National Rose Garden
The Old Parliament House Gardens are located in Parkes Canberra, Australia, either side of Old Parliament House. They consist of the Senate and the House of Representatives Gardens. The House of Representatives Garden on the Eastern side contains the Ladies Rose Garden and the Macarthur Rose Garden. The Senate Garden on the Western side contains the Rex Hazlewood Rose Garden and the Broinowski Rose Garen.
The gardens were officially restored and re-opened in December 2004 following their decline after the Parliament moved to the new Parliament House in 1988. The Gardens incorporate tennis courts and a bowling green in the House of Representatives Garden (South), and tennis courts and cricket pitch in the Sente Garden (West). The Old Parliament House Gardens are listed on the National Heritage List. They were originally used for outdoor parties associated with official visits and at the opening sessions of Parliament, as well as respite for Australia's politicians.
The Old Parliament House Gardens are located in the heart of the Parliamentary Zone on either side of Old Parliament House. The Gardens have been restored to their former glory, enhanced with the introduction of features such as seating pavilions, pergolas, rose arbours, pathways, gateways and the refurbishment of the tennis courts and bowling green.
When Members and Senators arrived in Canberra for the opening of Provisional (Old) Parliament House in 1927 they were met with bare ground and a hedge, just half a metre high, planted by the Superintendent of Parkes and Gardens, Charles Weston. Sporting facilities - a bowling green, tennis courts and a cricket pitch - were quickly established in the gardens for the exclusive use of parliamentarians.
The idea of a garden languished for several years until Robert Broinowski, Secretary of the Joint House Department, took up the cause. With the assistance of the National Rose Society of New South Wales, Broinowski initiated the design and planting of an open garden based on patterned rose and annuals display beds, set in lawns and with a minimum of trees. Many of the roses were donated by rose societies, companies and individuals, and Parliament House staff.
The Old Parliament House Gardens consist of two separate gardens and within each are located two rose gardens:
House of Representatives Garden
- Ladies Rose Garden (Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses) - Macarthur Rose Garden (China, Tea and Noisette roses)
Senate Garden - Broinowski Rose Garden (Shrub roses) - Rex Hazlewood Rose Garden (Asian and European history of the rose, includes roses by Australian rose breeder Alister Clarke)
History of the Gardens
When the Provisional (now Old) Parliament House was opened in 1927, the surrounding limestone plains were windswept and pastoral. The bush landscape stood in stark contrast to the established lush gardens of the temporary Parliament in Melbourne.
From 1931 to 1938, the Secretary of the Joint House Department, Robert Broinowski, set about establishing gardens to the east and west of Old Parliament House. Hedges surrounding the gardens were soon planted to mitigate the wind. Tennis courts, a cricket pitch and bowling green were established along with four rose gardens. These were for the exclusive use of members and staff.
In 1988, when 'new' Parliament House opened on Capital Hill, occupation of the Old Parliament House ceased for a time. Hidden away behind a rambling hedge and secluded gates, the Gardens became neglected. The well-used tennis courts were locked and the grand floral displays reduced in size.
The reconstruction program for the Old Parliament House Gardens commenced in 2000 with the replanting of the hedges. The Gardens have had their original character and design intent replicated in appreciation of their historic and cultural significance to the nation, along with the addition of paths and public facilities. The four rose gardens have been replanted with new roses and reconstructed to their original designs.
The Robert Broinowski Garden History
Robert Broinowski was one of a handful of parliamentary officers who, in May 1927, travelled from Melbourne to Australia 's capital city of Canberra to staff the Provisional (now Old) Parliament House. He was committed to the vision of a grand city of legislation, learning and culture, but he was also very conscious that the dry dust bowl in the Federal Capital Territory was hardly a promising start.
It was Broinowski's challenge to surround the Provisional Parliament House with gardens so that the parliamentarians would not miss the Treasury gardens near their former temporary quarters, the Victorian parliamentary buildings in Melbourne .
