Not to be confused with MacGuffin (cipher).

In fiction, a MacGuffin (sometimes McGuffin or maguffin) is a plot device in the form of some goal, desired object, or other motivator that the protagonist pursues, often with little or no narrative explanation. The specific nature of a MacGuffin is typically unimportant to the overall plot. The most common type of MacGuffin is an object, place, or person. Other more abstract types include money, victory, glory, survival, power, love, or some unexplained driving force.

The MacGuffin technique is common in films, especially thrillers. Usually the MacGuffin is the central focus of the film in the first act, and thereafter declines in importance. It may reappear at the climax of the story but sometimes is actually forgotten by the end of the story. Multiple MacGuffins are sometimes derisively identified as plot coupons.[1][2]

History and use

Objects that serve as MacGuffins are familiar in narrative fiction. For example, a small statuette provides both the eponymous title and the motive for intrigue in The Maltese Falcon. The name "MacGuffin" appears to originate in 20th-century filmmaking, and was popularized by Alfred Hitchcock in the 1930s, but the concept pre-dates the term. The World War I–era actress Pearl White used weenie to identify whatever object (a roll of film, a rare coin, expensive diamonds, etc.) impelled the heroes, and often the villains as well, to pursue each other through the convoluted plots of The Perils of Pauline and the other silent film serials in which she starred.[3]

Alfred Hitchcock

The director and producer Alfred Hitchcock popularized the term "MacGuffin" and the technique with his 1935 film The 39 Steps, an early example of the concept.[4][5] Hitchcock explained the term "MacGuffin" in a 1939 lecture at Columbia University in New York:

It might be a Scottish name, taken from a story about two men on a train. One man says, "What's that package up there in the baggage rack?" And the other answers, "Oh, that's a MacGuffin". The first one asks, "What's a MacGuffin?" "Well," the other man says, "it's an apparatus for trapping lions in the Scottish Highlands." The first man says, "But there are no lions in the Scottish Highlands," and the other one answers, "Well then, that's no MacGuffin!" So you see that a MacGuffin is actually nothing at all.

Interviewed in 1966 by François Truffaut, Hitchcock explained the term "MacGuffin" using the same story.[6][7]

Hitchcock's term "MacGuffin" helped him to assert that his films were in fact not what they appeared to be on the surface. Hitchcock also related this anecdote in a television interview for Richard Schickel's documentary The Men Who Made the Movies, and in an interview with Dick Cavett.

According to author Ken Mogg, screenwriter Angus MacPhail and a friend of Hitchcock, may have originally coined the term.[8]

George Lucas

On the commentary soundtrack to the 2004 DVD release of Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, writer and director George Lucas describes R2-D2 as "the main driving force of the movie … what you say in the movie business is the MacGuffin … the object of everybody's search".[9] In TV interviews, Hitchcock defined a MacGuffin as the object around which the plot revolves, but as to what that object specifically is, he declared, "The audience don't care".[10] In contrast, Lucas believes that the MacGuffin should be powerful and that "the audience should care about it almost as much as the dueling heroes and villains on screen".[11]

Yves Lavandier

For filmmaker and drama writing theorist Yves Lavandier, in the strictly Hitchcockian sense, a MacGuffin is a secret that motivates the villains.[12] North by Northwest's supposed MacGuffin is nothing that motivates the protagonist; Roger Thornhill's objective is to extricate himself from the predicament that the mistaken identity has created, and what matters to Vandamm and the CIA is of little importance to Thornhill. A similar lack of motivating power applies to the alleged MacGuffins of The Lady Vanishes, The 39 Steps, and Foreign Correspondent. In a broader sense, says Lavandier, a MacGuffin denotes any justification for the external conflictual premises of a work.[13]


Examples in film include the Maltese Falcon; the meaning of "rosebud" in Citizen Kane (1941);[14] the NOC list in Mission: Impossible (1996); the Rabbit's Foot in Mission: Impossible III (2006);[15][16] the Heart of the Ocean necklace in Titanic.[17] In both film and literature, the Holy Grail is often used as a MacGuffin.[18] The cult classic surreal comedic film Monty Python and the Holy Grail is loosely structured around a knightly quest for the sacred relic.

