Karen Strassman

Karen Strassman

Strassman at Animate Miami 2014.
Born June 5
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Residence Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Other names Kirsty Pape
Mia Bradly
Occupation Voice actress
Years active 1990-present
Website www.karenstrassman.com

Karen Strassman (born June 5)[1] is an American actress who has provided English language voices for Japanese anime shows and video games. Some of her major roles include Kallen Stadtfeld in the Code Geass series, Miyuki in Lucky Star, Nina Fortner in Monster, Rider in Fate/stay night, Sawako in K-On!, and Soi Fon in Bleach.[2][3] In live-action work, she portrayed Jolene in the television show Weeds.

Life and career

Strassman enjoyed acting at a young age, and was involved in school plays. When Strassman was 20, she had moved to France to study psychology and theatre at Conservatoire National Superieur d’Art Dramatique in Paris.[4] In an interview with Slink FM, she said she picked psychology as a ways to earn a living in case theatre did not pan out. While there, she saw an advertisement calling for actors who could speak English. She got an apprenticeship with Studio VO/VF where she trained as a dialect coach. After a year, she was offered a paid position where she trained older French actors on how to act in English. She also taught kids, where she was recruited by two women who produced a magazine called Hi-Kids which would produce audio cassettes. It was there where she started doing voice-over. She would later do French and English dubs, and got into video game voice-over.[4][5] She provided voice over work in French for Air France, Euro-star, Disneyland Paris, and for audio tours of The Louvre and the Musée d'Orsay. As a dialect coach, she worked with Lancôme advertising.[6]