As Secretary of the Joint House Department and Usher of the Black Rod, Broinowski sought and obtained the permission of the President of the Senate, Sir Walter Kingsmill, to start a campaign in 1931 for Australians to buy roses for the parliamentary gardens. This was at a cost of one shilling and four pence. The scheme was an immediate success. Bulbs also arrived from Holland and Great Britain , and trees from Canada . Broinowski completed the overall layout of the parliamentary gardens between 1931 and 1938.
Roses and Design
The Broinowski Rose Garden has undergone many changes since it was first conceived by Robert Broinowski in the early 1930s.
The Garden exhibits shrub roses including those roses bred by the English rose breeder, David Austin. The English shrub rose, a cross between Old Roses and either modern Hybrid Teas or Floribundas, is a comparatively new rose which first gained prominence in the 1970s. This rose combines the form and fragrance of older roses with the colour and repeat flowering of the new.
The first of this type, 'Constance Spry', was bred by Austin in 1961 by cross-breeding 'Belle Isis', a light pink, old garden Gallica rose, with 'Dainty Maid', a pale silvery pink and carmine Floribunda rose.
Roses in this Garden: Altissimo ®Ambridge RoseAnne BoleynBenjamin BrittenBrother Cadfael ™Charles DarwinCharlotteChristopher MarloweComtes de ChampagneConstance Spry ®Crocus RoseCrown Princess MargaretaDapple DawnDeane RossEglantyneFair Bianca ®FalstaffFlorence DelattreGolden CelebrationGraceGraham Thomas ®Gruss an AachenHeritage ®Iceberg, ClimbingJayne AustinJohn ClareJude the ObscureKathryn MorleyL. D. BraithwaiteLady Hillingdon, ClimbingLéonardo de VinciLions RoseMartine GuillotMary MagdaleneMary Rose ®MawsonMiss AliceMme. Paule MassadMolineuxNoble AntonyParkdirektor Riggers ®Pat Austin ™Paul BocusePegasusPierre de Ronsard ®RedoutéScepter'd IsleSharifa AsmaSir Edward ElgarSonia RykielSophy's RoseSt. CeciliaSt. Swithun ™Sweet JulietTeasing GeorgiaTess of the d'UrbervillesThe Pilgrim ™William ChristieWilliam Shakespeare 2000Winchester Cathedral
The Rex Hazlewood Rose Garden History
This rose garden is the largest of the Old Parliament House Rose Gardens and the first to be planted in 1931. The rose garden was designed by Rex Hazlewood as the result of a meeting between Robert Broinowski (Secretary of the Joint House Department and Usher of the Black Rod) and representatives of the National Rose Society of New South Wales.
Hazlewood was a man of wide-ranging interests. A self-taught professional photographer, he served in Europe during World War I. While on leave in England , he spent time studying the English landscape. In the 1920s, he became interested in landscape design and eventually gave up photography to work for his brothers at Hazlewood Brothers Rose and Tree Specialists in Epping, Sydney.
Short of funds, Broinowski devised a scheme for Australians to contribute roses for the parliamentary gardens. Donations were received from staff of the House of Representatives, Senate, Parliamentary Library and Joint House Department, together with parliamentary press reporters. Signs were erected to recognise the many organisations and individuals who had donated roses. It is thought that the English cricket team, visiting Canberra in 1933, also contributed roses.
Roses and Design
The Rex Hazlewood Rose Garden has been reconstructed to its original 1931 layout and portrays the international history of rose cultivation. There are more than 40,000 roses registered internationally. This rose garden is a representative display of the extensive hybridisation which has taken place globally over centuries.
The western half of the Rex Hazlewood Rose Garden includes early European rose varieties and hybrids of rose species native to southern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean . These include the Gallica, Damask and Alba roses grown since ancient times, the sixteenth century Centifolia roses and the later Moss and Portland roses.
