List of commonly used taxonomic affixes

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This is a list of common affixes used when scientifically naming species, particularly extinct species for whom only their scientific names are used, along with their derivations.

Examples: Acanthodes ("spiny base"); Acanthostega ("spine roof"); coelacanth ("hollow spine")
Examples: Archelon ("ruling turtle"); Architeuthis ("ruling squid"); Archosaur ("ruling lizard"); Andrewsarchus ("Andrews's ruler")
Examples: Archaeopteryx ("ancient wing"); Archaeoindris ("ancient Indri"); Archaeopteris ("ancient fern")
Examples: Protoavis ("first bird"); Argentavis ("Argentine bird"); Eoalulavis ("little-winged dawn bird")
Examples: Brachylophosaurus ("short-crested lizard"); Brachiosaurus ("arm lizard"); Brachyceratops ("short-horned face")
Examples: Brontosaurus ("thunder lizard"), Brontotherium ("thunder beast"), Brontoscorpio ("thunder scorpion")
Examples: Euoplocephalus ("well-protected head"), Pachycephalosaurus ("thick headed lizard"), Amtocephale ("Amtgai head"); Therocephalian ("beast-headed")
Examples: Triceratops ("three horned face"), Orthoceras ("straight horn") Megaloceras ("big horn")
Examples: Cetiosaurus ("whale lizard"); Ambulocetus ("walking whale"); Pakicetus ("Pakistan whale").
Examples: Deinocheirus ("terrible hand"); Ornithocheirus ("bird hand"); Austrocheirus ("southern hand")
Examples: coelacanth ("hollow spine"); Coelodonta ("hollow tooth"); Coelophysis ("hollow form")
Cynodont ("dog tooth"); Cynopterus ("dog wing"); Arctocyon ("bear dog")
Examples: artiodactyl ("even toe"); Pterodactylus ("wing finger"); perissodactyl ("uneven toe")
Examples: placoderm ("plated skin"); echinoderm ("hedgehog skin"); ostracoderm ("shell skin")
Examples: Dilophosaurus ("twice crested lizard"); Diceratops ("two-horned face") diapsid ("two arches")
dino-, deino-: Pronunciation: /daɪnoʊ/. Origin: Ancient Greek δεινος (deinos). Meaning: "terrible", "formidable". Used to describe presumably fearfully large or dangerous animals or animal parts.
Examples: dinosaur ("terrible lizard"), Dinofelis ("terrible cat"), Deinonychus ("terrible claw"), Deinocheirus ("terrible hand")
Examples: Eohippus ("dawn horse"); Eomaia ("dawn mother"); Eoraptor ("dawn seizer")
Examples: Hynerpeton ("Hyner creeper"); Greererpeton ("Greer creeper"); Arizonerpeton ("Arizona creeper")
Examples: Euparkeria ("Parker's good [animal]") Euhelopus ("good marsh foot") Eustreptospondylus ("true Streptospondylus")
Examples: Dinofelis ("terrible cat"); Pardofelis ("leopard cat"); Profelis ("before cat")
Examples: galliformes ("chicken form"); anseriformes ("goose form"); Squaliformes ("shark form")
Examples: Giganotosaurus ("giant southern lizard"); Gigantopithecus ("giant ape"); Gigantoraptor ("giant seizer")
Examples: Caenagnathasia ("recent Asian jaw"); gnathostoma ("jaw mouth"); Compsognathus ("elegant jaw")
Examples: Dickinsonia ("for Dickinson"); Cooksonia ("for Cookson"); Coloradia ("for Colorado")
Examples: Ichthyosaurus ("fish lizard"); Leedsichthys ("Leeds's fish"); Haikouichthys ("Haikou fish")
Examples: Carpolestes ("fruit robber"); Ornitholestes ("bird robber"); Sarcolestes ("flesh robber")
Examples: Mei long ("sleeping dragon"); Bolong ("small dragon"); Zuolong ("Zuo's dragon")
Examples: Dilophosaurus ("two-crested lizard"); Brachylophosaurus ("short-crested lizard"); Saurolophus ("lizard crest")
Examples: macropod ("big foot"); Macrodontophion ("big tooth snake"); Macrogryphosaurus ("big enigmatic lizard")
Examples: Maiasaura ("mother lizard"); Eomaia ("dawn mother"); Juramaia (Jurassic mother")
Examples: Megarachne ("big spider"); Megalosaurus ("big lizard"); Megalodon ("big tooth")
Examples: Microraptor ("small seizer") Microvenator ("small hunter"); Microceratops ("small horned face")
