 2008). "Field Guide to The Nerd: It's All Geek to Me". Psychology Today. Retrieved September 24, 2016.

Further reading

External links

Look up nerd in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.