|Godzilla film series character|
|First appearance||Mothra (1961)|
|Last appearance||Godzilla: Final Wars (2004)|
Mothra (モスラ Mosura) is a Kaijū monster that first appeared in Toho's 1961 film Mothra. Mothra has appeared in several Toho tokusatsu films, most often as a recurring character in the Godzilla franchise. She is typically portrayed as a colossal sentient caterpillar or moth, accompanied by two miniature humanoids speaking on her behalf. Unlike other Toho monsters, Mothra is a largely heroic character, having been variously portrayed as a protector of her own island culture, the earth, and Japan. Though identified as a kind of moth, the character's design is more evocative of a peacock butterfly, and has caddisfly-like mandibles rather than a proboscis. The character is often depicted hatching offspring (in some cases, twins) when approaching death, a nod to the Saṃsāra doctrine of numerous Indian religions.
Mothra is one of Toho’s most popular monsters, and second only to Godzilla in its total number of film appearances. Polls taken during the early 1990s indicated that Mothra was particularly popular among women, who were at the time the largest demographic among Japan's movie-going audience, a fact that prompted the filming of 1992's Godzilla vs. Mothra, which was the best-attended Toho film since King Kong vs. Godzilla. IGN listed Mothra as #3 on their "Top 10 Japanese Movie Monsters" list, while Complex listed the character as #7 on its "The 15 Most Badass Kaiju Monsters of All Time" list.
The name "Mothra" is the suffixation of "-ra" to the English word "moth"; since the Japanese language does not have dental fricatives, it is approximated "Mosura" in Japanese. The “ra” suffix follows the precedent set by “Gojira”, which in turn is derived from kujira (鯨（クジラ), the Japanese word for “whale,” to indicate the character’s enormous size.
During its promotion of Mothra vs. Godzilla for the American market, American International Pictures entitled the movie Godzilla vs. the Thing, probably to avoid legal action from Colombia Pictures, which had released the original Mothra.
Mothra was first conceived in the January 1961 serial The Luminous Fairies and Mothra by authors Shinichiro Nakamura, Takehiko Fukunaga and Yoshie Hotta, who had been commissioned by Toho to write the outline of a future film. The character was further developed by Shinichi Sekizawa, whose experiences of starving in the South Pacific islands during World War II prompted him to envision a movie featuring an island where mysterious events occurred.
In her 1961 debut, Mothra's adult form consisted of a wire-operated mechanical puppet, while the larva was a suitmation puppet operated by six stuntmen crawling in single file. In Mothra vs. Godzilla three years later, the adult Mothra puppet was modified with radio-controlled legs, while the larvae were portrayed via a combination of motor-driven props and hand puppets. The larval Mothra featured in Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster remained largely unchanged from its previous appearance, though the color of its eyes was changed from blue to red. The adult Mothra prop featured in Mothra vs. Godzilla was reused in Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster, though previous heavy use had dulled its colors, frayed the fur on the head, and damaged the wings.
During the early Heisei era of Godzilla films, which ignored the continuity established in pre-1984 movies, several attempts were made to develop a Mothra standalone feature. Akira Murao wrote a screenplay in 1980 entitled Mothra vs. Bagan, which revolved around a shape-shifting dragon called Bagan who sought to destroy humanity for its abuse of the Earth's resources, only to be defeated by Mothra, the god of peace. The screenplay was revised by Kazuki Ōmori after the release of Godzilla vs. Biollante, though the project was ultimately scrapped by Toho, under the assumption that Mothra was a character born purely out of Japanese culture, and thus would have been difficult to market overseas unlike the more internationally recognized Godzilla. With the success of Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah, Toho sought to continue the series' newfound profitability by reintroducing familiar monsters rather than inventing new ones. Mothra was chosen as Godzilla's next antagonist on account of the character's popularity with women, who constituted the majority of cinema-goers at the time. Special effects head Koichi Kawakita co-wrote a screenplay entitled Godzilla vs. Gigamoth in 1991, which would have pitted Mothra against Godzilla and an irradiated Mothra doppelganger called Gigamoth, though this was rejected early on, and replaced with the final plotline seen in the film Godzilla vs. Mothra. Kawakita's depiction of Mothra's adult form was given the ability to fire energy beams, which were rendered via optical effects, and the pollen dust emitted from its wings were given a sparkling effect not seen in prior movies. During the character's transformation from larva to adult, it was initially planned to have Mothra's unfolding wings rendered through CGI, though this was scrapped on account of it not looking "sensitive" enough. Although the movie was a financial success, the Mothra props were criticized by several authors, who noted that the adult Mothra's brighter colors made it look like a "plush toy", and that its wings flapped less gracefully than in previous incarnations, as they were made of heavy cloth. The Mothra puppet's immobile, chicken-like feet, and the lack of undulation in the larva prop's movements were also commented on as being inferior to the effects seen in 1960s Mothra movies. Criticism was also leveled at Mothra's altered origin story, which portrayed her as an extraterrestrial, thus dampening the character's motivation for protecting Earth. The character's newfound popularity nevertheless prompted Toho to produce Rebirth of Mothra in 1996.
For Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack, director Shūsuke Kaneko had originally planned on using Anguirus as one of Godzilla's antagonists, but was pressured by Toho chairman Isao Matsuoka to use the more recognizable and profitable Mothra, as the previous film in the franchise, Godzilla x Megaguirus, which featured an original and unfamiliar antagonist, was a box office and critical failure.
For 2003's Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S., special effects director Eiichi Asada sought to model Mothra directly on her appearance the original 1961 film, and to keep optical effects to a minimum. As with Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah, the adult Mothra was given mobile legs, though they were made to constantly move, as it was felt that the prop stopped looking realistic once they became immobile. Creature designer Shinichi Wakasa had initially wanted Mothra's wings to have the angular design seen in Rebirth of Mothra II, though the prop was ultimately given the wing shape seen in the 1960s movies.
|Godzilla film series character|
|First appearance||Mothra (1961)|
|Last appearance||Godzilla: Final Wars (2004)|
Emi Itō and Yumi Itō|
Yuko Okada and Yoko Okada
Keiko Imamura and Sayaka Osawa
Megumi Kobayashi and Sayaka Yamaguchi/Misato Tate
Masami Nagasawa and Chihiro Otsuka
Mothra is usually accompanied by tiny twin female fairies, which Shinichi Sekizawa termed Shobijin, meaning "little beauties". The original draft for Mothra called for four fairies, though Sekizawa reduced the number to two, as twins were comparatively rare in Japan, thus adding to the characters' mystique. Toho also sought to reinforce its links with Columbia Pictures, by featuring the singing duo The Peanuts, who had been popularized in America by Colombia Records. Yūji Koseki composed the song Mosura no uta ("Song of Mothra") for the fairies to sing when summoning Mothra. The song was originally sung in Malay, but there is also a later version, set to the same tune, sung in Japanese:
|Mosura ya Mosura||Mothra oh Mothra||Mosura ya Mosura||Mothra oh Mothra|
|Dongan kasakuyan indo muu||With the Power of your Ancestor||Tasukete yo te yobeba||If we were to call for help|
|Rusuto uiraandoa, hanba hanbamuyan, randa banunradan||Grant the prayer of your followers, Arise and||Toki o koete, umi o koete, nami no yo ni||Over time, over sea, like a wave|
|Tounjukanraa||Show||Yate kuru||You'd come,|
|Kasaku yaanmu||Your Power||Mamorigami!||Our guardian angel!|
The Peanuts were given an additional song in Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster entitled "Cry for Happiness", composed by Hiroshi Miyagawa. The Peanuts did not reprise their role in Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster, and were replaced by the singing duo Pair Bambi.
In Godzilla vs. Mothra, the fairies are renamed to Cosmos, and are played by Keiko Imamura and Sayaka Osawa. This casting move was criticized by Godzilla historian Steve Ryfle, who lamented the fact that the two actresses were not identical, and that their singing voices were "paper thin." According to Takao Okawara, the Cosmos scenes were among the hardest scenes he had ever filmed, as the actresses had to synchronize their movements without looking at each other.
In the Rebirth of Mothra trilogy, Mothra Leo's fairies are called the Elias.
In Mothra, Mothra hatches from an egg on Infant Island after her priestesses are abducted by a Rosilican capitalist hoping to exploit them as media celebrities. The larval Mothra swims to Tokyo and cocoons herself around the Tokyo Tower. Upon reaching her adult form, Mothra flies to Rosilica's capital and causes widespread destruction until her priestesses are returned to her.
In Mothra vs. Godzilla, a Mothra egg appears on the coast of Japan, and is exploited as a tourist attraction. Mothra's priestesses attempt to negotiate the return of the egg to Infant Island, but are rebuffed. Godzilla attacks Japan, forcing humanity to beseech an embittered Mothra to intervene. Mothra dies fighting Godzilla, but the latter is defeated when two larvae emerge from the egg and encase Godzilla in a cocoon.
In Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster, it is revealed that only one of the larvae survived. The remaining larva attempts to convince Godzilla and Rodan to join forces with her in order to fight King Ghidorah, but the two monsters reject her proposal. Mothra is nearly killed attempting to fight Ghidorah alone, but is saved through the intervention of Godzilla and Rodan.
The larva ultimately gains adulthood in Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster, where she saves a group of slaves from an island base undergoing a self-destruct sequence.
Another larva appears in Destroy All Monsters, living alongside other monsters on Monster Island. Along with the other monsters, Mothra is briefly enslaved by the Kilaaks, who force her to attack Beijing and later join Godzilla in the destruction of Tokyo. The Kilaaks' mind control is ultimately broken, and Mothra joins the other monsters in the final battle against King Ghidorah.
Godzilla vs. Mothra (1992) and Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla (1994)
1992's Godzilla vs. Mothra portrays Mothra as a guardian of the earth who presided over an advanced civilization over 12,000 years ago. When the civilization created a device designed to control the Earth's climate, the Earth responded by creating the black Mothra Battra, which Mothra defeated, but not before the civilization was wiped out. Mothra's egg is later discovered in 1993 on Infant Island by the Marutomo real estate agency, which seeks to exploit it and Mothra's priestesses for profit. The egg hatches during a fight between Godzilla and a resurrected Battra, and the larva later attacks Tokyo in order to save its priestesses. Mothra forms a cocoon around the National Diet Building, attains its adult form, then briefly fights Battra before joining forces with him in order to fight Godzilla. Battra dies in the attempt, and Mothra pledges to fulfill Battra's role in preventing a meteorite from devastating the Earth in 1999.
Rebirth of Mothra trilogy (1996–1998)
Rebirth of Mothra is separate to the Heisei continuity, and portrays Mothra as the last remaining member of a species of giant moths who guard the Elias civilization. This civilization was destroyed millions of years ago by the dragon Desghidorah, whom Mothra defeated. Mothra lays an egg in modern times, but is too weak to fight Desghidorah once it returns. The egg hatches and the new Mothra, named Mothra Leo, goes to protect his mother, but sadly Mothra is killed by Desghidorah while Leo is still too weak to injure the dragon. Leo manages to kill Desghidorah after maturing. Unusually, Mothra Leo is male; While it is heavily implied that male individuals of Mothra's kind do exist, Leo is the first male Mothra to make a physical appearance.
Leo returns in Rebirth of Mothra II, where he acquires a new and more powerful form in order to fight the pollution monster Dagahra.
In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack, Mothra is portrayed as having been one of the three guardians of Yamato, originating 1,000 years before the events of the film. Initially an antagonist, Mothra was imprisoned in Lake Ikeda, only to be reawakened in 2001 to halt Godzilla's destruction of Tokyo. She is defeated, but transfers her spirit to King Ghidorah.
Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S. has the Mothra from the original 1961 film send her priestesses to demand that Japan dismantle the anti-Godzilla weapon Mechagodzilla or face destruction, as she considers the cyborg to be against the natural order, having been created using the bones of the first Godzilla. When the second Godzilla lands, Mothra attempts to fight the monster alongside Mechagodzilla, but is killed in the process. Two larvae hatch on Infant Island, and reach Tokyo in order to fight Godzilla, whom they encase in a cocoon, which is then transported into the ocean by Mechagodzilla.
Godzilla: Final Wars, which ignores the continuity of the previous film, establishes that Mothra protected the Earth 10,000 years ago from the cyborg Gigan. In the distant future, Gigan returns, under the control of the Xiliens, and is confronted by Mothra. In the ensuing battle, Mothra catches fire, but manages to kill Gigan by ramming into it and exploding.
- Mothra (1961)
- Mothra vs. Godzilla (1964)
- Ghidorah the Three Headed Monster (1964)
- Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster (1966)
- Destroy All Monsters (1968)
- Godzilla vs. Mothra (1992)
- Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla (1994)
- Rebirth of Mothra (1996)
- Rebirth of Mothra II (1997) (As Leo)
- Rebirth of Mothra III (1998) (As Leo)
- Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack (2001)
- Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S. (2003)
- Godzilla: Final Wars (2004)
- Godzilla 2 (2018) - Legendary Pictures and Gareth Edwards, director of Godzilla, confirmed that the rights to King Ghidorah, Mothra, and Rodan from the Toho Studios films have been acquired, and that the characters may appear in "future franchise installments".