List of voice performances in anime
Year Title Role Notes Source[7]
2002 Rurouni Kenshin Itsuko Katsu
2002 Great Teacher Onizuka Mizuki Yokoyama, Naoko Izumi
2002 Cosmo Warrior Zero Helmatier
2002 I My Me! Strawberry Eggs Miho's Mother, Teacher
2002 Babel II – Beyond Infinity Ryoko Kirishima
2002–03 X Satsuki Yatouji  
2003 Chobits Yuzuki
2003 Gun Frontier Sinunora As Kirsty Pape
2003 Mirage of Blaze Maiko Asaoko As Mia Bradly
2003 Heat Guy J Phia Oliveira, others As Mia Bradly
2003 The Twelve Kingdoms Yuka Sugimoto As Kirsty Pape
2003 The Big O Various characters
2003 Haibane Renmei Nemu As Kirsty Pape
2003 Figure 17 Orudina As Mia Bradly
2003 Witch Hunter Robin Various characters
2003 Last Exile Delphine Eraclea As Mia Bradly [8]
2003 Wild Arms: Twilight Venom Maiden
2003 Ai Yori Aoshi Mayu Miyuki, others Also Enishi
2003 Please Teacher! Konoha Edajima
2004 Space Pirate Captain Herlock: The Endless Odyssey Mimeh As Mia Bradly
2004 Texhnolyze Servant as Kirsty Pape
2004 Marmalade Boy Suzu Sakuma As Mia Bradly
2004 Angel Tales Yuki the Snake [9]
2004 Gad Guard Catherine Flobér
2004 Requiem from the Darkness Ogin
2004 Stellvia Ren Renge As Mia Bradly
2004 Lunar Legend Tsukihime Aoko Aozaki As Mia Bradly
2004 Paranoia Agent Mrs. Kamohara As Kirsty Pape
2004 Burn-Up: Scramble Warriors Commander As Mia Bradly
2004 Submarine 707R Yuu As Mia Bradly, OVA
2004 Please Twins! Kikuchi
2005 Hanaukyo Maid Team La Verite Mariel As Mia Bradly
2005 Rumiko Takahashi Anthology Matsuko Kogure As Kirsty Pape
2005 Overman King Gainer Jaboli Mariela As Mia Bradly
2005 Daphne in the Brilliant Blue Millie As Mia Bradly
2005 Koi Kaze Shoko Akimoto, others
2005 Kyo Kara Maoh! Cecilie von Spitzweg, Gisela von Christ, others As Mia Bradly
2005 Scrapped Princess Steyr, Fafal
2005–06 Samurai Champloo Ozumu Episode: "Hellhounds for Hire", as Mia Bradly [10]
2005 Tenjho Tenge Makiko Nagi As Mia Bradly, also Ultimate Fight
2005 Planetes Sia's Mother
2005 Grenadier Fuuka Shirato As Mia Bradly
2005 Fafner in the Azure Chizuru Tomi As Mia Bradly
2005 Mermaid Forest Nae, others As Kirsty Pape
2005 DearS Ren As Mia Bradly
2005 Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo Mercédès de Morcerf  
2005 Immortal Grand Prix Fantine Valjean TV series
2005 Bottle Fairy Chiriri As Mia Bradly
2005 Di Gi Charat Petit Charat Also Leave It to Piyoko, Upchuck Bazooka, as Mia Bradly
2006 Haré+Guu Ravenna As Mia Bradly
2006 Gun X Sword Fasalina
2006 Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Various characters
2006 Ergo Proxy Various characters As Kirsty Pape
2006 Fate/stay night Rider
2006–14 Bleach Soifon, Momo Hinamori   [10]
2006 Paradise Kiss Yukino Koizumi  
2007 Tales of Phantasia: The Animation Mint Adenade As Mia Bradly, OVA
2007–11 Rozen Maiden Suigintou As Mia Bradly, also Traumend, Ouverture [11]
2007 Flag Rowell Su-ming  
2008 Blue Dragon Valkyrie   [12]
2008–09 Code Geass series Kallen Stadtfeld   [8][10][13]
2008 Rozen Maiden Suigintou   [11]
2008 Lucky Star Miyuki Takara   [14]
2008 Gurren Lagann Kiyoh Bachika, Additional voices   [10][15]
2009 Ah My Buddha Sumi Ikuina  
2009 Monster Nina Fortner / Anna Liebert   [8][10]
2011–12 K-On! Sawako Yamanaka 2 TV series [10][16]
2011 Mobile Suit Gundam Unicorn Loni Garvey Vol. 4: "At the Bottom of the Gravity Well" [17]
2012 Puella Magi Madoka Magica Kazuko Saotome   [10][18]
2012 Persona 4: The Animation Nanako Dojima   [5][10][11]
2012–14 Hellsing Ultimate Hienkel Wulf, others   [19]
2013 Blue Exorcist Michelle Neuhaus   [20]
2013 Fate/zero Sola-Ui Nuada-Re   [10]
2014 Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic Paimon, Zainab   [21]
2014 Toradora! Yasuko Takasu Nominated – BTVA Anime Award for Best Female Supporting Vocal Performance in an Anime Television Series/OVA [22]
2014–15 Knights of Sidonia Eiko Yamano   [23]
2014 Kill la Kill Omiko Hakodate Ep. 2 [10][24]
2014 Gargantia on the Verdurous Planet Striker   [10][25]
2015 Coppelion Yukiko Kawabata   [26][27]
2015 Durarara!!×2 Emilia, Additional voices   [28]
2015 Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin Casval Rem Deikun   [29][30]
2015 Sword Art Online II Oosawa Sachie, Urd Ep. 14–17 [31]
2016 Love Live! Director Minami   [32]
TBA Skip Beat! Shoko Aki In Kickstarter-fundraising status for English dub production [33]


List of voice performances in animation
Year Title Role Notes Source[7]
199495 Insektors Aelia North American dub [34]
2009–11 Huntik: Secrets & Seekers Zhalia Moon   [35][36][37]
2011–12 Winx Club Nebula Nickelodeon dub:
Enchantix (season 3)
The Power of Bellevix (season 4)
2012 Monsuno Jinja, Medea, Charlemagne, various characters   [38][39]
2013 Mickey Mouse Additional voices Ep. 3: "Croissant de Triomphe"
2013–14 Clay Kids Carol   [40][41]
2014 Hero Factory Natalie Breez   [42]
2015 Ever After High Bunny Blanc, Queen of Hearts, Ashlynn Ella Netflix series
Ep. "Spring Unsprung"