Examples: Struthiomimus; ("ostrich mimic"); Ornithomimus ("bird mimic"); Gallimimus ("chicken mimic"); ornithomimosaur ("bird mimic lizard")
crocodylomorphs ("crocodile form"); sauropodomorphs ("sauropod form"); Muscomorpha ("fly form")
Examples: Deinonychus ("terrible claw"); Euronychodon ("European claw tooth"); Nothronychus ("sloth claw"), Baryonyx ("heavy claw")
Examples: Dimetrodon ("two-measure tooth"), cynodont ("dog tooth") Carcharodontosaurus ("serrated tooth lizard")
Examples: Hypocnemoides ("like Hypocnemis"); Aetobarbakinoides ("like the long-legged buzzard"); Callianthemoides ("like Callianthemum"); Argyrodes ("like silver")
Examples: Triceratops ("three-horned face"); Moschops ("calf face"); Spinops ("spine face")
Examples: ornithischian ("bird-hipped"); Ornithocheirus ("bird-hand"); Eoconfuciusornis ("Confucius's dawn bird")
Examples: Pachycephalosaurus ("thick-headed lizard"); Pachylemur ("thick lemur"); Pachyuromys ("thick tailed mouse")
Examples: Paranthodon ("near Anthodon"); Pararhabdodon ("near Rhabdodon"); Parasaurolophus ("near Saurolophus)"
Examples: Australopithecus ("southern ape"); Ardipithecus ("floor ape"); Gigantopithecus ("giant ape")
Examples: Plesiosaurus ("near lizard"); Plesiorycteropus ("near aardvark"); Plesiobaena ("near Baena")
Examples: Ornithopod ("bird foot"); Brachypodosaurus ("short footed lizard"); Moropus ("slow foot")
Proterosuchus ("before crocodile"); Procompsognathus ("before elegant jaw"); Prosaurolophus ("before lizard crest")
Examples: Protoceratops ("first horned face"); Protognathosaurus ("first jaw lizard"); Protohadros ("first hadrosaur")
Examples: Psittacosaurus ("parrot lizard"); Cyclopsitta ("Cyclops parrot"); Xenopsitta ("strange parrot").
Examples: Pteranodon ("toothless wing"); Pterodactylus ("wing finger"); Eurypterus ("wide wing" or fin); Pterygotus ("winged" or finned); Archaeopteryx ("ancient wing")
-pus: see: -pod, -podo-, -pus.
Examples: Velociraptor ("swift seizer"); Utahraptor ("Utah seizer"); Raptorex ("seizer king")
Examples: Raptorex ("seizer king"); Dracorex ("dragon king"); Tyrannosaurus rex ("monarch lizard king")
Examples: Altirhinus ("high nose"); Pachyrhinosaurus ("thick-nosed lizard"); Lycorhinus ("wolf nose"); Arrhinoceratops ("noseless horned face")
Examples: Sarcophilus ("flesh-loving"); Sarcopterygii ("fleshy fin"); Sarcosuchus ("flesh crocodile")
Examples: dinosaur, mososaur ("Meuse lizard"), Tyrannosaurus ("king lizard"), Allosaurus ("different lizard") Sauroposeidon ("Poseidon lizard")
Examples: Smilodon ("knife tooth"); Smilosuchus ("knife crocodile"); Thylacosmilus ("pouched knife"); Xenosmilus ("strange knife")
Examples:Streptospondylus ("backwards vertebra"); Massospondylus ("longer vertebra"); Bothriospondylus ("excavated vertebra")
Examples: Stegosaurus ("roofed lizard"); Ichthyostega ("roofed fish"); Acanthostega ("spine roof")
Examples: deuterostome (second mouth); Gnathostoma ("jaw mouth") Anastomus ("on mouth")
Examples: Deinosuchus ("terrible crocodile") Anatosuchus ("duck crocodile"), Suchomimus ("crocodile mimic")
Examples: Gonioteuthis ("narrow squid") Architeuthis ("ruling squid") Vampyroteuthis ("vampire squid")
Examples: theropod ("beast foot"), Megatherium ("big beast") Brontotherium ("thunder beast")
Thylacine ("pouched one"); Thylacoleo ("pouched lion"); Thylacosmilus ("pouched knife")
Examples: Titanosaurus ("Titan lizard"); Giraffatitan ("giraffe Titan"); Anatotitan ("duck Titan")
Examples: Tyrannosaurus ("king lizard"); Nanotyrannus ("dwarf king"); Tyrannotitan ("Titan king")
Examples: metazoa ("encompassing animals"); parazoa ("near animals"); ecdysozoa ("moulting animals")

See also

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