Motion picture content rating system

A motion picture content rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex, violence, substance abuse, profanity, impudence or other types of mature content. A particular issued rating can be called a certification, classification, certificate or rating. Ratings typically carry age recommendations in an advisory or restrictive capacity, and are often given in lieu of censorship. In some jurisdictions the legal obligation of administering the rating may be imposed on movie theaters.

In countries such as Australia and Singapore, an official government body decides on ratings; in other countries, such as the United States, it is done by industry committees with little if any official government status. In most countries, however, films that are considered morally offensive have been censored, restricted, or banned. Even if the film rating system has no legal consequences, and a film has not explicitly been restricted or banned, there are usually laws forbidding certain films, or forbidding minors to view them.

The influence of specific factors in deciding a rating varies from country to country. For example, in countries such as the U.S., films with strong sexual content are often restricted to older viewers, whereas in countries such as France and Germany, sexual content is viewed much more leniently. On the other hand, films with violent content are often subject in countries such as Germany and Finland to high ratings and even censorship, whereas countries such as Australia offer more lenient ratings to violent movies.

Other factors may or may not influence the classification process, such as being set within a non-fictional historical context, whether the film glorifies violence or drug use, whether said violence or drug use is carried out by the protagonist, with whom the viewer should empathize, or by the antagonist. In Germany, for example, films depicting explicit war violence in a real war context (such as the Second World War) are handled more leniently than films with purely fictional settings.

A film may be produced with a particular rating in mind. It may be re-edited if the desired rating is not obtained, especially to avoid a higher rating than intended. A film may also be re-edited to produce an alternate version for other countries.

Comparison table

A comparison of current film rating systems, showing age on the horizontal axis. Note however that the specific criteria used in assigning a classification can vary widely from one country to another. Thus a color code or age range cannot be directly compared from one country to another.


Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Other
Argentina ATP 13 16 18 N/A
Australia G MA15+ R18+ RC
PG M X18+ Exempt
Austria Unrestricted 6+ 8+ 10+ 12+ 14+ 16+ N/A
Belgium CAT.1 CAT.2 N/A
Brazil L 10 12 14 16 18 N/A
Bulgaria A C D X N/A
(outside Québec)
G 14A R E
PG 18A 18A Prohibited
(inside Québec) G G (Not suitable for young children) 13+ 16+ 18+ Exempt
18+ (Explicit sexuality) Refused classification
Chile TE TE+7 +14 +18 Educational
Excessive violence
China Suitable for all ages Banned
Colombia T 7 12 15 18 Prohibited
Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Other
Denmark A 7 F
11 11
15 15
Estonia PERE MS-6 MS-12 K-14 K-16 N/A
L K-12
Finland S 7 7 12 12 16 16 18 N/A
France U 12 16 18 Prohibited
Germany FSK 0 FSK 6 FSK 16 FSK 18 Educational
FSK 12 FSK 12 Unrated
Greece Unrestricted 13 17 18 N/A
Hong Kong I III Exempt
Hungary KN 6 12 16 18 N/A
Iceland AL 6 9 12 16 N/A
India U UA A S
Indonesia SU 13+ 17+ 21+ N/A
Ireland N/A G PG 12A 15A 16 18 N/A
12 15
Italy T VM14 VM18 N/A
Jamaica G PG-13 T-16 T-16 A-18 N/A
Japan G PG-12 R15+ R18+ N/A
Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Other
Kazakhstan К БА Б14 Е16 Е18 HA N/A
Latvia U 7+ 12+ 16+ 18+ N/A
Malaysia U P13 18 Banned
Maldives G 12+ 15+ 18+ PU
PG 18+R
Malta U PG 12A 15 18 Not fit for exhibition
Mexico AA N/A B B-15 C N/A
Netherlands AL 6 9 12 16 N/A
New Zealand G M R18 Exempt
PG R13 R15 R16 R
RP13 RP16 Objectionable
Nigeria G 12 15 18 RE
PG 12A
Norway A 6 12 12 18 Not approved
9 9 15 15
Philippines G R-13 R-16 R-18 X
Portugal A M/3 M/6 M/12 M/14 M/18 M/18 (P) N/A
M/3 M/6 M/12 M/14 M/16 M/18
Russia 0+ 6+ 12+ 16+ 18+ Refused classification
Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Other
Singapore G PG13 NC16 M18 R21 Exempt
South Africa A 13 16 18 XX
PG 7–9PG 7–9PG 10–12PG 10–12PG X18
South Korea ALL 12 15 R Restricted screening N/A
Spain APTA 7 12 16 18 N/A
Película X
Sweden Btl 7 Not Approved/15 N/A
11 11
Switzerland FSK 0 FSK 6 FSK 6 FSK 12 FSK 12 FSK 16 FSK 16 Unrated N/A
N/A FSK 18 FSK 18
Taiwan 0+ 6+ 6+ 18+ N/A
N/A 12+ 15+
Thailand P 13 15 18 20 Banned
Turkey Genel İzleyici Kitlesi (En:General Audience) 7+ 13+ 15+ 18+ Refused classification
7A 13A 15A Educational purposes
United Arab Emirates G PG13 PG15 18+ N/A
United Kingdom Uc U PG 12A 15 18 Rejected
12 R18 Exempt
United States G PG-13 R NC-17 Not rated
Vietnam G NC16 N/A
Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Other


