Human rights in post-invasion Iraq

This article is part of a series on the
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Human rights in post-invasion Iraq have been the subject of concerns and controversies since the 2003 invasion. Concerns have been expressed about conduct by insurgents, the U.S.-led coalition forces and the Iraqi government. The U.S. is investigating several allegations of violations of international and internal standards of conduct in isolated incidents by its own forces and contractors. The UK is also conducting investigations of alleged human rights abuses by its forces. War crime tribunals and criminal prosecution of the numerous crimes by insurgents are likely years away. In late February 2009, the U.S. state department released a report on the human rights situation in Iraq, looking back on the past year (2008).[1]

Human rights abuses by insurgents

See also: List of suicide bombings in Iraq since 2003 and List of massacres of the Iraq War

The UN headquarters building in Baghdad after the Canal Hotel bombing, on 22 August 2003

Abuses of Human Rights conducted by, or alleged to have been conducted by, Iraq-based insurgents and/or terrorists include:

August 2003

June 2004

South Korean translator Kim Sun-il beheaded by followers of al-Zarqawi.[4]

July 2004

Tawhid and Jihad behead Bulgarian truck drivers Ivaylo Kepov and Georgi Lazov. Al-Jazeera broadcast the videotape containing the killing, but said the portion with the actual killing was too graphic to broadcast.[5]

December 2004

Italian photographer, 52-year-old Salvatore Santoro, beheaded in a video. Islamic Movement of Iraqi Mujahedeen claimed responsibility.[4]

An Iraqi vehicle burns in Baghdad after being hit by a mortar that was fired by insurgents, 8 August 2006

February 2005

Al-Iraqiya TV (Iraq) aired transcripts of confessions by Syrian intelligence officer Anas Ahmad Al-Issa and Iraqi terrorist Shihab Al-Sab'awi concerning their booby-trap operations, explosions, kidnappings, assassinations, and details of beheading training in Syria.[6]

July 2005

Egyptian and Algerian envoys.

February 2006

The Al Askari Mosque bombing occurred on February 22, 2006 at approximately 6:55am local time (0355 UTC) at the Al Askari Mosque — one of the holiest sites in Shi'a Islam — in the Iraqi city of Samarra, some 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Baghdad. Although no injuries occurred in the blast, the bombing resulted in violence over the following days. Over 100 dead bodies with bullet holes were found on February 23, and at least 165[9] people are thought to have been killed.

June 2006

Video of the killing of four Russian diplomats kidnapped in Iraq appear on the Internet. A group called the Mujahideen Shura Council released the hostage video.[10]

The Islamic State of Iraq captured and subsequently murdered three U.S. soldiers in May 2007

July 2006

Anba' Al Iraq News agency, Writers without Borders Organisation condemn the imprisonment of its staff member, Mr. Husain E. Khadir who was in charge of covering documentaries about the type of threats Kurdistan Federal region imposes to its Neighboring countries. Delegation of Human Rights Watch (HRW) released reports about torture in Iraq and repression of human rights and freedom of expression. HRW interviewed several detaineed writers and journalists to document such violation.[17][18] Mr. Khadir was detained in Karkuk then moved to Arbil where Human Rights Watch (HRW) visited him in one of the detention places. Last year in Baghdad, the same writer suffered even worse when he escaped from Shiia militia, who seized his house and threw his family in the streets, which was considered as a serious threat directed against his life. The move is widely exercised in Iraq in a retaliation against human rights activists, journalists and writers who express critics to the Iraqi government and Shiia coalition party. Several press and media agencies criticized loudly the Iraqi Shiia Coalition during the constitution writing process. Khadir led a campaign to amend the constitution and urged for a constitution to be as peace building tool which brings all parties and opponents to a national consensus and social cohesion rather than a state building as the ruling party is regularly saying. UNAMI commented that most of these civil society activities were and are supported by the UN agencies, International donors or the US and British governments. IRIN/UN news agency revealed that journalists and writers are the most vulnerable victims to killing, deaths, threats, kidnapping, torture and detention are commonly exercised by un controlled Iraqi forces,paramilitary organisations and Shiia or Suni militias. Similarity to this specific case is occurring and spreading in the south, centre and the north of Iraq.

The number of killed journalists and writers in Iraq has exceeded 220 this year. The Iraqi organisation for Supporting Journalists victims reported to IRIN.