Examples in television include various Rambaldi artifacts in Alias; the orb in The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.; and Krieger Waves in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "A Matter of Perspective".[19][20][21][22] Carl Macek created protoculture as a MacGuffin to unite the storylines of the three separate anime that composed Robotech,[23] while the Hellmouth in Buffy the Vampire Slayer has been described as a kind of topological MacGuffin - "a shortcut, in lieu of scientific explanation" as Joss Whedon put it.[24]

Examples in literature include the television set in Wu Ming's novel 54; and the container in William Gibson's Spook Country.[25][26][27]

In the online game, The Kingdom of Loathing, the player's character must eventually complete a long and convoluted quest named player name and The Quest for the Holy MacGuffin.[28][29] It involves going to several locations while following clues from the character's father's diary and collecting various items. Eventually it ends in a boss battle and the MacGuffin is returned to the council. The game never reveals what exactly it is or how it will aid in saving the kingdom.

In discussing the mixed critical reception of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull where the crystal skull in the film was seen as an unsatisfying MacGuffin, Steven Spielberg said, "I sympathize with people who didn't like the MacGuffin because I never liked the MacGuffin".[30]

See also


  1. Lowe, Nick (July 1986). "The Well-Tempered Plot Device". Ansible. Berkshire, England (46). ISSN 0265-9816. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  2. Sterling, Bruce (June 18, 2009). "Turkey City Lexicon – A Primer for SF Workshops". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  3. Lahue, Kalton C. (1968). Bound and Gagged: The Story of the Silent Serials. Oak Tree Pubs. ISBN 978-0-498-06762-4.
  4. Marshall Deutelbaum; Leland A. Poague (2009). A Hitchcock reader. John Wiley and Sons. p. 114.
  5. Digou, Mike (October 2003). "Hitchcock's Macguffin In The Works Of David Mamet". Literature Film Quarterly. 31 (4): 270–275.
  6. Truffaut, François (1983). Hitchcock/Truffaut. Google Books. Simon & Schuster.
  7. "Framing Hitchcock: Selected essays from the Hitchcock annual". Google Books. Wayne State University Press Detroit. pp. 47–48.
  8. Ken Mogg (May 12, 2006). "Frequently asked questions on Hitchcock". Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  9. Star Wars (1977) Region 2 DVD release (2004). Audio commentary, 00:14:44 – 00:15:00.
  10. "The 39 Steps – Film (Movie) Plot and Review". Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  11. "Keys to the Kingdom". Vanity Fair. February 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  12. "Excerpts from Yves Lavandier's Writing Drama". Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  13. "Yves Lavandier's Writing Drama". Retrieved 2014-01-02.
  14. "Greatest Films: Citizen Kane (1941)". Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  15. Andrew Sarris (May 14, 2006). "What the MacGuffin? Abrams Loses Way in Mission". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007.
  16. "Our mission, which we accepted, was to watch the Mission: Impossible films". A.V. Club.
  17. Corliss, Richard (April 4, 2012). "TIME's Titanic 3D Review". Time. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  18. Harty, Kevin J. (2015). The Holy Grail on Film: Essays on the Cinematic Quest. Published by McFarland. p. 170. In medieval Arthurian romance, the attainment of the Grail metaphorically signifies that the hero seeking the Grail has achieved a state of ideal spiritual knighthood. (...) the filmmakers also imbue their own Grail with a metaphorical meaning that far outweighs its literal importance as a physical object. The quest for the Grail becomes symbolic for the spiritual quest of the hero (...) (quoting George Lucas) 'The MacGuffin [i.e. the Grail] had always been the problem'.
  19. Mark Englehart (ed.). "Editorial Review of "Alias – The Complete First Season"". ASIN B00005JLF1. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  20. "Review of The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.". 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  21. A Matter of Perspective (1990) Region 1 DVD release (2002). Season 3, Disk 4.
  22. "The Incredible But True Story of Krieger Waves". November 5, 2005. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  23. Yang, Jeff (June 28, 2011). "The 'Robotech' master". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  24. Anne Billson, Buffy the Vampire Slayer (2005) p. 65
  25. Boyd Tonkin (June 24, 2005). "A Week in Books: An ingenious comedy-thriller, packed with clever gags". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  26. David Isaacson (July 11, 2005). "54 By Wu Ming reviewed by David Isaacson". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  27. Drew Taylor (October 3, 2007). "William Gibson goes cyber-spying? Who's the spy, and who is being spied on?". The Hartford Advocate. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Hitch said a MacGuffin was an object—a briefcase, a Maltese falcon—that drives the plot forward without you ever having to know what it is.
  28. "The Kingdom of Loathing".
  29. "The Quest for the Holy MacGuffin at KOL Koldfront".
  30. "Steven Spielberg admits he had reservations about 'Indiana Jones 4,' but still defends worst scene in 'Indiana Jones 4'". Entertainment Weekly. October 26, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2014.

External links

Look up MacGuffin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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