Feature films

List of voice performances in feature films
Year Title Role Notes Source[7]
2005 Appleseed Hitomi, Gilliam Knute Geneon dub, Limited theatrical release

Direct-to-video and television films

List of voice performances in direct-to-video and television films
Year Title Role Notes Source[7]
2002 Gundress Takako Houraji
2003 Sakura Wars: The Movie Kasumi Fuji As Kirsty Pape
2006–11 Juno Baby videos Various characters French version
2008 The Ruins Additional Vine Vocal Live-action dub [11]
2008 Bleach: Memories of Nobody Soi Fon  
2009 Bleach: The DiamondDust Rebellion Soi Fon  
2011 Bleach: Fade to Black Soi Fon  
2012 Little Big Panda Manchu [11]
2012–present Lego Friends Olivia   [45][46][47]
2013 K-On: The Movie Sawako Yamanaka   [11]
2014 Monster High: Frights, Camera, Action! Elissabat, Veronica   [11]
2015 Monster High: Boo York, Boo York Catty Noir   [48]

Video games

List of voice performances in video games
Year Title Role Notes Source[7]
1992 Dune Chani Grouped under Voices, Also Motion Capture [49][50]
1995 Lost Eden Eve, Komalla Grouped under Voices [49][51]
1997 Dark Earth Kalhi [49]
1999 Omikron: The Nomad Soul Various characters   [49]
2004 Breakdown Alex Hendriksen   [49]
2004 Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War Kei Nagase Uncredited[note 1] [49]
2004 Everquest II games Various characters
2004 Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon 2 Additional voices Also motion capture
2004 World of Warcraft Various characters
2005 Beatdown: Fists of Vengeance Gina   [49]
2006 Suikoden V Sialeeds Uncredited [49]
2006 Rumble Roses XX Miss Spencer/Mistress Uncredited [49]
2006 Valkyrie Profile 2: Silmeria Richelle, Sylphide As Kirsty Pape [11]
2006 Dead or Alive Xtreme 2 Helena Douglas   [52]
2007 Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia Misha Arsellec Lune Uncredited
2007 Odin Sphere Gwendolyn Uncredited [52]
2007 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 Aigis Also FES, Portable [5][11][52][53]
2007 Warriors Orochi Okuni  
2007 Bleach: Shattered Blade Soifon, Momo Hinamori  
2007 Trauma Center: New Blood Elena Salazar   [52][54]
2008 Final Fantasy IV Rosa Farrell As Kirsty Pape
2008 Soulcalibur IV Shura Uncredited
2008–12 Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 4 Nanako Dojima, Izanami Also Arena, Golden, Vol. 2 [11][52]
2009 Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles Alexia Ashford   [11]
2009 Saboteur, TheThe Saboteur Veronique Also motion capture [52]
2010 Fragile Dreams: Farewell Ruins of the Moon Sai Uncredited
2010Dead or Alive Paradise Helena Douglas [11][55]
2010 Mimana Iyar Chronicle Melrose Kirsch Uncredited
2010 Sakura Wars: So Long, My Love Diana Caprice Uncredited
2010 Valkyria Chronicles II Juliana Everhart
2010 Sengoku Basara: Samurai Heroes Saika Magoichi   [52]
2010 Fallout New Vegas Ghouls   [11]
2010 Sonic Colors Rouge the Bat DS version [11]
2011 Mortal Kombat Kitana, Mileena
2011 Rune Factory: Tides of Destiny Maerwen   [11]
2012 NeverDead Cypher   [11]
2012 Street Fighter X Tekken Poison   [11]
2012 Zero Escape: Virtue's Last Reward Phi Uncredited [56]
2013 Fire Emblem: Awakening Olivia, Anna   [11]
2013 StarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm Izsha   [11][57]
2013 Ingress Dr. Devra Bogdanovich   [58][59]
2014 Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII Various characters Credited as Additional Voices [60]
2014 Earth Defense Force 2025 Tactics Officer   [52][61]
2014 Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth Nanako, Aigis   [62]
2015 Mortal Kombat X Kitana, Mileena   [63][64]
2015 Persona 4: Dancing All Night Nanako Dojima   [65]