US National Guard Sergeant Frank "Greg" Ford claims that he witnessed human rights violations in Samarra, Iraq. A subsequent Army investigation found Ford's allegations to be unfounded. Ford was also found to have displayed unauthorized "US Navy SEAL" insignia on his Army uniform; Ford had in fact never been a Navy SEAL as he had claimed for many years while serving in the Army National Guard.

Human rights abuses by coalition forces

Gun camera footage of the airstrike of 12 July 2007 in Baghdad, showing the slaying of Namir Noor-Eldeen and a dozen other civilians by an US helicopter.

Prison and interrogation abuses by coalition forces

April 2003

An Iraqi man, Ather Karen al-Mowafakia, was shot and killed by a British Army soldier at a roadside checkpoint on 29 April 2003. Witnesses have told how he was shot in the abdomen after the door of his car struck a British soldier on the leg when he was getting out of his car, and that he was then dragged from the vehicle and beaten by British troops, dying later in hospital. There was no prosecution of British troops involved in his death.[13]

May 2003

In May 2003, Saeed Shabram and his cousin, Menem Akaili, were thrown into the river near Basra after being detained by British troops. Akaili survived but Shabram did not as he drowned in the river. Akaili said that he and Shabram were approached by a British patrol and led at gunpoint down to a jetty before being forced into the river. The punishment was known as "wetting" and said to have been inflicted on local youths suspected of looting. "Wetting was supposed to humiliate those suspected of being petty criminals," said Sapna Malik, the family's lawyer at Leigh Day and Co. "Although the MoD denies that there was a policy of wetting to deal with suspected looters around the time of this incident, evidence we have seen suggests otherwise. "The tactics employed by the MoD appeared to include throwing or placing suspected looters into either of Basra's two main waterways." Iraqi bystanders dragged Akaili out of the water but his cousin disappeared. Shabram's body was later recovered by a diver hired by his father, Radhi Shabram. Shabram's mother waited on the river bank for four hours, screaming and crying, while the diver searched the river. "When Saeed's corpse was finally pulled from the river, Radhi describes how it was bloated and covered with marks and bruises," said Leigh Day. Though the MOD paid compensation to Saeed Shabram's family, none of the British soldiers were charged for his death.[14]

Ahmed Jabbar Kareem Ali, aged 15, was on his way to work with his brother on May 8, 2003, when British soldiers assaulted him. The four British soldiers beat him then forced him into a canal at gunpoint to "teach him a lesson" for suspected looting (which wasn't proven to be true). Weakened from the beating Ali received from the soldiers, he floundered. He was dead when he was pulled from the river. Four British soldiers who were involved in the death of an Iraqi teenager were acquitted of manslaughter.[15][16]

August 2003

Hanan Saleh Matrud, an eight-year-old Iraqi girl, was killed on 21 August 2003 by a soldier of the King's Regiment, when a Warrior armoured vehicle stopped near an alley that lead to her home. Three or four soldiers got out. A group of children, including Hanan gathered, attracted by the soldiers. Suddenly, a soldier of the King's Regiment aimed and fired a shot that hit Hanan in her lower torso. At first, soldiers did not want to take her to hospital, but later did. She died the following day after an operation. No proper investigation was carried out, and no British soldier has been charged with her killing.[17]

September 2003

Main article: Death of Baha Mousa

On 14 September, Baha Mousa, a 26-year-old hotel receptionist, was arrested along with six other men and taken to a British base. While in detention, Mousa and the other captives were hooded, severely beaten, and assaulted by a number of British troops. Two days later, Mousa was found dead.[18] A post-mortem examination found that Mousa suffered multiple injuries (at least 93), including fractured ribs and a broken nose, which were "in part" the cause of his death.[19]

Seven members of the Queen's Lancashire Regiment were tried on charges relating to the ill treatment of detainees, including those of war crimes under the International Criminal Court Act 2001. On 19 September 2006, Corporal Donald Payne pleaded guilty to a charge of inhumane treatment to persons, making him the first member of the British armed forces to plead guilty to a war crime.[20] He was subsequently jailed for one year and expelled from the army. The BBC reported that the six other soldiers were cleared of any wrongdoing,[21] and the Independent reported that the charges had been dropped, and that the presiding judge, Justice Ronald McKinnon, stated that "none of those soldiers has been charged with any offence, simply because there is no evidence against them as a result of a more or less obvious closing of ranks."[22]

January 2004

On January 1, Ghanem Kadhem Kati, an unarmed young man, was shot twice in the back by a British soldier at the door to his home on January 1. Troops had arrived at the scene after hearing shooting, which neighbours said came from a wedding party. Investigators from the Royal Military Police exhumed the teenager's body six weeks later but have yet to offer compensation or announce any conclusion to the inquiry.