Through its Advisory Commission of Cinematographic Exhibition (Comisión Asesora de Exhibición Cinematográfica) the National Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts (INCAA) issues ratings for films based on the following categories:[1]

Categories of the Argentinian classification system


The Classification Board and Classification Review Board are government-funded organizations which classify all films that are released for public exhibition.[2][3]

The Australian classifications

Films intended to inform, educate or instruct or concerned with sport, religion or music are exempt from classification provided they do not contain material that would result in an "M" rating or higher if submitted for classification.[4]


Motion pictures are rated by the Austrian Board of Media Classification (ABMC) for the Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture (Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur). The recommendations made by the ABMC are generally not legally binding and there are nine sets of state laws on the cinema sector with different age provisions.[5] The only exception is in the case of "16" rated films, since under Austrian law there is a legal age restriction on certain types of content i.e. discrimination, sexual abuse, glorification of violence etc.[6] In addition to the ABMC's age recommendations, in the state of Vienna children under the age of 6 are only permitted to attend public film performances if they are accompanied.[7]

The AMBC issues age recommendation from the following categories:


There are only two classifications for films publicly exhibited in Belgium issued by the Inter-Community Commission for Film Rating (Dutch: Intergemeenschapscommissie voor de Filmkeuring; French: Commission Intercomunautaire de Contrôle des Films). Films are prohibited to minors under the age of 16 unless passed by the commission. There is no mandatory rating system for video formats but 90 per cent of video distribution abides by the voluntary Belgium Video Federation. It is basically the same as the system for theatrical exhibition, but also provides a "12" rating.[8]


All films that are exhibited in public or released on a home video format in Brazil must be submitted for classification to the Department of Justice, Rating, Titles and Qualification (Departamento de Justiça, Classificação, Títulos e Qualificação, abbreviated Dejus), which is run by the Brazilian Ministry of Justice (Ministério da Justiça).[9][10] Anyone below the film's minimum age can watch it if accompanied by the parent or guardian who is at least 18 years old, except for those rated "Not recommended for ages under 18", which, by law, are strictly prohibited from viewing by people under 18.[11][12] Unlike many countries, the Dejus doesn't have any legal right to ban, demand cuts or refuse to rate any movie.[13]

The Dejus uses the following system:

Film classification symbols used in Brazil.

There are also operational descriptions of attenuating and aggravating elements that can interfere on the final rating.


The Bulgarian film rating system is defined in the Film Industry Act of 2003 and administered by the National Film Rating Committee.[14][15]

In the case of C rated films children under 12 shall not be admitted except when accompanied by an adult. Exhibitions of X films are permitted on the condition that the venue is licensed for exhibiting X rated films only. The act also prohibits the renting and selling of D and X rated media to people below the ages of 16 and 18, respectively.


Film ratings in Canada are a provincial responsibility, and each province has its own legislation, rules and regulations regarding rating, exhibition and admission. Ratings are required for theatrical exhibition, but not all provinces require classification for home video.[16] In the past there was a wide range of rating categories and practices in the various provinces; however, the seven rating systems—with the exception of Quebec—now all use categories and logos derived from the Canadian Home Video Rating System (CHVRS).[17]

Classifications used outside Québec

Canadian rating labels used outside Québec.

The categories are mostly identical to the CHVRS with a few minor variations. In the provinces that require classification of video formats, supply of 14A and 18A films is restricted to customers above those ages.[18] In the case of theater exhibition, children are admitted to 14A and 18A films in the Manitoba and Maritime provinces if accompanied by an adult, although admittance is restricted to children over the age of 14 in the case of 18A films.[19][20] Likewise, British Columbia,[21] Saskatchewan (administered by the British Columbia Film Classification Office),[17] Alberta and Ontario also admit children to 14A and 18A films if accompanied, but do not impose an age restriction on 18A films.[22][23] The Maritimes and British Columbia (along with Saskatchewan) also provide an "A" classification for adult content.[20][21] Some provinces, such as Nova Scotia, reserve the right to prohibit films altogether.[20]

In general, the categories are:[18]

Classifications used in Québec

For more details on this topic, see Régie du cinéma (Quebec).
The rating labels used by Régie du cinéma.

