Teuthology, a branch of malacology, deals with the study of cephalopods, such as the giant squid pictured.

Malacology[1] is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species[2] after the arthropods. Mollusks include snails and slugs, clams, octopus and squid, and numerous other kinds, many (but by no means all) of which have shells. One division of malacology, conchology, is devoted to the study of mollusk shells. Malacology derives from Greek μαλακός, malakos, "soft"; and -λογία, -logia.

Fields within malacological research include taxonomy, ecology and evolution. Applied malacology studies medical, veterinary, and agricultural applications, for example mollusks as vectors of disease, as in schistosomiasis.

Archaeology employs malacology to understand the evolution of the climate, the biota of the area, and the usage of the site.

In 1681, Filippo Bonanni wrote the first book ever published that was solely about seashells, the shells of marine mollusks.[3] The book was entitled: Ricreatione dell' occhio e dela mente nell oservation' delle Chiociolle, proposta a' curiosi delle opere della natura, &c.[4] In 1868, the German Malacological Society was founded.

Zoological methods are used in malacological research. Malacological field methods and laboratory methods (such as collecting, documenting and archiving, and molecular techniques) were summarized by Sturm et al. (2006).[5]


Main article: List of malacologists

Those who study malacology are known as malacologists. Those who study primarily or exclusively the shells of mollusks are known as conchologists.



More than 150 journals within the field of malacology are being published from more than 30 countries, producing an overwhelming amount of scientific articles.[8] They include:


Malacological Museum in Makarska, Croatia (entrance)

Museums that have either exceptional malacological research collections (behind the scenes) and/or exceptional public exhibits of mollusks:

See also


  1. From French malacologie, contraction of malacozoologie, from New Latin Malacozoa "zoological group including soft-bodied animals" from Greek μαλακός - malakos "soft" + ζῷον "animal.
  2. "Home - Division of Invertebrate Zoology".
  3. "Buonanni's Chiocciole (1681)". Retrieved 8 August 2009.
  4. (Italian) Bonanni F. 1681. Ricreatione dell' occhio e dela mente nell oservation' delle Chiociolle, proposta a' curiosi delle opere della natura, &c. 1681. Varese, Rome, xiv, 384 pp., 109 plates. figure 101.
  5. Charles F. Sturm; Timothy A. Pearce; Ángel Valdés (July 2006). The mollusks. Universal-Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58112-930-4.
  6. "Sociedad de Malacolología de México A.C.".
  7. "Sociedade Brasileira de Malacologia".
  8. Bieler & Kabat, Malacological Journals and Newsletters, 1773-1990 ; The Nautilus 105(2):39-61, 1991
  9. Tryon, George Washington, 1838-1888. "Details - American journal of conchology. - Biodiversity Heritage Library".
  10. "American Malacological Society".
  11. "Archiv für Molluskenkunde (ISSN 1869-0963)".
  12. "Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology".
  13. Basteria
  14. The Bulletin of the Russian Far East Malacological Society
  15. Elsevier. "Fish and Shellfish Immunology".
  16. GuppY. "Cernuelle - Folia Conchyliologica" (in French).
  17. "Editorial SMP".
  18. Folia Malacologica
  20. "Details - Journal de conchyliologie. - Biodiversity Heritage Library".
  21. "Journal de conchyliologie - 77 années disponibles - Gallica".
  22. "Journal of Conchology - The Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland".
  23. "Journal of Medical and Applied Malacology".
  24. "Malacologica Bohemoslovaca" (in English and Czech).
  25. "Malacological Review".
  27. Menke, Karl Theodor, 1791-1861. "Details - Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie. - Biodiversity Heritage Library".
  28. Clessin, Steph., 1833-. "Details - Malakozoologische Blätter. - Biodiversity Heritage Library".
  29. "Mollusca Journal - 2007 to 2009 - The Last Issue - Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden".
  30. "Molluscan Research - online contents".
  31. General Information. accessed 6 December 2010].
  32. "Occasional Molluscan Papers". last change 2 December 2014, accessed 23 August 2016.
  33. Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology. "Details - Occasional papers on mollusks. - Biodiversity Heritage Library".
  35. Strombus online
  36. "TENTACLE".
  39. Official site of The Festivus
  40. "THE NAUTILUS. A Quarterly Devoted to Malacology". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  42. "Journal Impact Factor 2003". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  43. "CiNii Articles - 貝類学雑誌Venus : the Japanese journal of malacology" (in Japanese).
  44. "404 De pagina is niet gevonden".

Further reading

Media related to Malacology at Wikimedia Commons

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