Footage from the gun camera of an Apache helicopter killing suspected Iraqi insurgents

Video footage taken from the gun camera of a US Apache helicopter in Iraq was shown on ABC TV, showing the killing of suspected Iraqi insurgents. Controversy arose around the case, due to the ambiguity of the video. A cylindrical object is tossed on the ground in a field. The US military considered it to be an RPG or a mortar tube and fired upon the people. IndyMedia UK has suggested that the items may have been harmless implements of some sort. The journal also says that the helicopter opened fire on a man identified as wounded, which they say is in contradiction with international laws.[23][24]

On German television, retired General Robert Gard of the US Army stated that the killings were, in his opinion, "inexcusable murders".[25]

April 2004

On April 14, Lieutenant Ilario Pantano of the United States Marine Corps, killed two unarmed captives. Lieutenant Pantano claimed that the captives had advanced on him in a threatening manner. The officer who presided over his article 32 hearing recommended a court martial for "body desecration", but all charges against Lieutenant Pantano were dropped due to lack of credible evidence or testimony. He subsequently separated from the Marine Corps with an honorable discharge.

A video showing a group of British soldiers apparently beating several Iraqi teenagers was posted on the internet in February 2006, and shortly thereafter, on the main television networks around the world. The video, took place in April 2004 and was taken from an upper storey of a building in the southern Iraqi town of Al-Amarah, shows many Iraqis outside a coalition compound. Following an altercation in which members of the crowd tossed rocks and reportedly an improvised grenade at the soldiers, the British soldiers rushed the crowd. The troopers brought some Iraqi teenagers into the compound and proceeded to beat them. The video includes a voiceover in a British accent, apparently by the cameraman, taunting the beaten teenagers.

The individual recording could be heard saying:

Oh, yes! Oh Yes! Now you gonna get it. You little kids. You little motherfucking bitch!, you little motherfucking bitch.[26]

The event was broadcast in mainstream media, resulting in the British government and military condemning the event. The incident became especially worrisome for British soldiers, who had enjoyed a much more favourable position than American soldiers in the region. Concerns were voiced to the media about the safety of soldiers in the country after the incident. The tape incurred criticism, albeit relatively muted, from Iraq, and media found people prepared to speak out. The Royal Military Police conducted an investigation into the event, and the prosecuting authorities determined that there was insufficient case to justify court martial proceedings.[27]

May 2004

In May 2004, a British soldier identified as M004 mistreated captured, unarmed prisoners of war during a 'tactical questioning' in Camp Abu Naji.[28]

See: Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre

The village of Mukaradeeb was attacked by American helicopters on May 19, 2004, killing 42 men, women and children. The casualties, 11 of whom were women and 14 were children, were confirmed by Hamdi Noor al-Alusi, the manager of the nearest hospital. Western journalists also viewed the bodies of the children before they were buried.[29]

November 2005

See: Haditha killings

On November 19, 24 Iraqis were killed. At least 15, and allegedly all, of those killed were non-combatant civilians and all are alleged to have been killed by a group of U.S. Marines. The following ongoing investigation claimed it found evidence that "supports accusations that U.S. Marines deliberately shot civilians, including unarmed women and children", according to an anonymous Pentagon official.[30]

March 2006

See: Mahmudiyah killings

On March 12, an Iraqi girl was raped and murdered together with her family in the Mahmudiyah killings. The incident resulted the offenders being prosecuted and a number of reprisal attacks against U.S. troops by insurgent forces.

See: Ishaqi incident

On March 15, 11 Iraqi civilians were allegedly bound and executed by U.S. troops in what is termed the "Ishaqi incident". A U.S. investigation found that U.S. military personnel had acted appropriately, and had followed the proper rules of engagement in responding to hostile fire and incrementally escalating force until the threat was eliminated. The Iraqi government rejected the American conclusions. In September 2011, the Iraqi government reopened their investigation after Wikileaks published a leaked diplomatic cable regarding questions about the raid made by U.N. inspector Philip Alston, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions.[31]

April 2006

See: Hamdania incident

On April 26, U.S. Marines shot dead an unarmed Iraqi man. An investigation by the Naval Criminal Investigative Service resulted in charges of murder, kidnapping, and conspiracy associated with the coverup of the incident. The defendants are seven Marines and a Navy Corpsman. As of February 2007, five of the defendants have pleaded guilty to lesser charges of kidnapping and conspiracy and have agreed to testify against the remaining defendants who face murder charges. Additional Marines from the same battalion faced lesser charges of assault related to the use of physical force during interrogations of suspected insurgents.