The early Asiatic roses are located in the eastern half of the Garden and include the China roses bred in China before their arrival in Europe during the eighteenth century. Those roses derived from rose species native to China represented in the collection include the Tea, Noisette, Bourbon and Rugosa roses (from northern Japan and Siberia ), Hybrid musk and Polyantha roses.
ast meets West at the central beds of the Garden, with the culmination of cross-breeding resulting in the Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses. Those roses grown by internationally renowned Australian rose breeder, Alister Clark, are planted at the centre of the Garden. Clark 's roses were bred for Australian conditions.
Roses in this Garden: Alister Clark Rose Garden in the Rex Hazlewood Rose GardenAustralia FelixBordererCicely LascellesCountess of StradbrokeDay DreamFairlie RedeGwen NashJessie ClarkLady HuntingfieldLady MannLorraine LeeMadge TaylorMarjory PalmerMary GuthrieMrs. Albert NashMrs. Alston's RoseMrs. Fred DanksQueen of HeartsRestlessRingletScorcherSquatter's DreamSuitorSunlitSunny SouthTonner's FancRex Hazlewood Rose Garden in the SenateGardenAglaiaAlba MaximaAlba Semi-plenaAlfred de DalmasAméliaAnne-Marie de MontravelArchiduc JosephAugustine GuinoiseauAutumn DelightAutumnalisAwakeningBaby AlbericBallerinaBaltimore BelleBaronne Henriette de SnoyBelle AmourBelle PoitevineBlanc Double de CoubertBlanc PurBloomfield AbundanceBlush NoisetteBon SilèneBotzarisBoule de NeigeBourbon QueenBuff BeautyBullataCamellia RoseCanary BirdCantabrigiensisCardinal de RichelieuCatherine MermetCélesteCéline ForestierCelsianaChampneys' Pink ClusterChapeau de NapoléonCharles de MillsChlorisClaire JacquierCloth of GoldComte de ChambordComtesse du CaylaCorneliaCramoisi SupérieurCrépusculeCrested JewelCrimson GloryDainty BessDame Edith HelenDebutanteDr GrillDuchess of PortlandDuchesse d' AngoulêmeDuchesse de MontebelloElizabeth ArdenElse PoulsenEmpress JoséphineErfurtÉtoile de HollandeÉtoile de Hollande, ClimbingÉtoile de LyonExcellenz von SchubertF. J. GrootendorstFantin-LatourFeliciaFélicité ParmentierFellembergFimbriataFrancescaFrancis DubreuilFrancis E. LesterFrau Karl DruschkiFreiherr von MarschallFritz NobisFru Dagmar HartoppFrühlingsgold ®Général GalliéniGénéral KléberGénéral SchablikineGeraniumGipsy BoyGloire de GuilanGloire des MousseusesGloire LyonnaiseGloria MundiGolden DawnGrace DarlingGreat Maiden's BlushGruss an AachenGuinéeHansaHébé's LipHermosaHomèreHonorine de BrabantHugo RollerHume's Blush Tea-scented ChinaIrène WattsIsabella SpruntIspahanJacques CartierJames VeitchJean DucherJohn HopperJunoKazanlikKönigin von DänemarkL' OucheLa FranceLa NoblesseLa Reine VictoriaLa Ville de BruxellesLady HillingdonLady PenzanceLady RobertsLe VésuveLédaLéonie LameschLittle White PetLord PenzanceLouise OdierMarchioness of SalisburyMarie LouiseMarie PaviéMarie-JeanneMary Queen of ScotsMiss Edith CavellMme de la Rôche-LambertMme. Alfred CarrièreMme. BerkeleyMme. Ernst CalvatMme. Grégoire StaechelinMme. HardyMme. Isaac PereireMme. Lauriol de BarnyMme. Legras de St. GermainMme. Louis LévêqueMme. Pierre OgerMme. PlantierMme. ZöetmansMoonlightMorlettiMousseux du JaponMrs. B.R. CantMrs. Foley HobbsMrs. Herbert Stevens, ClimbingMrs. John LaingMrs. Oakley FisherMrs. Sam McGredyMutabilisNarrow WaterNathalie NypelsNevadaNew DawnNiphetosNuits de YoungOld BlushOmar KhayyámOpheliaPapa HémerayParks' Yellow Tea-scented ChinaPaul NeyronPaxPenelopePergolèsePerle d'OrPetite de HollandePetite LisettePinkiePompon Blanc ParfaitProlifera de RedoutéProsperityQuatre SaisonsR. centifoliaR. centifolia albaR. centifolia