- Godzilla Island (1997-1998)
- Godzilla: Monster of Monsters (NES - 1988)
- Godzilla 2: War of the Monsters (NES - 1991)
- Kaijū-ō Godzilla / King of the Monsters, Godzilla (Game Boy - 1993)
- Godzilla: Monster War / Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters (Super Famicom - 1994)
- Godzilla Giant Monster March (Game Gear - 1995)
- Godzilla Trading Battle (PlayStation - 1998)
- Godzilla Generations: Maximum Impact (Dreamcast - 1999)
- Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee (GCN, Xbox - 2002/2003)
- Godzilla: Domination! (GBA - 2002)
- Godzilla: Save the Earth (Xbox, PS2 - 2004)
- Godzilla: Unleashed (Wii - 2007)
- Godzilla Unleashed: Double Smash (NDS - 2007)
- Godzilla: Unleashed (PS2 - 2007)
- Godzilla: Daikaiju Battle Royale (Online game - 2012) as Mothra, Mothra Leo, Rainbow Mothra, and Aqua Mothra
- Godzilla: The Game (PS3 - 2014 PS3 PS4 - 2015)
- Godzilla 2000 (1996)
- Godzilla at World's End (1998)
- The Luminous Fairies and Mothra (Serialized novel)
- Godzilla: Kingdom of Monsters (Comic - 2012)
- Godzilla: Rulers of Earth (Comic - 2013)
- Godzilla: Cataclysm (Comic - 2014)
- Mothra (1961). Directed by Ishiro Honda. Toho
- Godzilla vs. Mothra (1992). Directed by Takao Okawara. Toho
- Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack (2001). Directed by Shusuke Kaneko. Toho.
- Davide Di Giorgio, Andrea Gigante, Gordiano Lupi (2012). Godzilla il re dei mostri: Il sauro radioattivo di Honda e Tsuburaya. Il Foglio Letterario. pp. 61-3. ISBN 978-88-7606-351-0
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. pp. 184–90. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7.
- Hawker, Tom (May 15, 2014). "Top 10 Japanese Movie Monsters". IGN. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Josh Robertson, "The 15 Most Badass Kaiju Monsters of All Time", Complex (May 18, 2014)
- Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. p. 109. ISBN 1550223488.
- "Jerry Ito: A S'Wonderful Life", Sci-Fi Japan (July 30, 2007)
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. pp. 51–4. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7.
- Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. pp. 108–10. ISBN 1550223488.
- Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. p. 116. ISBN 1550223488.
- Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. p. 137. ISBN 1550223488.
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. pp. 179–183. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7.
- Ryfle, S. (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. pp. 279–85. ISBN 1550223488.
- David Milne, "Takao Okawara Interview III", Kaiju Conversations (December 1995)
- Ed Godziszewski and Norman England, "Interview with Shusuke Kaneko", Japanese Giants, Issue #9 (June, 2002)
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. pp. 238–42. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7.
- "Godzilla X Mothra X Mechagodzilla: Tokyo SOS production report - The men behind the monsters discuss the latest Godzilla film", Uchusen #108 (Asahi Sonorama) (October 22, 2003)
- Mothra vs. Godzilla (1964). Directed by Ishiro Honda. Toho
- Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (1964). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho.
- Godzilla vs. the Sea Monster (1966). Directed by Jun Fukuda. Toho.
- Rebirth of Mothra (1996). Directed by Okihiro Yoneda. Toho
- Rebirth of Mothra II (1997). Directed by Kunio Miyoshi. Toho
- Rebirth of Mothra III (1998). Directed by Okihiro Yoneda. Toho
- Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S. (2003). Directed by Masaaki Tezuka. Toho.
- Godzilla: Final Wars (2004). Directed by Ryuhei Kitamura. Toho.
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7.
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7864-47-49-7.
- Destroy all Monsters (1968). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho.
- Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla (1994). Directed by Kensho Yamashita. Toho
- Jeffries, Adrianne (July 26, 2014). "Gareth Edwards returns to direct 'Godzilla 2' with Rodan and Mothra". The Verge. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- Sullivan, Kevin P. (2014-08-14). "'Godzilla 2′ Gets Release Date: 'Let Them Wait'". MTV.