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The '''Mul Mantar''' (Punjabi: ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ, Mūl Maṃtar, pronounced Mool Mantar) is the first composition in the Sikh holy text and Great Living Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib, written in Punjabi. It is a series of affirmations and is the basis of Sikh theology, as well as the fundamental prayer. The Mul Mantar is the first composition of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Mul Mantar and it occurs more than one hundred times throughout the text where it is placed at the beginning of the particular Shabad. Bhai Mani Singh explains that the reason for placing the Mul Mantar at the beginning of a Shabad is that a Gursikh (Guru's Sikh) should remember that everything else will eventually be annihilated and only the Satnam (All-pervading Supreme Reality) will remain. It can be considered as the moral or the sole truth of the universe. The Mul Mantar is the most widely known part of Sikh scripture but it has posed a challenge to translators.
The text of the Mul Mantar
- Gurmukhi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
- Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat(i)-nām(u) karatā purakh(u) nirabha'u niravair(u) akāl(a) mūrat(i) ajūnī saibhan gur(a) prasād(i).
- English: “Universal Oneness, The supreme Unchangeable Truth and that is the ik Onkar, The Creator of the Universe, Beyond Fear, Beyond Hatred, Beyond Death, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent, by the Guru's Grace”
* The small letters in parentheses are not etymologically part of the word but are included in the Guru Granth Sahib for liturgical recitation.
A Mantar or Mantra is "an empowering formula for repetition". The Mul Mantar is thus the root statement of Sikhism.
The Mul Mantar consists of nouns and adjectives but no verbs or pronouns. In addition, the nouns in the Mul Mantar do not have exact counterparts in European languages and the Gurmukhi script does not distinguish between upper and lower case letters. Thus, it poses a challenge to translators.
The first affirmation, for example, Ik Onkar has been rendered multiple ways. It has been translated as "'There is one god', as ‘One reality is’, and ‘This being is one’" and the varying capitalization of "God", "Reality", or "Being" affects the meaning in English.
A number of translations erroneously change the Mul Mantar from a list of qualities to a statement of facts and Possessive adjectives. For example, they may change Satnam from "truth by name" to "His name is truth", which adds a masculine quality to God which does not appear in the original Gurmukhi.
There are two schools of belief on where the Mul Mantar ends. Some believe that the Mul Mantar ends with "Gurprasad", as in "provided by the Guru's grace." After this is the name of the Bani "Jap", and the first line of the Jap Bani. Such groups claim this can be corroborated by the number of times that the mantar appears at the beginning of every Raag. Others point out that in Gurbani it is also written "ek ong kar sat gur prasad" and that this does not represent an even more abbreviated form of Mul Mantar. The other school of belief is that Mul Mantar does include "jap aad sach jugaad sach hai bhee sach nanak hosee bhee sach", and that the shorter version is recited as Mul Mantar only for brevity and convenience.
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- Singh, Bhai Mani (1712). Janam Sakhi. p. 11.
- Macauliffe, M.A (1909). The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus Sacred Writings and Authors. Low Price Publications. ISBN 81-7536-132-8.
- Shackle, C (1981). A Guru Nanak Glossary. School of Oriental and African Studies. ISBN 0-7286-0243-1.
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- Osho (1994). The True Name, Vol.1 : Discourses on Japji Sahib of Guru Nanak Dev. New Age International(P) Ltd. ISBN 81-224-0606-8.
- Dr Sahib Singh, D Lit (Jan 1972). Shiri Guru Granth Sahib Darpan. Raj Publishers (Regd), Adda Husharpur Jallundhar.
- English and Hindi translations
- Translation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib in >52 languages Machine translation of SGGS can be read from linked site by choosing appropriate language in transliterate and translation fields
- Ek Onkar - Shabad Gurbani