In Quebec, the Régie du cinéma rates all films and videos. The Régie is a governmental agency overseen by the Quebec Ministry of Culture and Communications;[25] its purview devolves from the Cinema Act (chapter C-18.1).[26] In some cases the Régie du cinéma may refuse to provide a classification, effectively banning the film. Educational and sports films are exempt from classification.[27]


Films are classified by the Council of Cinematographic Classification (Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica) which is a central agency under the Ministry of Education.[28] In 2002 legislation was enacted which reversed the ban on all 1,090 films that had previously been banned in Chile.[29]

The age ratings are:[28]

The age ratings may also be supplemented by the following content categories:

Pornographic films may only be exhibited at venues licensed for that purpose. Minors are not admitted to films with pornographic or excessively violent content.[28]


China does not have a rating system. Only films that are passed as "suitable for all ages" are released although some exhibitors have introduced informal ratings.[30][31]


As of June 22, 2005, the Ministry of Culture issued its new rating system.[32][33][34] The classifications are:


In Denmark, the Media Council for Children and Young People currently rates films. Films do not have to be submitted for a rating and in such instances must be labelled a "15" (restricted to people aged 15 and above). Children aged 7 and above may attend any performance—including those restricted to older audiences—if they are accompanied by an adult.[35]

The Danish ratings administered by the Media Council for Children and Young People


Film classification in Estonia is regulated by the Child Welfare Act.[36]


Films in Finland are classified by the National Audiovisual Institute. A minor up to 3 years younger than the age limit is permitted to see a film in a cinema when accompanied by an adult, except for 18-rated films.[37]

Films with an age rating may contain descriptors for violence, sex, fear, or substance abuse.


Further information: Censorship in France § Cinema

Prior to showing in theaters, a distribution certificate must be obtained from the Ministry of Culture. The Minister will decide which certificate to issue based on a recommendation by the National Center of Cinematography and the moving image (CNC) classification. In some cases films may be classified as "pornographic films or those containing an incitement to violence" or completely prohibited from screening.[38] A certificate will be granted from the following:


The Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (Voluntary Self-Regulation of the Film Industry, FSK) has a film ratings system under which films are classified. All the ratings contain the phrase "gemäß §14 JuSchG" (in accordance with §14 of the Youth Protection Law), signifying that they are legally binding for minors. Cinemas may legally exhibit films without a classification but minors are prohibited from such screenings.[39]

The Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (FSK) ratings.

The FSK rating also limits the time of the day in which the movie may be aired on free-to-air TV stations to a time frame between 22:00 (FSK 16) or 23:00 (FSK 18) and 6:00. Stations are permitted to broadcast films not approved for audiences under 12 at their own discretion.[41]


All publicly released films must be submitted to the Youth Committee for classification.[8] There are four categories:

Hong Kong

Films intended for public exhibition have to be submitted to the Director of Film, Newspaper and Article Administration, who is the Film Censorship Authority (FCA) under the Ordinance, for approval. Films approved for public exhibition are then either classified or exempted from classification.[42][43]

Hong Kong ratings administered by the Film Censorship Authority

Of the four levels, Levels I, IIA, and IIB are unrestricted. Only Level III is a restricted category and regulated by the Government.


Hungarian ratings are decided by the National Media and Infocommunications Authority (NMHH):[44]

The Hungarian ratings administered by the National Media and Infocommunications Authority


Further information: § Netherlands

Since July 1, 2006, Smáís has replaced the Kvikmyndaskoðun system in Iceland. In October 2013, SMAIS announced that it was adopting the Netherlands' Kijkwijzer at least through 2016.[45]


In India, Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is responsible for certifying films meant for public exhibition.[46]


Motion pictures shown in Indonesia must undergo reviewing by the Indonesian Film Censorship Board. Other than issuing certificates, the LSF/IFCB also reviews and issues permits for film-related advertising, such as movie trailers and posters. LSF has the authority to cut scenes from films. Films passed for exhibition are awarded one of the following classifications:[47]


All films that are exhibited in public or released on a home video format must be submitted for classification to the Irish Film Classification Office (IFCO).[48][49]

Cinema ratings
Video ratings


All films aimed to be shown in Italy are classified by the Committee for the Theatrical Review of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities into one of the following categories:[50]