Live-action roles

List of acting performances
Year Series Role Notes Source[66]
1994 Death and the Maiden Elena Galvin  
2004 Medical Investigation Jenna Kirkland Episode: "Price of Pleasure"
2005 Gilmore Girls Francoise  
2006 Big Love Neighbor Episode: "Viagra Blue"
2007 The Young and the Restless French Tourist Episode #1.8583
2008 House Female Guest #1 Episode: "Don't Ever Change"
2008 Adventures in Voice Acting Herself Documentary film on voice acting [67]
2010 Desperate Housewives Sobbing Woman Episode: "How About a Friendly Shrink?"
2010 Criminal Minds Martha Porter Episode: "Exit Wounds"
2011 Weeds Jolene   [68]
2012 Lie with Me Deanna O'Shannon  
2013 Betas Scarlet Episode: "Strange Magic"
2015 Days of Our Lives Screaming Mom Episode #1.12508
2015 The Red Thunder   Short film by Alvaro Ron for Cadillac ATS Coupe [69][70][71]
2015 Workaholics Paula Episode: "Ditch Day" [72][73]
2015 Silicon Valley Hooli Lead Counsel Episodes: "Binding Arbitration" and "Two Days of the Condor"  [74]
2015 I Spit on Your Grave III: Vengeance is Mine Lynne [75][76]