muscosaR. centifolia parvifoliaR. centifolia variegataR. eglanteriaR. farreri persetosaR. foetida bicolorR. gallica complicataR. gallica officinalisR. gallica versicolourR. glaucaR. moschataR. multiflora platyphyllaR. pomifera duplexR. primulaR. rugosa albaR. spinoisissima altaicaR. virginianaR. wichuraianaR. x dupontiiReine des CentfeuilesRembrandtRêve d' OrRobert le DiableRose de MeauxRose de ReschtRose du RoiRose du Roi à Fleurs PourpresRose EdouardRoseraie de l' HaÿSafranoSarah van FleetSchneezwergShot Silk, ClimbingSingle CherrySlater's Crimson ChinaSnowflakeSoleil D'OrSophie's PerpetualSoupert et NottingSouvenir de la MalmaisonSpectabilisSpongStanwell PerpetualTalismanThe BishopThe BrideThe FairyThisbeTour de MalakoffTrier ®TuscanyTuscany SuperbVillage MaidWhite Cécile BrünnerWhite EnsignWhite Maman CochetWilliam IIIWilliam LobbZéphirine Drouhin
House of Representatives Gardens
Bowling Green Club House
At the commencement of the reconstruction project for the Old Parliament House Gardens, a number of roses of cultural and social significance were identified and removed for reuse in the completed gardens. The roses in this bed comprise a selection of these significant roses, conserved and transplanted in order to retain important elements of the heritage fabric of the gardens. Other heritage fabric, such as rose signs and the bowling green roller, are stored on site.
The Macarthur Rose Garden History
The Macarthur Rose Garden, planted in 1937, was the last rose garden to be constructed under the direction of Robert Broinowski (Secretary of the Joint House Department and Usher of the Black Rod).
Miss Rosa Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, great granddaughter of John and Elizabeth Macarthur, arranged to donate one hundred red 'Étoile de Hollande' roses to commemorate the major contribution by John Macarthur to the breeding of merino sheep at Parramatta (Elizabeth Farm) and Camden .
A formal grouping of trees in the Macarthur Rose Garden was undertaken in 1933, with pairs of four different species planted: Southern Nettle (Celtis australis), Desert Ash (Fraxinus oxycarpa), Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) and Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). The Silver Maples, all surviving today, were a gift from the Canadian Government to the people of Australia .
In 1938, fifty 'Shot Silk' roses were donated by Miss Macarthur-Onslow. These were planted in the Ladies Rose Garden, in recognition of Elizabeth Macarthur and her pivotal role in the growth of the Australian wool industry.
Roses and Design
The Macarthur Rose Garden exhibits the Tea, China and Noisette roses, first hybridised during the early nineteenth century – about the same time that John and Elizabeth Macarthur established their garden at Elizabeth Farm, Parramatta .
Tea roses are hybrids of the Chinese rose species R. gigantea and R. chinensis. They are called 'Tea' roses because the flower fragrance resembles that of green tea. Of all rose types, this one is considered to have the most exquisite form and colouration.
China roses, bred from R. chinensis, were introduced from China into the West between 1760 and 1790. As with the Tea roses, industrious French rose breeders of the time quickly began hybridising.
Noisette roses originated when John Champney, of Charleston , South Carolina , crossed a pink China rose with the Musk rose R. moschata. He obtained a large growing shrub with clusters of lightly fragrant pink flowers, 'Champney's Pink Cluster'. A French grower, Phillippe Noisette, planted its seeds and grew 'Blush Noisette' – released in 1814.
