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In India, Municipal Councils or Town Municipalities or Nagar Palika or Nagar Palika Parishad or Municipality is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more than. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Nagar Palikas were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Nagar Palikas were reclassified as Nagar Palikas even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992.
Three Tier Structure:
- Municipal Corporations
- Municipal Councils
- Nagar Panchayats
The members of the Nagar Palika are elected representatives for a term of five years. The town is divided into wards according to its population, and representatives are elected from each ward. The members elect a president among themselves to preside over and conduct meetings. A chief officer, along with officers like an engineer,(accountant & auditor) sanitary inspector, health officer and education officer who come from the state public service are appointed by the state government to control the administrative affairs of the Nagar Palika.
The Nagar Palika is responsible for
- Water supply
- Street lighting
- Fire brigade
- Market places
- Records of births and deaths
- Solid waste management
Sources of Income
Its sources of income are taxes on water, houses, markets, entertainment and vehicles paid by residents of the town and grants from the state government.
- Our Civic Life (Civics and Administration) Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune