List of non-marine molluscs of Great Britain
This list comprises 220 species of non-marine molluscs that have been recorded in the scientific literature as part of the fauna of the island of Great Britain. These are terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, and aquatic bivalves; the list does not include species of molluscs which are considered to be fully marine, except for two marine pulmonate gastropods.
In other words: this list includes land snails and slugs, and freshwater and brackish water snails. It also includes freshwater mussels and clams, including some that can tolerate brackish water. Molluscs that are fully adapted to live in the sea are not included here, except for two species that are air-breathing and thus are more closely related to most land and freshwater snails than they are to the majority of sea snails.
Great Britain is a European island in the northeastern Atlantic, comprising the contiguous countries of England, Scotland and Wales. (Great Britain is not the same entity as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for more information on the complex nomenclature of this area, please see terminology of the British Isles.)
A number of species of snails listed here are semi-terrestrial and so are sometimes also found on lists of marine species. Two listed here, in the genera Onchidella and Otina, are fully marine in habitat, but are pulmonate snails which breathe air at low tide rather than having gills like most marine species. Other species listed here live in habitats that are intermediate between land and saltwater, or in brackish water habitats intermediate between freshwater and full-salinity saltwater.
Additional species are still being added to the list of the non-marine malacofauna of Great Britain. Three of the more recent discoveries are Papillifera bidens first found in 1993, Selenochlamys ysbryda a species which appeared to be new to science and which was first found in 2005, and Eobania vermiculata first found in 2006 and possibly not really established at that point. A major revision of the slug fauna published in 2014, partly based on genetic sequencing, established that there were 20% more species than had previously been recognised. Not all these species have been definitely identified and some are formally undescribed.
In addition to the species that survive outdoors in Great Britain, there are also another 14 exotic gastropod species (some terrestrial and some aquatic) which live as "uninvited guests" in greenhouses and their enclosed aquaria. These species are known as "hothouse aliens", and are listed separately at the end of the main list. In this list these species are not counted as part of the fauna.
The following table shows a summary of species numbers.
|Non-marine molluscs of Great Britain|
|Gastropods aquatic||48 (including 2 marine pulmonates)|
|Gastropods introduced (in natural habitats):||29 (+16?) land + 4 aquatic|
|Bivalves introduced (in natural habitats):||3|
|Molluscs introduced in natural habitats, total:||36–52|
|Gastropods living as "hothouse aliens"|| 14 (10 terrestrial + 4 freshwater) |
(not included in numbers for total fauna)
|Bivalves living as "hothouse aliens"||0|
Those species that are recognized as endangered are shown with an E after their name, see List of endangered species in the British Isles.
Some species are protected in the United Kingdom under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981:
- Catinella arenaria and Myxas glutinosa are fully protected since 1981
- Margaritifera margaritifera is partly protected since 1991 and fully protected since 1998
- Helix pomatia is partly protected since 2008
- Monacha cartusiana was fully protected from 1981 to 1988.
Two of the land snails on the list (Fruticicola fruticum and Cernuella neglecta) are now locally extinct (in Great Britain, sometimes abbreviated here as G.B.), but they still occur in other parts of Europe.
The list is arranged by presumed biological affinity, rather than being alphabetical by family.
A number of species are listed with subspecies, in cases where there are well-recognized subspecies in different parts of Europe. For some species a synonym is given, where the species may perhaps be better known under another name.
An attempt has been made to label the families as aquatic, terrestrial or intermediate, and an indication is given where it is thought that the species is introduced. Some introductions to Great Britain are quite ancient, dating from Roman times or even earlier, for example, Paleolithic. Those species that do not have a shell usually do not leave an archeological or fossil record, and therefore it is not always possible to determine whether they are native or introduced. Species are considered to be native, unless otherwise indicated on the list; this information is taken from Kerney, 1999, updated in the case of slugs with the opinions of Rowson et al. 2014.
Note: the images used to illustrate the list are mostly of specimens that were found in other countries.
- Neritidae - aquatic (this species tolerates brackish water)
- Theodoxus fluviatilis fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Aciculidae - terrestrial
- Acicula fusca (Montagu, 1803)
- Viviparidae - aquatic
- Assimineidae - terrestrial (intermediate marine)
- Amnicolidae - aquatic
- Marstoniopsis insubrica (Küster, 1853) - synonym: Marstoniopsis scholtzi (A. Schmidt, 1856) - native?
- Truncatellidae - terrestrial (intermediate marine)
- Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Bithyniidae - aquatic
- Cochliopidae - aquatic
- Heleobia stagnorum (Gmelin, 1791) - native?
- Hydrobiidae - aquatic (some are arguably marine)
- Hydrobia acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) - subspecies: Hydrobia acuta neglecta Muus, 1963
- Hydrobia ventrosa (Montagu, 1803)
- Peringia ulvae (Pennant, 1777)
- Mercuria c.f. similis (Draparnaud, 1805) = Mercuria confusa (Frauenfeld, 1863)
- Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) - introduced
- Valvatidae - aquatic
- Valvata cristata O. F. Müller, 1774
- Valvata macrostoma Mörch, 1864
- Valvata piscinalis (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Pomatiidae - terrestrial
- Pomatias elegans (Müller, 1774)
The following gastropods are pulmonates:
- Ellobiidae - terrestrial
- Carychium minimum Müller, 1774
- Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826)
- Leucophytia bidentata (Montagu, 1808)
- Myosotella denticulata (Montagu, 1803)
- Myosotella myosotis (Draparnaud, 1801)
- Onchidiidae - aquatic (marine but an intertidal pulmonate)
- Onchidella celtica (Cuvier, 1817)
- Otinidae - aquatic (marine but an intertidal pulmonate)
- Otina ovata (Brown, 1827)
- Physidae - aquatic
- Aplexa hypnorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Physa fontinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) = Physella heterostropha (Say, 1817) - introduced
- Physella gyrina (Say, 1821) - introduced
- Lymnaeidae - aquatic
- Galba truncatula (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Omphiscola glabra (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Lymnaea palustris (O. F. Müller, 1774) = Stagnicola palustris (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Lymnaea fusca (C. Pfeiffer, 1821)
- Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Radix balthica (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Radix peregra (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Myxas glutinosa (O. F. Müller, 1774) E
- Planorbidae - aquatic
- Ancylus fluviatilis O. F. Müller, 1774
- Anisus leucostoma (Millet, 1813)
- Anisus vortex (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834) E
- Anisus spirorbis (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Planorbis carinatus O. F. Müller, 1774
- Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Bathyomphalus contortus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Gyraulus laevis (Alder, 1838)
- Gyraulus acronicus (A. Férussac, 1807)
- Gyraulus albus (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Gyraulus crista (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Segmentina nitida (O. F. Müller, 1774) E
- Planorbarius corneus corneus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Menetus dilatatus (Gould, 1841) - introduced
- Ferrissia wautieri (Mirolli, 1960) = Ferrissia fragilis (Tryon, 1863) - introduced
- Acroloxidae - aquatic
- Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Succineidae - terrestrial (some almost amphibious)
- Quikella arenaria (Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1837) = Catinella arenaria
- Succinella oblonga Draparnaud, 1801
- Succinea putris Linnaeus, 1758
- Oxyloma elegans elegans (Risso, 1826) = Oxyloma pfeifferi (Rossmässler, 1835)
- Oxyloma sarsii (Esmark, 1886)
- Cochlicopidae - terrestrial
- Azeca goodalli (A. Férrusac, 1821)
- Cochlicopa c.f. lubrica = Cochlicopa lubrica (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Cochlicopa c.f. lubricella = Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro, 1838)
- Pyramidulidae - terrestrial
- Pyramidula umbilicata (Montagu, 1803)
- Vertiginidae - terrestrial
- Columella edentula Draparnaud, 1805)
- Columella aspera Walden, 1966
- Truncatellina cylindrica (Férussac, 1807)
- Truncatellina callicratis (Scacchi, 1833)
- Vertigo pusilla O. F. Müller, 1774
- Vertigo alpestris Alder, 1838
- Vertigo antivertigo (Draparnaud, 1801)
- Vertigo genesii (Gredler, 1856)
- Vertigo geyeri Lindholm, 1925
- Vertigo lilljeborgi (Westerlund, 1871)
- Vertigo modesta arctica (Say, 1824)
- Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy, 1849)
- Vertigo pusilla O. F. Müller, 1774
- Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud, 1801)
- Vertigo substriata (Jeffreys, 1833)
- Vertigo angustior Jeffreys, 1830
- Chondrinidae - terrestrial
- Abida secale secale (Draparnaud, 1801)
- Pupillidae - terrestrial
- Lauriidae - terrestrial
- Leiostyla anglica (Wood, 1828)
- Lauria cylindracea (da Costa, 1778)
- Lauria sempronii (Charpentier, 1837)
- Valloniidae - terrestrial
- Vallonia costata (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Vallonia pulchella (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Vallonia c.f. excentrica = Vallonia excentrica Sterke, 1892
- Acanthinula aculeata (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Spermodea lamellata (Jeffreys, 1830)
- Enidae - terrestrial
- Punctidae - terrestrial
- Helicodiscidae - terrestrial
- Lucilla singleyana = Helicodiscus singleyanus Pilsbry, 1890 - introduced
- Discidae - terrestrial
- Discus rotundatus rotundatus (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Arionidae - terrestrial
- Arion ater (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Arion rufus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Arion flagellus Collinge, 1893 - introduced?
- Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855 = Arion lusitanicus auct. non Mabille, 1868 - introduced
- Arion sp. "Davies" - introduced?
- Arion subfuscus Draparnaud, 1805
- Arion fuscus O.F. Müller, 1774 - introduced?
- Arion cf. iratii Garrido, Castillejo & Iglesias, 1995 - introduced?
- Arion circumscriptus Johnston, 1828
- Arion silvaticus Lohmander, 1937
- Arion fasciatus (Nilsson, 1823) - introduced?
- Arion hortensis A. Férussac, 1819
- Arion distinctus J. Mabille, 1868
- Arion owenii Davies, 1979
- Arion cf. fagophilus de Winter, 1986 - introduced?
- Arion intermedius (Normand, 1852)
- Pristilomatidae - terrestrial
- Vitrea contracta (Westerlund, 1871)
- Vitrea crystallina (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Vitrea subrimata (Reinhardt, 1871)
- Euconulidae - terrestrial
- Euconulus c.f. fulvus (O. F. Müller, 1774) ?= Euconulus fulvus
- Euconulus c.f. alderi (J.E. Gray, 1840) ?= Euconulus alderi
- Gastrodontidae - terrestrial
- Oxychilidae - terrestrial
- Oxychilus alliarius (Miller, 1822)
- Oxychilus cellarius (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Oxychilus draparnaudi draparnaudi (Beck, 1837) - introduced
- Oxychilus navarricus helveticus (Blum, 1881) - introduced
- Aegopinella nitidula (Draparnaud, 1805)
- Aegopinella pura (Alder, 1830)
- Nesovitrea hammonis (Ström, 1765) = Perpolita hammonis
- Milacidae - terrestrial
- Milax gagates (Draparnaud, 1801) - introduced?
- Tandonia rustica (Millet, 1843) - introduced?
- Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881) - introduced
- Tandonia cf cristata (Kaleniczenko, 1851) - introduced
- Tandonia sowerbyi (A. Férussac, 1823) - introduced?
- Vitrinidae - terrestrial
- Boettgerillidae - terrestrial
- Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912 - introduced
- Trigonochlamydidae - terrestrial
- Selenochlamys ysbryda Rowson & Symondson, 2008 - introduced
- Limacidae - terrestrial
- Limax maximus Linnaeus, 1758
- Limax cinereoniger Wolf, 1803
- Limax cf. dacampi Menegazzi, 1854 - introduced
- Limacus flavus (Linnaeus, 1758) - introduced?
- Limax maculatus (Kaleniczenko, 1851) - introduced
- Malacolimax tenellus (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Lehmannia marginata (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Lehmannia nyctelia (Bourguignat, 1861) - introduced
- Lehmannia valentiana (A. Férussac, 1822) - introduced
- Agriolimacidae - terrestrial
- Deroceras laeve (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Deroceras agreste (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Deroceras reticulatum (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Deroceras panormitanum (Lessona & Pollonera, 1882) = Deroceras caruanae (Polonera, 1891) - introduced
- Deroceras invadens Reise et al., 2011 - introduced
- Ferussaciidae - terrestrial
- Cecilioides acicula (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Clausiliidae - terrestrial
- Alinda biplicata biplicata (Montagu, 1803) - introduced?
- Balea perversa (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Balea heydeni Von Maltzan, 1881
- Clausilia bidentata bidentata (Ström, 1765)
- Clausilia dubia dubia Draparnaud, 1805
- Cochlodina laminata (Montagu, 1803)
- Macrogastra rolphii (Turton, 1826)
- Papillifera bidens (Müller, 1774) - introduced, probably since 1896
- Testacellidae - terrestrial
- Testacella maugei A. Férussac, 1822 - introduced?
- Testacella haliotidea Draparnaud, 1801 - introduced?
- Testacella scutulum Sowerby, 1821 - introduced?
- Testacella sp. "tenuipenis" - introduced?
- Helicodontidae - terrestrial
- Helicodonta obvoluta obvoluta (O.F. Müller, 1774)
- Cochlicellidae - terrestrial
- Hygromiidae - terrestrial
- Ashfordia granulata (Alder, 1830) = Monacha granulata
- Candidula gigaxii (L. Pfeiffer, 1850) - introduced
- Candidula intersecta (Poiret, 1801) - introduced
- Candidula unifasciata unifasciata (Poiret, 1801) - introduced?
- Cernuella aginnica (Locard, 1894) - introduced
- Cernuella neglecta (Draparnaud, 1805) - introduced, now extinct in G.B.
- Cernuella virgata (Da Costa, 1778) - introduced
- Helicella itala itala (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Hygromia cinctella (Draparnaud, 1801) - introduced
- Hygromia limbata limbata (Draparnaud, 1805)
- Monacha cantiana (Montagu, 1803) - introduced
- Monacha cartusiana (O. F. Müller, 1774 - introduced
- Ponentina subvirescens (Bellamy, 1839)
- Pseudotrichia rubiginosa (Rossmässler, 1838)
- Trochoidea elegans (Gmelin, 1791)
- Trochulus hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Trochulus sericeus (Draparnaud, 1801)
- Trochulus striolatus (Pfeiffer, 1828) - indigenous?
- Zenobiella subrufescens (Miller, 1822)
- Bradybaenidae - terrestrial
- Fruticicola fruticum (O. F. Müller, 1774) - now extinct in G.B.
- Helicidae - terrestrial
- Arianta arbustorum arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Helicigona lapicida lapicida (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Theba pisana pisana (O. F. Müller, 1774) - introduced
- Cepaea nemoralis nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Cepaea hortensis (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Eobania vermiculata (O. F. Müller, 1774) - introduced
- Cornu aspersum aspersum = Helix aspersus (O.F. Müller, 1774) - introduced
- Helix pomatia Linnaeus, 1758 - introduced
- Margaritiferidae - aquatic
- Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) E
- Unionidae - aquatic
- Unio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Unio tumidus Philipsson, 1788
- Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pseudanodonta complanata (Rossmässler, 1835) E
- Sphaeriidae - aquatic
- Sphaerium corneum (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Sphaerium rivicola (Lamarck, 1818)
- Sphaerium nucleus (Studer, 1820)
- Sphaerium solidum (Normand, 1844)
- Musculium lacustre (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Musculium transversum (Say, 1829)
- Pisidium amnicum (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Pisidium casertanum (Poli, 1791)
- Pisidium conventus (Clessin, 1877)
- Pisidium henslowanum (Sheppard, 1823)
- Pisidium hibernicum Westerlund, 1894
- Pisidium lilljeborgii (Clessin, 1886)
- Pisidium milium Held, 1836
- Pisidium moitessierianum Paladilhe, 1866
- Pisidium nitidum Jenyns, 1832
- Pisidium obtusale (Lamarck, 1818)
- Pisidium personatum Malm, 1855
- Pisidium pulchellum (Jenyns, 1832)
- Pisidium pseudosphaerium Favre, 1927
- Pisidium subtruncatum Malm, 1855
- Pisidium supinum A. Schmidt, 1851
- Pisidium tenuilineatum Stelfox, 1918 E
- Dreissenidae - aquatic
- Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) - introduced
- Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) - introduced
- Corbiculidae - aquatic
- Corbicula fluminea (O. F. Müller, 1774) - introduced
List of "hothouse alien" species
This group of exotic land and freshwater species are not truly part of the fauna because they do not live in the wild. Many are tropical and thus are incapable of surviving in the wild in Great Britain; instead they have established themselves as uninvited inhabitants of greenhouses, aquaria within greenhouses, and similar artificially-heated habitats.
- Thiaridae - aquatic
- Melanoides tuberculata (O. F. Müller, 1774)
- Gastrodontidae - terrestrial
- Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1816)
- Lymnaeidae - aquatic
- Radix rubiginosa (Michelin, 1831), native to Indo-China and Indonesia
- Planorbidae - aquatic
- Pleurodiscidae - terrestrial
- Pleurodiscus balmei (Potiez & Michaud, 1835)
- Pristilomatidae - terrestrial
- Hawaiia minuscula (Binney, 1841)
- Helicodiscidae - terrestrial
- Helicodiscus parallelus (Say, 1821)
- Streptaxidae - terrestrial
- Gulella io Verdcourt, 1974
- Subulinidae - terrestrial
- Allopeas clavulinum (Potiez & Michaud, 1838)
- Opeas hannense (Rang, 1831)
- Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Striosubulina sp.
- Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1789)
- List of endangered species in the British Isles
- Biota of the Isle of Man#Mollusca (molluscs)
- List of non-marine molluscs of Ireland
- List of non-marine molluscs of the Netherlands
- Arthur Erskine Ellis, an important 20th century author on non-marine molluscs of the UK
- Rowson. B., Anderson, R., Turner, J.A., Symondson, W.O.C. (2014). "The slugs of Britain and Ireland: undetected and undescribed species increase a well-studied, economically important fauna by more than 20%". PLoS ONE. 9: e91907. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091907.
- Rowson, B., Turner, J., Anderson, R., Symondson, W. (2014). Slugs of Britain and Ireland: identification, understanding and control. Telford: Field Studies Council. ISBN 978-1-908819-13-0.
- Anderson, Roy (2005). "An annotated list of the non-marine molluscs of Britain and Ireland". Journal of Conchology. 38 (6): 607–637. ISSN 1753-2205.
- Protection for wild animals on Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981. website accessed 7 August 2009.
- Kerney, Michael, 1999, Atlas of the land and freshwater molluscs of Britain and Ireland, Harley Books, Colchester, England, ISBN 0-946589-48-8
- Killeen I. J. (2013). "Whorl snails (Vertigo spp.) surveillance in Scotland: a condition assessment of Geyer’s whorl snail Vertigo geyeri, and the round-mouthed whorl snail Vertigo genesii in Perthshire and the Black Isle". Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 616. PDF.
- Janet Ridout Sharpe. March 2005. Papillifera papillaris (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae): a new record for Britain. The Archeo+Malacology Group Newsletter, (7): page 6-7.
- The Families of British Non-marine Molluscs (Slugs, Snails and Mussels)
- another format of 2005 checklist
- overview of BAP priority species
- UK Biodiversity Action Plans from 1995-1999