Film classification in Jamaica is a requirement of the Cinematograph Act of 1913, which also established the Cinematograph Authority.[51]


Eirin ratings

A Japanese film rating regulator known as Eirin (映倫) [full-name: Eiga Rinri Kanri Iinkai (映画倫理管理委員会)] has a film classification system under which films are classified into one of four categories. The categories have been in use since 1 May 1998.[52][53]


In Kazakhstan, films are rated by the Committee for Culture of the Ministry for Culture and Information.[54]


In Latvia it is the duty of the producer of a film or distributor to assign a rating according to a pre-determined set of criteria. All publicly exhibited films, visual recordings and films broadcast over television and electronic networks must be classified.[55]


Historically, film censorship in Malaysia was carried out by police under the Theatre Ordinance 1908. In 1954 the Film Censorship Board (LPF) was created to censor films distributed across Malaysia in accordance with the Cinematograph Films Act 1952, and later the Film Censorship Act 2002.[56] Malaysia's motion picture rating system was introduced in 1953, initially classifying films either for General Audiences (Tontonan Umum) or For Adults Only (Untuk Orang Dewasa Sahaja), and in 1996 these classifications were changed to U and 18. In 2010 the PG13 classification was introduced, which was changed to P13 in 2012.[57]

Malaysian film classification logos used since January 2012

Upon viewing the board will assign one of three categories to the film:[58]

Should a film be approved, the Board then assigns the film a classification. As of 2012 the ratings are:[57]


Film in the Maldives are classified by the National Bureau of Classification. Certificates issued are based on the following categories:[59]

Maldive film classifications


As of 2012, films in Malta are classified by the Film Board in accordance with the Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act.[60] As part of an overhaul in 2013 the "14" and "16" age classifications were replaced by "12A" and "15"; the "PG" rating was redefined while "U", "12" and "18" were retained in their existing form.[61]

If the film is deemed "fit for exhibition" it will be awarded one of the following classifications:


The General Directorate of Radio, Television and Cinematography (in Spanish, Dirección General de Radio, Televisión y Cinematografía) is the issuer of ratings for motion pictures. The RTC is an agency of the Department of State (Secretaría de Gobernación). It has its own classification system, as follows:[62][63]


In the Netherlands, the Kijkwijzer system is used, which is executed by the Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media (NICAM). Under Dutch law children are admitted to films carrying an age rating if accompanied by an adult except in the case of "16" rated films.[64][65]

The Kijkwijzer ratings used in the Netherlands

Mostly, these icons are used along with other symbols, displaying if a movie contains violence, sexual content, frightening scenes, drug or alcohol abuse, discrimination, or coarse language. These symbols are also used for TV-programs in the Netherlands.

New Zealand

New Zealand Ratings

The Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993 gives the Office of Film and Literature Classification the power to classify publications into three categories: unrestricted, restricted, or "objectionable" (banned).[66] With a few exceptions, films, videos, DVDs and restricted computer games must carry a label before being offered for supply or exhibited to the public.[67]

The current ratings are:[68]


The National Film and Video Censors Board classifies films, videos, DVDs, and VCDs. Classifications carrying an age rating are legally restricted, although the "15" and "18" classifications do not apply to people below 2 years of age.[70] The categories are:


The Norwegian Media Authority (Medietilsynet) sets the age limits on films to be exhibited in Norway. Films not submitted to the Media Authority for classification carry a mandatory age rating of "18".[71]

The following age limits apply to films to be shown in cinemas:[71]

The Media Authority has no power to ban films but must not classify films which they consider contravene Norwegian criminal law.[72]


In the Philippines, motion pictures, along with television programs, are rated by the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board, a special agency of the Office of the President. As of 2012, the Board uses six classification ratings.[73]


Ratings in Poland are not set by any board or advisory body. Prior to 1989 the applicable age ratings were "no age limit", "over 7", "over 12", "over 15" and "over 18" and were set by The General Committee of Cinematography. Since 1989 there is no official classification system, with age ratings being self-prescriptive and set by the distributors. In case of television, the supervisory body – Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji (KRRiT, The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television) can impose fines upon those responsible for improper rating of a broadcast, or lack of it.[74]


Movies are rated in Portugal by the Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos of the Ministry of Culture. In cinemas the ratings are mandatory (subject to parental guidance) whereas for video releases they are merely advisory, except in the case of pornographic content.[75] Children under the age of 3 were previously prohibited from public film performances, but a special category was introduced for this age group when the classification system was overhauled in 2014. A category for 14-year-olds was also introduced, and the lowest age rating was dropped from 4 years of age to 3.[76][77] The categories are the following:


Russian rating system

Since 2012 the rating appears inside circles, which indicate age restrictions followed by a plus(+), and appears in most shows, including TV and Internet shows in Russian.[78][79] The indication shown:


Further information: Media Development Authority

Film classification in Singapore was introduced in 1991 and comes under the jurisdiction of the Board of Film Censors (BFC). There were three ratings originally: G (General), PG (Parental Guidance) and R18 (Restricted to 18 years and above). Prior to then films were either approved or effectively banned. Since then, there have been several alterations to the ratings over the years. The R18 rating has been dropped, and has been replaced by NC16 (No Children under 16), M18 (Mature 18) and R21 (Restricted 21). A PG13 (Parental Guidance 13) rating, introduced in 2011, is the latest rating to be introduced. The G, PG and PG13 ratings are advisory while NC16, M18 and R21 carry age restrictions. Video ratings are mostly the same as the cinema ratings, except only go up to M18. Some titles, such as documentaries, children's programmes and sports programmes may be exempt from classification on video, but all titles must be classified for public theatrical exhibition.[80][81]

The revised Singapore film rating system which took effect 15 July 2011

The categories are:

South Africa

In South Africa film are classified by the Film and Publication Board.[82] Distributors and exhibitors are legally compelled to comply with the age ratings.[83] All broadcasters, cinemas and distributors of DVD/video and computer games must comply with the following:

There are also sub-descriptors used with some of the ratings:

South Korea

The Korea Media Rating Board (영상물등급위원회) in Seoul divides licensed films into the following categories:[84][85]


All films to be commercially released in Spain in any medium must be submitted to the ICAA (Instituto de Cinematografía y Artes Audiovisuales - Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts Institute). Classifications are advisory except for X-rated films, which are restricted to specially licensed venues. A supplementary classification, "Especialmente Recomendada para la Infancia" (Especially recommended for children), is sometimes appended to the lowest two classifications.[86] Another supplementary classification, "Especialmente recomendada para el fomento de la igualdad de género" (Especially recommended for the promotion of gender equality), is sometimes appended to any of the classifications except the last one.[87]

APTA for children
7 for children
Película X
Spanish classifications


Statens medieråd (the Swedish Media Council) is a government agency with the aims to reduce the risk of harmful media influences among minors and to empower minors as conscious media users.[88] The classification bestowed on a film should not be viewed as recommendations on the suitability for children, as the law the council operates under (SFS 2010:1882) only mandates them to assess the relative risk to children's well-being. It is not a legal requirement to submit a film to the Media Council, but children under the age of 15 are not admitted in such instances.[89][90][91] The councils classification only applies to public exhibition, and the law does not require classification of home media.[92]

The following categories are used:[90][91]


Further information: § Germany

Switzerland has adopted Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (FSK), Germany's classification body. Under Swiss law, however, children up to two years younger than the age recommendations will be admitted if accompanied by a person invested with parental authority.[93]


Taiwan/Republic of China did not have a motion picture rating system until April 1994. The Government Information Office (GIO) classified films into four categories (General Audience/Protected/Parental Guidance/Restricted) pursuant to its issued Regulations Governing the Classification of Motion Pictures of the Republic of China (電影片分級處理辦法 in traditional Chinese):[94] The "Parental Guidance" rating previously prohibited viewing by children under the age of 12 and required adolescents aged 12–17 to be accompanied by an adult. In 2015, the "Parental Guidance" rating was divided into two categories: one that prohibits children under the age of 12 and one that prohibits adolescents under the age of 15.[95][96][97]

The revised Taiwan motion picture rating system which took effect from 16 Oct 2015.


A motion picture rating system was proposed in the Film and Video Act of 2007, and was passed on December 20, 2007 by the Thai military-appointed National Legislative Assembly, replacing laws which had been in place since 1930. The draft law was met with resistance from the film industry and independent filmmakers. Activists had hoped for a less-restrictive approach; however, films are still subject to censorship, or can be banned from release altogether if the film is deemed to "undermine or disrupt social order and moral decency, or might impact national security or the pride of the nation".[98]

The ratings were put into effect in August 2009.[99] They are as follows:


In Turkey, movies to be shown in cinemas are rated by the Evaluation and Classification Board of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. All films to be made commercially available must be classified, except in the case of educational films which are labeled as "for educational purposes" instead. The board also has the power to refuse classification in extreme cases (producers and distributors can submit an edited version of a movie to the board but edited versions may also be rejected if still deemed inappropriate); in this case, the movie will be banned with the exception of special artistic activities like fairs, festivals, feasts and carnivals.[100][101]

United Arab Emirates

The Ministry of Information of the United Arab Emirates classifies all films, which cinemas must abide by.[102]