  1. No closing credits listed for English voice actors.


  1. Point of Contact Booking (June 5, 2015). "Happy Birthday to the always-radiant Karen Strassman Fan Page! Catch her this Sunday and next Sunday as a guest star on HBO's Silicon Valley!". Facebook. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  2. "Industry Guests". Animate Miami. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  3. "Anime Boston – The Northeast's Largest Anime Convention". animeboston.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  4. 1 2 "Karen's Bio". KarenStrassman.com. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  5. "Karen's Bio" (PDF). Karen Strassman.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "Karen Strassman's Credits" (PDF). Karen Strassman. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 "Junior's Cave: Games & Comics interview with Voice Actress Karen Strassman". juniorscave.com. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  8. Terrace 2008, p. 45
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Animate Miami (Nov. 14–16, 2014) Announces Karen Strassman". Facebook. August 9, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 "Behind the Voice Actors – Karen Strassman". Behind the Voice Actors. Retrieved March 26, 2015. Check mark indicates BTVA has verified the entries using screenshots of credits and other confirmed sources.
  11. Terrace 2008, p. 16
  12. "Gundamn! @ MAHQ: Gundamn! @ MAHQ Ep. 116 – "The Queen of Hearts"". gundamnmahq.blogspot.com. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  13. Bang Zoom! (June 25, 2008). "Bang Zoom Preps Lucky Star For Release" (Press release) via IGN.
  14. "Bandai Entertainment's Gurren Lagann Dub Cast Announced". Anime News Network. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  15. "Amazon.com: K-On! Vol. 3: Aki Toyosaki, Stephanie Sheh, Asami Sanada, Karen Strassman, Ayana Taketatsu, Christine Marie Cabanos, Chika Fujito, Laura Bailey, Naoko Yamada: Movies & TV". amazon.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  16. "Fourth 'Gundam UC' Blu-ray Gets North American Details". FandomPost.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  17. JetStorm8600 (January 16, 2015). "@ChristineMCVA @CristinaVee @SoCassandra @CarrieKeranen @ItsXanthor @KarenStrassman @SarahAnneWillia. So excited :D" (Tweet). Retweeted by Karen Strassman. Retrieved April 10, 2015 via Twitter.
  18. "Hellsing V". Hellsing Ultimate. Episode 5. October 18, 2014. Adult Swim.
  19. Karen Strassman [KarenStrassman] (December 31, 2014). "Thanking a fan who brought up her role as Michelle in Blue Exorcist." (Tweet). Retrieved March 22, 2015 via Twitter.
  20. "Capture that VA! – 14 Karen Strassman (Paimon/Zainab)". Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic English official website. January 24, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  21. "Behind The Voice Actors – BTVA Anime Dub Awards". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  22. "Netflix Announces 'Knights of Sidonia' Second Anime Season". The Fandom Post. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  23. "So Sexy She Might Pass Out". Kill la Kill. Episode 2. Aniplex. February 14, 2015. Adult Swim.
  24. "'Gargantia On The Verdurous' Anime Gets Third Dub Clip". The Fandom Post. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  25. "Viz Media's Coppelion Dub Casts Erica Lindbeck, Cassandra Lee Morris, Shelby Lindley". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  26. "Viz Media Talks 'Coppelion' Anime Release". The Fandom Post. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  27. "Aniplex USA Details Fate/stay night: UBW, Durarara!!×2 Shō Release Details". Anime News Network. July 2, 2015.
  28. "'Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin – Sorrowful Artesia' Anime Episode Gets English Language Trailer". The Fandom Post. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  29. "Second 'Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin' Anime Episode Titled". The Fandom Post. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  30. "The Queen of the Lake". Sword Art Online II. Episode 15. Aniplex. July 18, 2015. Adult Swim.
  31. NIS America (February 16, 2016). Love Live! Season 2 Booklet.
  32. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2016-09-13/skip-beat-dub-additional-cast-staff-backer-upgrades-revealed/.106392
  33. Insektors Season 2 Episode 7 closing credits
  34. Terrace 2008, p. 488
  35. "Doorway to Huntik". Huntik: Secrets & Seekers. Season 2. Episode 1. April 21, 2013. CW4Kids.
  36. "A Seeker Is Born". Huntik. Season 1. Episode 1.
  37. Adam Fisher [ED_Rider] (February 19, 2015). ""@KarenStrassman Think of posting this on your facebook page saying Monsuno is available to watch on hulu? "" (Tweet). Retrieved March 23, 2015 via Twitter.
  38. "Karen Strassman – About". Karen Strassman. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  39. Clay Kids [ClayKids_] (January 1, 2015). "Thanks voice actors, including Strassman, that participated in their project." (Tweet). Retrieved March 22, 2015 via Twitter.
  40. "Big Mean Steve". Clay Kids. Episode 1.