A mass planting of red 'Étoile de Hollande' roses (the roses originally donated by the Macarthur-Onslow family) has been reinstated at the centre of the Macarthur Rose Garden.
Roses in this Garden Macarthur Rose Garden: Aimée VibertAlister Stella GrayAnna OlivierArchiduc JosephBaronne Henriette de SnoyBon SilèneCatherine MermetCécile BrünnerChampneys' Pink ClusterClaire JacquierComtesse du CaylaDesprez à Fleur JaunesDevoniensisDevoniensis, ClimbingDr GrillDuchesse de BrabantÉtoile de HollandeFrancis DubreuilFreiherr von MarschallGénéral GalliéniGénéral SchablikineGloire de DijonGruss an AachenHermosaHomèreHugo RollerHume's Blush Tea-scented ChinaIrène WattsJean DucherLady HillingdonLady Hillingdon, ClimbingLady RobertsLamarqueLittle White PetLorraine Lee, ClimbingLouis XIVMaman CochetMaréchal NielMarie PaviéMarie van HoutteMme. Alfred CarrièreMme. CharlesMme. Grégoire StaechelinMme. LombardMrs. B.R. CantMrs. Dudley CrossMrs. Foley HobbsMrs. Herbert Stevens, ClimbingMutabilisNathalie NypelsNiphetosNoëlla NabonnandOld BlushPapa HémerayParks' Yellow Tea-scented ChinaPerle d'OrPhyllis BideR. viridifloraRêve d' OrRosette DelizySafranoSlater's Crimson ChinaSnowflakeSolfaterreSombreuilSouvenir de Mme Léonie ViennotSouvenir d'un AmiWhite Maman Cochet
The Ladies Rose Garden History
In 1933, Robert Broinowski (Secretary of the Joint House Department and Usher of the Black Rod) asked Dame Mary Hughes, Dame Enid Lyons and other wives of parliamentarians to support the Ladies Rose Garden. They agreed, and soon commenced gathering donations of one shilling and four pence per rose. Many women contributed roses for the Garden, in particular Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses, which were popular as cut flowers.
When Parliament was in session, thousands of roses and other flowers were cut from the parliamentary gardens and used in Parliament House for floral displays. Throughout the 1930s and after World War II, Members and Senators would also take boxes of flowers cut from the gardens back to their homes, once Parliament had adjourned.
Roses and Design
In the spirit of the 1930s plantings, the Ladies Rose Garden exhibits Hybrid Tea roses and their smaller cousins, the Floribundas.
The roses are arranged by colour in quadrants of white, yellow, red and pink shades. To provide a unifying effect, companion planting of perennial plants in blue shades has been placed amongst the roses.
Hybrid Tea roses emerged in the mid-nineteenth century as crosses between Tea roses, derived from early Chinese breeding, and Hybrid Perpetual roses, derived from the early cross-breeding of Portland, China, Bourbon and Gallica roses. Hybrid Tea roses have large flowers and, typically, pointed buds with large leaves and strong stems.
Originally called 'Poulsen Roses' after the breeder, Floribunda roses were derived by crossing Polyantha with Hybrid Tea roses in 1924. These roses are repeat blooming with flowers grouped in clusters, and they provide a mass of colour over a long season.
Today, the Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses are the most commonly grown roses.