May 2006

On May 9, U.S. troops of the 101st Airborne Division executed 3 male Iraqi detainees at the Muthana Chemical Complex. An investigation and lengthy court proceedings followed. Spc. William Hunsaker and Pfc. Corey Clagett — pleaded guilty to murder and were sentenced to 18 years each for premeditated murder. Spc. Juston Graber, pleaded guilty to aggravated assault for shooting one of the wounded detainees and was sentenced to nine months. A forth soldier, Staff Sgt. Ray Girouard of Sweetwater, Tenn. remains convicted of obstruction of justice, conspiracy to obstruct justice and violation of a general order.[32][33]

The current state of human rights

There have been major criticisms by numerous human rights organizations and Shiite officials that currently Sunnis have systematically kidnapped, tortured and killed Shiites or those who they deem the enemy. Amnesty International has extensively criticized the Iraqi government for its handling of the Walid Yunis Ahmad case, in which an ethnically-Turkmen journalist from Iraqi Kurdistan was held for ten years without charge or trial.[34]

According to the Human Rights Watch annual report, the human rights situation in Iraq is deplorable. Since 2015, the country entered a bloody armed conflict between ISIS and coalition of Kurdish, central Iraqi government forces, pro-government militias, and a United States-led international air campaign. United nations revealed that 3.2 million Iraqis were displaced because of the conflict. In addition, the international organization said that the conflicting parties used several ways including extrajudicial executions, suicide attacks, and airstrikes which killed and injured over 20,000 civilians.[35]

An Amnesty International report concluded that "Peshmerga forces of the semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) were preventing residents of Arab villages and Arab residents of mixed Arab-Kurdish towns from returning to their homes, and in some cases have destroyed or permitted the destruction of their homes and property – seemingly as a way to prevent their return in the future."In many cases, Arab houses were "looted, intentionally burned down, bulldozed or blown up after the fighting had ended and Peshmerga forces were in control of the areas." and the report noted that these were not isolated incidents, but examples of a wider pattern. Amnesty also noted that "the forced displacement of Arab residents and the extensive, unlawful destruction of civilian homes and property violate international humanitarian law and should be investigated as war crimes". Amnesty International noted that the village of Tabaj Hamid for example had been razed to the ground. In Jumeili 95 percent of all walls and low lying structures have been destroyed. Amnesty International researchers were apprehended by Peshmerga, who escorted them out of the area and prevented them from taking photographs.[36][37][38] [39]Amnesty said that "The deliberate demolition of civilian homes is unlawful under international humanitarian law, and Amnesty considered that these instances of forced displacement constitute war crimes.[40] Amnesty International also urged the KRG authorities to promptly and independently investigate all deaths that occurred during protests against the KDP (such as on october 2015), and to disclose the findings.[41]

Amnesty criticized that peshmerga forces from the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) and Kurdish militias in northern Iraq have bulldozed, blown up and burned down thousands of homes in an apparent effort to uproot Arab communities. The report, Banished and Dispossessed: Forced Displacement and Deliberate Destruction in Northern Iraq, is based on field investigation in Iraq. It said that "tens of thousands of Arab civilians who were forced to flee their homes because of fighting are now struggling to survive in makeshift camps in desperate conditions. Many have lost their livelihoods and all their possessions and with their homes destroyed, they have nothing to return to. By barring the displaced from returning to their villages and destroying their homes KRG forces are further exacerbating their suffering." The report revealed evidence of forced displacement and large-scale destruction of homes in villages and towns by the peshmerga.[42] [43][44] [45][46]Human Rights Watch reporteed that Kurds have denied Arabs the right to return to their homes, while Kurds had free movment and could even move into the homes that belonged to Arabs.[47] In a 2016 report "‘Where are we supposed to go?’: Destruction and forced displacement in Kirkuk", Amnesty Internation stated that Kurdish authorities have demolished and bulldozed people’s homes and forcibly displaced hundreds of Arab residents.[48] In 2005 the KDP opened fire on protestors at a demonstration by the Democratic Shabak Coalition, killing two Assyrians and leaving several other Assyrians and Shabak wounded.[49] Assyrian groups have also accused Kurds for election rigging in northern Iraq and for preventing Assyrian representation in politics.[50]

Sectarian warfare in Iraq

Iraq is in a state of sectarian civil war. Small groups as well as militia engage in bombings in civilian areas and in assassination of officials of various levels, and against Shiites and smaller religious minorities. Secular-oriented individuals, officials of the new government, aides to the United States (such as translators), individuals and families of the nation's various religious groups are subject to violence and death threats.