United Kingdom

The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) classifies films to be publicly exhibited in the United Kingdom, although statutory powers remain with local councils which can overrule any of the BBFC's decisions. Since 1984, the BBFC also classifies films made commercially available though a home video format. If the BBFC refuses a classification this effectively amounts to a ban (although local councils retain the legal right to overturn it in the case of cinema exhibition). The BBFC's regulatory powers do not extend to the internet, so a film they have banned on physical media can still be made available via streaming media/video on demand. Videos designed to inform, educate or instruct or concerned with sport, religion or music are exempt from classification; exempt films may be marked as "E", but this is not an official label.[103][104]

UK film classification certificates. Uc is deprecated.

The current BBFC system is:[105]

United States

In the United States of America, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), through the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA), issues ratings for movies. The system was established in 1968 and is voluntary; an unrated film is often informally denoted by "NR" in newspapers and so forth.[107][108][109]


All theatrical releases are screened by the Cinema Department of the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Travel of Vietnam to ensure suitability for public viewing. Regardless of the rating, some scenes may be altered or removed to comply with regulations.[110]

See also


  1. "Cinematographia – Decreto Nº 3.899" [Decree No. 3,899]. InfoLEG (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Minister of Economy of Argentina. 14 December 1984. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  2. "Information for Parents: Classification categories explained". Australian Classification Board. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  3. Clare, Jason (Minister for Justice) (10 December 2012). "Guidelines for the Classification of Films 2012". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  4. "Is it exempt?". Australian Classification Board. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  5. "Austrian Board of Media Classification" (PDF). Vienna: Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2014.
  6. "Age Rating of Movies and Similar Image Carriers by the Austrian Youth Media Commission" (PDF). Jugend Medien Kommission. Vienna: Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2014.
  7. University of Oxford PCMLP (1997). "Annex 2: Comparative Analysis of Rating System – Cinema Rating Systems". Study on Parental Control of Television Broadcasting (PDF). European Commission. p. 113. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  8. 1 2 Olsberg SPI; KEA European Affairs; KPMG (May 2003). "Appendix 1 Country Profiles". Empirical Study on the Practice of the Rating of Films Distributed in Cinemas Television DVD and Videocassettes in the EU and EEA Member States (PDF). European Commission. p. 125. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  9. National Secretariat of Justice. "Portal Online Classificação Indicativa" [Portal Online Rating System] (in Portuguese). Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  10. Brazilian National Secretariat of Justice (2012). "Content Rating Practical Guide" (2 ed.). Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  11. Portaria Nº 1.100, de 14 de JULHO de 2006 – Art.19 [Ordinance Number 1.100, of July 14, 2006 – Article 19] (in Portuguese), Brazil: Ministry of Justice, 14 July 2006.
  12. "Classificação Indicativa" [Rating System] (in Portuguese). Brazil: Centerplex Cinemas. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  13. "Ministério da Justiça classifica "A Serbian Film"" [Ministry of Justice classifies "A Serbian Film"] (in Portuguese). Brazil: Ministry of Justice. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014.
  14. "Film Industry Act" (DOC). Bulgarian National Film Center. 2 December 2003. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  15. "Film Industry Act". Union of Bulgarian Film Makers. 2004. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  16. "Film Ratings – Theatrical Classification". Motion Picture Association – Canada. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  17. 1 2 "Film Classification Boards". Motion Picture Association – Canada. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014.
  18. 1 2 "Film Ratings – Home Entertainment". Motion Picture Association – Canada. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  19. "Film and Video Ratings". Manitoba Film Classification Board. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 "Theatres and Amusements Regulations". Theatres and Amusements Act. Nova Scotia: Department of Justice. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  21. 1 2 "Categories and Advisories". Consumer Protection BC. British Columbia Film Classification Office. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  22. "Ratings Explained". Alberta Film Ratings. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  23. "Classification Categories". Ontario Film Review Board. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  24. 1 2 "Theatre & Amusements – History". Nova Scotia: Maritime Film Classification Board. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  25. "Home – Who Are We?". Régie du cinéma. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  26. "Chapter C-18.1 – Cinema Act". Quebec: Ministry of Culture and Communications. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  27. "Film Classification in Québec". Régie du cinéma. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  28. 1 2 3 "Constitución del Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica – El Sistema de Calificación Cinematográfica" [Constitution of the Board of Film Classification – Film Rating System] (in Spanish). Chile: Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  29. "Gobierno promulga ley que pone fin a la censura previa cinematográfica" [Government enacts law that ends the film censorship]. El Mercurio (in Spanish). 9 December 2002.