  41. "Invasion from Below". Hero Factory. Season 1. Episode 11. January 9, 2014. Hero Factory Online Game.
  42. Karen Strassman [KarenStrassman] (March 15, 2015). ""OK, for those of you going to see Disney's "Cinderella" in theaters, you'll probably get to hear me beforehand as... (link to Facebook post about her role as Ashlynn Ella in Ever After High)."" (Tweet). Retrieved March 23, 2015 via Twitter.
  43. "Spring Unsprung". Ever After High.
  44. "Dolphin Cruise". Lego Friends. December 9, 2013 via YouTube.
  45. "Stephanie's Surprise Party". Lego Friends. December 17, 2013 via YouTube.
  46. "New Girl in Town". Lego Friends. January 1, 2014.
  47. Monster High: Boo York, Boo York (Netflix). 2015.
  48. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Osborn, Kristopher (February 27, 2013). "Behind the Voice: Karen Strassman Part 1". Destructoid. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  49. Cryo Interactive,. Dune. PC. Virgin Interactive. Scene: Closing credits, Voices.
  50. Cryo Interactive,. Lost Eden. PC. Virgin Interactive. Scene: Closing credits, Voices.
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Osborn, Kris (March 2, 2013). "Behind the Voice: Karen Strassman Part 2". Destructoid. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  52. North, Dale (July 7, 2008). "Anime Expo '08: Atlus' Shin Megami Tensei panel". Destructoid. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  53. Karen Strassman [KarenStrassman] (January 30, 2015). "Karen thanks tweet about bring up her role in Trauma Center: New Blood." (Tweet). Retrieved March 23, 2015 via Twitter.
  54. Dead or Alive Paradise (manual) (PDF). Dead or Alive. Tecmo. p. 12. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  55. Osborn, Kris (March 5, 2013). "Behind the Voice: Karen Strassman Part 3". Destructoid. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  56. "Karen Strassman lending voice to Kerrigan in StarCraft II". VG247.com. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
  57. "Niantic Project Characters: Dr. Devra Bogdanovich".
  58. "Ingress, starring POCers Karen Strassman... – Point of Contact Booking – Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  59. Square Enix. Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII. Scene: Closing credits, 5 minutes in, Voice Actors, Additional Voices.
  60. Sandlot (February 18, 2014). Earth Defense Force 2025. D3 Publisher. Scene: Closing credits, 2:45 in, Voice Cast.
  61. "Persona Q (3DS) Review". Brutal Gamer. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  62. Karen Strassman [KarenStrassman] (March 13, 2015). "For Mortal Kombat and Mileena fans..." (Tweet). Retrieved April 21, 2015 via Twitter.
  63. Brian Chard [bcharred] (April 14, 2015). "Huge thanks to the stellar MKX voice actors: Troy @TroyBakerVA (Shinnok/EBlack/Fujin), Ronald M. Banks (Quan Chi); Ashly Burch (Cassie)..." (Tweet). Retrieved April 21, 2015 via Twitter.
    Brian Chard [bcharred] (April 14, 2015). "Michal McConnohie (Kano); Jamieson Price (Anncr, Ermac); Karen Strassman (Mileena/Kitana); Tara Strong (Ferra/Li Mei); Parry Shen (Takeda).." (Tweet). Retrieved April 21, 2015 via Twitter.
  64. Karen Strassman (August 31, 2015). "Persona and Nanako fans... Here's a lil' trailer for you.. (video with Nanako)". Karen Strassman Fan Page / Facebook. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  65. "Karen Strassman – Acting Resume" (PDF). Karen Strassman. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  66. "Adventures in Voice acting". Spotlight Entertainment. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  67. "Karen Strassman on Weeds". All Taste Explosion Radio Network. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  68. The Red Thunder. YouTube. January 24, 2015.
  69. "Alum's film 'The Red Thunder' finalist in Make Your Mark competition". Daily Bruin. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  70. "EGEDA US". egeda-us.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  71. Karen Strassman [KarenStrassman] (March 4, 2015). "Karen thanks a fan for tweeting a picture of her as Paula." (Tweet). Retrieved March 22, 2015 via Twitter.
  72. Strassman, Karen (February 17, 2015). "Excited and a little squeamish to announce that I will probably be Guest-Starring on Workaholics (Comedy Central) this Wednesday night.". Karen Strassman Fan Page / Facebook. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
  73. Karen Strassman [KarenStrassman] (June 14, 2015). "Last ep of SILICON VALLEY tonight. You won't see me as much as the previous episode, but I'll popping up here..." (Tweet). Retrieved August 7, 2015 via Twitter.
  74. I Spit on Your Grave: Vengeance Is Mine (2015) – R.D. Braunstein | Cast and Crew. AllMovie. Retrieved on May 9, 2016.
  75. Strassman, Karen (January 22, 2005). "I've been having a blast shooting AVENGING ANGEL with the beautiful and talented Sarah Butler, and honored to be collaborating with such an amazing cast and crew.". Karen Strassman Fan Page / Facebook. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
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