Refugee response to threats to life

As a result of attempted murders and death threats 2 million Iraqis have left Iraq. They have mainly gone to Syria, Jordan and Egypt.[51]

See also Refugees of Iraq.


On February 17, 2006 then-U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld reported about new realities in the media age:[52]

"In Iraq, for example, the U.S. military command, working closely with the Iraqi government and the U.S. embassy, has sought nontraditional means to provide accurate information to the Iraqi people in the face of aggressive campaign of disinformation. Yet this has been portrayed as inappropriate; for example, the allegations of someone in the military hiring a contractor, and the contractor allegedly paying someone to print a story—a true story—but paying to print a story."

"The U.S. military plans to continue paying Iraqi newspapers to publish articles favorable to the United States after an inquiry found no fault with the controversial practice," Army General George Casey said March 3, 2006. Casey said that "the internal review had concluded that the U.S. military was not violating U.S. law or Pentagon guidelines with the information operations campaign, in which U.S. troops and a private contractor write pro-American articles and pay to have them planted without attribution in Iraqi media."[53]

The legal status of Freedom of Speech and the Press is also unclear in Iraq. Both freedoms are promised in the Iraqi Constitution, with exemptions for Islamic morality and national security. However, the operating Iraqi Criminal Code of 1969 has vague prohibitions to using the press or any electronic means of communication for "indecent" purposes.

Women's rights

Main article: Women in Iraq
Prevalence of female genital mutilation in Iraq for women aged 15–49 using UNICEF "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, 2013, from . There is a more recent 2016 survey here: . Green = Less than 3%, Blue = 15-25%, Red = Above 50%. The highest prevalence rates of FGM are in Kirkuk (20%), Sulaymaniyah (54%) and Erbil (58%).

Women in Iraq at the beginning of the 21st century are immersed status is affected by many factors: wars (most recently the Iraq War), sectarian religious conflict, debates concerning Islamic law and Iraq's Constitution, cultural traditions, and modern secularism. Hundreds of thousands of Iraqi women are widowed as a result of a series of wars and internal conflicts. Women's rights organizations struggle against harassment and intimidation while they work to promote improvements to women's status in the law, in education, the workplace, and many other spheres of Iraqi life. According to a 2008 report in the Washington Post, the Kurdistan region of Iraq is one of the few places in the world where female genital mutilation had been rampant.[54] In 2008. the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) has stated that honor killings are a serious concern in Iraq, particularly in Iraqi Kurdistan.[55]

Other human rights

The United States through the CPA abolished the death penalty (since reinstated) and ordered that Criminal Code of 1969 (as amended in 1985) and the Civil Code of 1974 would be the operating legal system in Iraq. However, there has been some debate as to how far the CPA rules have been applied.

For example, the Iraqi Criminal Code of 1969 (as amended in 1985) does not prohibit forming a trade union and the Iraqi Constitution promises that such an organization will be recognized (a right under Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), but for some reason the Iraqi courts and special tribunal seem to be operating under a slightly revised version of the 1988 legal code, and thus a 1987 ban on unions might still be in place.

Likewise, while the Iraqi Criminal Code of 1969 or the apparent 1988 edition do not expressly prohibit homosexual relations between consenting adults in private (a right under a United Nations Human Rights Commission ruling in 1994), scattered reports seem to suggest that homosexuality is still being treated as a crime, possibly a capital crime under a 2001 amendment that technically should not exist. For more information on this topic see Gay rights in Iraq.