  30. Coonan, Clifford (26 August 2013). "Chinese Cinemagoers Keen on Film Ratings System". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  31. Child, Ben (12 August 2014). "Chinese cinema manager invents his own ratings system". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  32. "Comité de Clasificación de Películas" [Committee of Film Classification] (in Spanish). Bogotá: Ministry of Culture. 4 April 2006.
  33. "Las películas en Colombia tienen dos nuevas clasificaciones" [Movies in Colombia have two new classifications]. Caracol Radio. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2005.
  34. David Melo Torres, Director de Cinematografía (2005). "Por la cual se adopta el Sistema de Clasificación de Películas" [Whereby the Movie Rating System is adopted] (Press release) (in Spanish). Bogotá: Ministry of Culture. Archived from the original (DOC) on 5 October 2007.
  35. "The Film Classification system". Denmark: Media Council for Children and Young People. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  36. "Vanusepiirangud" [Age Restrictions] (in Estonian). Forum Cinemas AS. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  37. "Ikärajat elokuvissa ja televisiossa" [Age limits in the movies and on TV] (in Finnish). Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  38. "Regulatory function : film classification". France: National Center of Cinematography and the moving image. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
  39. "Alterseinstufungen und FSK-Kennzeichen" [Age ratings and FSK mark] (in German). Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  40. "Informationsblatt zum neuen Jugendschutzgesetz ab 01.04.2003" [Information sheet about the new Youth Protection Act from 01.04.2003] (PDF) (in German). Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. 1 April 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  41. "Gültigkeit der FSK-Kennzeichen für das Fernsehen – Sendezeitschienen" [Validity of the G-mark for television – Airtime rails] (in German). Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  42. "Film Classification and Control of Obscene Articles: Topical Information – Policy on Film Censorship". Hong Kong: Commerce and Economic Development Bureau. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  43. "Film Classification in Hong Kong" (PDF). Hong Kong: Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  44. "English-language Cinema in Budapest – Film Ratings". Angloinfo. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  45. "Iceland Adopts Kijkwijzer!". Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  46. "About CBFC". India: Central Board of Film Certification. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  47. "Lulus Sensor" (in Indonesian). Lembaga Sensor Film. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  48. "Guidelines: Film and DVD/Video Classification". Irish Film Classification Office. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  49. "Legislation". Irish Film Classification Office. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  50. Eggleton, Pat (11 February 2010). "Paranormal activity causes panic in Italy". Italy Magazine. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  51. Jackson, Colleen Brown (19 May 2014). "Facts on the ratings of films". Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  52. "Eirin Film Classification". Eirin. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  53. "FAQ – Le Cinéma: What is the meaning of G, PG12, R15+, and R18+?". Bunkamura. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  54. "Инструкции по проведению внешней оценки учебных достижений" (PDF). Kazakhstan: Ministry of Education and Science. 6 April 2012.
  55. "Cabinet Regulation No.587: Regulations Regarding the Classification of Films". National Film Center of Latvia. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  56. "Film Censorship Board – Introduction". Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  57. 1 2 "Film Censorship Board – Film Classification". Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  58. "Film Censorship Board – F.A.Q.". Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  59. "Classification Ratings". Maldives: National Bureau of Classification. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  60. "Cinema and Stage Age-Classification Regulations, 2012". Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act (Cap. 444). Legal Notice 416/2012. Malta: Ministry for Justice, Culture and Local Government. 2012. pp. B 4274–4284. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  61. "New film classifications issued". The Malta Independent. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  62. "Cinematografía: Criterios de Clasificación" [Cinematography: Classification Criteria] (in Spanish). Dirección General de Radio, Televisión y Cinematografía. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  63. "Poder Ejectuivo: Secretaria de Gobernacio – Acuerdo mediante el cual se expiden los criterios para la clasificación de películas cinematográficas" [Power Exceutive: Secretary of Government – by which the criteria for classifying films are issued] (PDF) (in Spanish). Dirección General de Radio, Televisión y Cinematografía. 4 April 2002. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  64. "Kijkwijzer" (in Dutch). Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  65. "Kijkwijzer en wetsartikel 240a" [Myspace and article of law 240a] (in Dutch). Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  66. "Classification in NZ: The classification criteria". New Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  67. "Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993" (PDF). New Zealand: Parliamentary Council Office. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  68. "New Zealand's classification labels". New Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  69. "The meaning of the M label". New Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  70. "Classifications: Classification Symbols". Nigeria: National Film and Video Censors Board. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  71. 1 2 "Aldersgrenser" [Age limits] (in Norwegian). Norwegian Media Authority. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  72. "Kapittel 2. Aldersgrenser: § 5.Fastsettelse av aldersgrenser på kinofilm". Lov om beskyttelse av mindreårige mot skadelige bildeprogram mv. [Law on protection of minors from harmful photo application etc.] (in Norwegian). Norway: Ministry of Culture. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  73. "Chapter IV – Movie, Television and Trailer Classification". 2004 Implementing Rules and Regulations. Philippines: Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  74. Kirwil, Lucyna (3–5 September 2003). Age or Content Based Film Ratings: A Solution Discussed in Poland (PDF). European Conference of Film Classification. Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle Fernsehen. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  75. "English Version: Classification in Portugal". Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  76. "Decreto-Lei n.º 396/82, de 21 de Setembro" [Decree-Law n. 396/82, 21 September] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Portugal: Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  77. Presidency of the Council of Ministers (14 February 2014). "Decreto-Lei n.º 23/2014" (PDF). Diário da República (in Portuguese). p. 1385. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  78. ФЕДЕРАЛЬНАЯ СЛУЖБА ПО НАДЗОРУ В СФЕРЕ СВЯЗИ, ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И МАССОВЫХ КОММУНИКАЦИЙ (РОСКОМНАДЗОР) [Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Communications (Roskomnadzora)] (in Russian). Russia: Ministry of Communications and Mass Media. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  79. "Федеральный закон от 29.12.2010 № 436-ФЗ" [Federal Law of 29.12.2010 № 436-FZ]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  80. "Regulations & Licensing: Content Standards & Classification – Film & Videos". Singapore: Media Development Authority. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  81. Board of Film Censors. "Classification Guidelines" (PDF). Singapore: Media Development Authority. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  82. "Ratings". South Africa: Film and Publication Board. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  83. "Classification Guidelines". South Africa: Film and Publication Board. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  84. "Classification: Categories". Seoul: Korea Media Rating Board. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  85. Lee, Claire (7 August 2013). "Media Rating Board OKs Screening of Kim Ki-duk's Controversial 'Moebius'". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  86. "Cinema and Audio-Visual Concepts: Film Rating". Spain: Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  87. "Trámite para la Calificación". Spain: Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  88. "About the Swedish Media Council". Swedish Media Council. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  89. "Lag (2010:1882) om åldersgränser för film som ska visas offentligt" [Law (2010: 1882) for the age limit for the movie to be shown in public] (in Swedish). Notisum. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  90. 1 2 "Film Classification". Swedish Media Council. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  91. 1 2 "Åldersgränserna" [The age limits] (in Swedish). Swedish Media Council. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  92. "Frågor och svar om åldersgränser" [Questions and answers about age limits] (in Swedish). Swedish Media Council. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  93. Aubrey, Patrice (2012). "Switzerland: Harmonisation of Minimum Age for Cinema Attendance". IRIS Merlin. European Audiovisual Observatory. p. 16. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  94. "Movie law" (in Chinese). Taiwan: Government Information Office. April 1994. Archived from the original on 2 July 2001.
  95. Christie Chen (20 October 2015). "Change to film rating system to benefit teenagers: official". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  96. "Film rating system change to benefit teenagers: gov't". The China Post. 21 October 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  97. "MovieRating". Bureau of Audiovisual and Music Industry Development. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  98. Rithdee, Kong (20 December 2007). "Thailand passes controversial film act". Variety. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  99. Jaichalard, Pakamard (18 August 2009). "Film ratings launched". The Nation. Thailand. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  100. "Sinema Filmlerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Sınıflandırılmasına İlişkin Usul ve Esaslar Hakkında Yönetmelik" [Evaluation and Classification of Movies Regulation on the Procedures and Principles]. Official Gazette (in Turkish). Turkey: Ministry of Culture and Tourism. 18 February 2005. p. 6. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  101. "Sinema Filmlerini Değerlendirme Ve Sınıflandırma İşaretlerimizi Tanıyalım" [Meet the assessment and classification Sign Cinema Films]. Turkey: Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on 9 January 2012.
  102. "FAQs: Movie ratings – how do these work?". Cinemacity. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  103. "About the BBFC". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  104. "FAQs". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  105. "Guidelines". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  106. "FAQs: What are the differences between the 'U' and 'Uc' categories?". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  107. "Film Ratings". Motion Picture Association of America. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  108. "What: Guide to Ratings". Classification and Ratings Administration. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  109. Franklin, Daniel P. (2006). Politics and Film: The Political Culture of Film in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9781461641018.
  110. "FAQ: Movie Formats – Movie Classification". Platinum Cineplex. Ha Noi: M.V.P Platinum Media Company. Retrieved 12 August 2016.

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/30/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.