Lower Heterobranchia

Lower Heterobranchia
A live animal of Hydatina physis, anterior end towards the top of the image
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

informal group Lower Heterobranchia


See text



Lower Heterobranchia, also known as the Allogastropoda, is a group of rather specialized, highly evolved sea slugs and sea snails, (marine gastropod mollusks) within the clade Heterobranchia. Although the great majority of Lower Heterobranchs are indeed marine, a few have succeeded in making the transition to freshwater.


The shell shapes in this group are typically those that are seen in the sundial, pyramid, rissoella and orbitestellid families of snails.[1]


2005 taxonomy

In the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005,[2] the Lower Heterobranchia is an Informal Group. Superfamilies within the Lower Heterobranchia include:

(Taxa that are exclusively fossil are indicated with a dagger †)

For a more detailed taxonomy see: Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)#Informal group "Lower Heterobranchia" (= Allogastropoda)

2010 taxonomy

Jörger et al. (2010)[3] have redefined major groups within the Heterobranchia: they moved Glacidorboidea and Pyramidelloidea to Panpulmonata.[3]


  1. http://www.molluscsoftasmania.net/Subclass%20pages/Heterobranchia.html
  2. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P.; Frýda J.; Hausdorf B.; Ponder W.; Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
  3. 1 2 Jörger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T. & Schrödl M. (2010). "On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 323. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-323.
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