See also


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  2. NewsHour Extra: Who Are the Iraq Insurgents? - June 12, 2006
  3. "UN News Centre | News Focus: Dark day for UN". Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  4. 1 2 "CBC News Indepth: Iraq". Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  5. "Insurgents kill Bulgarian hostage: Al-Jazeera". CBC News. July 14, 2004.
  6. Archived October 2, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. "Free Internet Press - Uncensored News for Real People". Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  8. "BBC NEWS | Middle East | Captors kill Egypt envoy to Iraq". London: Last Updated:. Retrieved 2008-10-05. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. Worth, Robert F. (February 25, 2006). "Muslim Clerics Call for an End to Iraqi Rioting". New York Times. Retrieved 2006-02-24.
  10. "BBC NEWS | Middle East | Russian diplomat deaths confirmed". London: Last Updated:. Retrieved 2008-10-05. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. " Worldwide". August 14, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  12. "Iraq deaths in British custody could see military face legal challenges". Guardian. 1 July 2010.
  13. "Ministry of Defence pays £100,000 to family of drowned Iraqi teenager". Guardian. 21 July 2011.
  14. "Troops cleared over Iraq drowning". BBC News. 6 June 2006.
  15. "Iraqi, 15, 'drowned after soldiers forced him into canal'". Guardian. 2 May 2006.
  16. Carrell, Severin (1 August 2004). "Hanan's killing has become a symbol of a flawed occupation'". Independent. London.
  17. Robert Fisk (15 December 2004). "Who Killed Baha Mousa?". The Independent. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  18. "British soldier admits war crime". BBC News. 19 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  19. Devika Bhat; Jenny Booth (September 19, 2006). "British soldier is first to admit war crime". Times Online. London. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  20. "UK soldier jailed over Iraq abuse". BBC News. 30 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-30.
  21. "A bloody epitaph to Blair's war". Independent on Sunday. London. 17 June 2007. Archived from the original on June 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
  22. "The Apache Killing Video". IndyMedia. 19 January 2004. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  23. "Experts examine Apache Killing Video". IndyMedia. February 29, 2004. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  24. "Das Erste - Panorama - Militärexperten beschuldigen US-Soldaten des Mordes". (in German). Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  25. " - Video visar hur britter slår irakier". Publicerad 12 February 2006 14:41. Archived from the original on February 12, 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-12. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  26. "UK Troops Beating Iraqi Children". February 13, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  27. "British soldier 'intimidated captured Iraqi insurgents by firing shots into the ground, making death threats and beating them with metal pole'". Daily Mail Online. London. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  28. "EastSouthWestNorth: The Wedding Party at Mogr el-Deeb". Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  29. "Evidence suggests Haditha killings deliberate: Pentagon source". Associated Press. 2 August 2006.
  30. Gowen, Annie; Asaad Majeed (September 2, 2011). "Iraq to reopen probe of deadly 2006 Ishaqi raid". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  31. Press, KRISTIN M. HALL,Associated. "Jury reviews records for soldier's sentencing". Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  32. Bender, Bryan (June 20, 2006). "Army says 3 soldiers shot 3 Iraqis execution-style". The Boston Globe.
  33. "WALID YUNIS AHMAD: CHARGED AFTER 11 YEARS OF UNLAWFUL DETENTION". Amnesty International. March 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  34. "Iraq - Events of 2015". Human Rights Watch. January 1, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  39. AMNESTY We had nowhere else to go Syria: 'We had nowhere to go' - Forced displacement and demolitions in Northern Syria By Amnesty International, 13 October 2015, Index number: MDE 24/2503/2015
  40. Iraq: Kurdistan Regional Government must rein in armed political party militias and investigate killings during protests By Amnesty International, 21 October 2015, Index number: MDE 14/2711/2015
  48. The Legacy of Iraq by Benjamin Isakhan Edinburgh University Press.
  49. Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise , Liam Anderson, Gareth Stansfield University of Pennsylvania Press, 123-126
  50. "BBC NEWS | Middle East | Warnings of Iraq refugee crisis". London: Last Updated:. Retrieved 2008-10-05. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  51. Speaker: Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary, U.S. Department of DefensePresider: Kenneth I. Chenault, Chairman, American Express Company. "New Realities in the Media Age: A Conversation with Donald Rumsfeld [Rush Transcript; Federal News Service, Inc.] - Council on Foreign Relations". Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  52. " | This article is no longer available online". Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  53. Paley, Amit R. (December 29, 2008). "For Kurdish Girls, a Painful Ancient Ritual: The Widespread Practice of Female Circumcision in Iraq's North Highlights The Plight of Women in a Region Often Seen as More Socially Progressive". Washington Post Foreign Service. p. A09.
  54. "At a Crossroads". 22 February 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2016.

External links

General human rights


Death Squads

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