Roses in this garden Ladies Rose Garden: Adélaide d' OrléansAlbéric BarbierAmber Queen ®Angel FaceApricot NectarAustralian Centenary of FederationBallerinaBella Rosa ®Bloomfield CourageBlossomtimeBlue Moon ®Blueberry Hill ™Bonica 82Brass Band ™Bridal Pink ™Buff BeautyBusy BeeCamp DavidCarefree Wonder ™Cathedral CityCatherine McAuleyChina DollChrysler ImperialCity of AdelaideClass ActCocktail ®Coral MeidilandCrépusculeDaily Mail RoseDame Elizabeth MurdochDeane RossDearestDevon ®Diamant ®Diamond JubileeDouble Delight™DuetEdelweissEnglish MissEscapade ®Europeana ®FabulousFragrant CloudFragrant PlumFred Hollow's VisionFrench LaceFriesiaFruitéGardener's PleasureGlamis CastleGold BunnyGold Medal ®Golden CelebrationGolden GirlsGolden TouchGolden Years ®Gruss an AachenHeideschneeHeidesommer ®Honey Bouquet ™Honor ™Hot ChocolateHoward FloreyIcebergIceberg, ClimbingIced GingerIt's a WinnerJardins de Bagatelle ®JoyfullnessJulia's Rose ®Julischka ®Just JoeyKardinal ™Karen BlixenKentucky DerbyKnock Out ™La Sévillana ®LamarqueLavender PinocchioLove Potion™Madam PresidentMagic Fire ®Magic SunsetMainaufeuerManou Meilland ®Many Happy ReturnsMargaret Merril ®Marie PaviéMarie-Louise MarjanMarlenaMartine GuillotMary MacKillopMatthias Meilland ®MawsonMemoire ®Mister Lincoln ®MoonspriteMother's LoveNana MouskouriNew DawnNew EraOklahomaOpheliaPapa Meilland ®Paradise ™Pascali ®PeacePenny LanePerfume PerfectionPillow Fight ™PincushionPink ParfaitPinkiePlayboy ®Princess of WalesPristine ®Queen Elizabeth ®Queen MotherRed CavalierRed CrossRed Meidiland.™Red PixieRed SimplicityRenaeRosario ®Rosenprofessor SieberRoyal BassinoRoyal HighnessSalvationSatchmo ®Scarlet Meidiland ™Scarlet Sunblaze ™Scentimental ™Sea Foam ®SeductionSeduction, ClimbingSexy Rexy ®Sheer BlissShot Silk, ClimbingSimplicity ™Simply MagicSir Donald BradmanSnowdonSombreuilSpirit of PeaceSt. Patrick ™StarstruckStrawberry CrushSummer EveningSunny RoseSussexSutter's GoldSwany ®Taboo ™Tequila SunriseThe Childrens RoseThe FairyTournament of RosesTradition 95 ®Twilight GlowTyphoonValerie SwaneVictoria GoldVictorianaWhite EnsignWhite Meidiland ™White Simplicity ®White SprayWinchester Cathedral
The Centenary of Women's Suffrage Commemorative Fountain is located at the Members' Gate of the House of Representatives Garden. The site is within a walkway that links Old Parliament House to Constitution Place .
The detailed design of the new fountain was developed by Cate Riley and Andrew Smith of the National Capital Authority in consultation with Senator Kay Patterson, Minister Assisting the Prime Minister on Women's Issues. It comprises a rectangular water feature approximately 7m long x 2.5m wide x 0.4m high. The floor and walls of the water feature are lined with tens of thousands of glass mosaic tiles individually placed by mosaic artist Mary Stuart.
Further visual interest is provided by 6 water jets both sides and a water weir on the eastern end of the fountain.
The border of the water feature records the passage of the Franchise Act (Cth) in 1902 and the commemoration of the 1903 election (in which women voted and stood for Parliament for the first time).
A timeline extends from the water feature within the pavement under a wisteria covered pergola towards Constitution Place . Along the timeline are recorded the milestones and significant achievements of women in Federal Parliament. The timeline is created using the same tiles as used in the fountain.
In November 2002, Mrs Tamie Fraser AO, patron of the Old Parliament House Gardens reconstruction project launched a campaign seeking public support through rose patronage. Around 2,400 people from around Australia became rose patrons, providing a contribution towards the reconstruction. In December 2014 the 10 year program came to an end.
The reconstructed Old Parliament House Gardens were opened to the public on 4 December 2004. The National Capital Authority (NCA) manages the Gardens on behalf of the Australian Government.
- Listing on the National Heritage List (provides detailed information)
- Minister for Territories's speaking notes at re-opening of the gardens
- National Capital Authority Website