Human rights in Rojava

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

Rojava is a de facto autonomous region of Syria that emerged from 2012 onwards during the Syrian Civil War and in particular the Rojava conflict. Rojava is formed of most of al-Hasakah Governorate and the northern parts of Al-Raqqah Governorate and Aleppo Governorate. On 16 March 2016, the de facto administration of Rojava declared the establishment of a federal system of government as the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava. Rojavan government and society are polyethnic.[1]

Historic background: The Baathist governments of Syria

Baath party chairman and President of Syria Hafez al-Assad and his top officials in 1971 (From left to right: Parliament Speaker Ahmad al-Khatib, President Hafez al-Assad, Deputy Secretary-General of the Baath Party Abdullah al-Ahmar, Defense Minister Mustapha Tlass)

General human rights situation

The situation for human rights in Syria has been considered exceptionally poor among international observers for generations. At the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, Syria's human rights situation remained among the worst in the world.[2][3] No improvement could be observed since Bashar al-Assad in 2000 took over the rule from his father Hafez al-Assad, who had acquired power by a coup in 1970.[4] The Middle East director at Human Rights Watch (HRW) concluded that "whether Assad wanted to be a reformer but was hampered by an entrenched old guard or has been just another Arab ruler unwilling to listen to criticism, the outcome for Syria's people is the same: no freedom, no rights. Assad's record after 10 years is that he has done virtually nothing to improve his country's human rights record."[4]

Particularly dire was the situation with respect to political rights. Many of the contemporary politicians of Rojava had in the past been political prisoners in Syria.

One area of the Baathist governments advancing human rights in the Rojava region had been one aspect of social and economic rights, namely by agrarian reform dissolving to some degree quasi-feudal structures built on large land ownership in both traditional Arab bedouin and traditional Kurdish society.[5]

Policy of Arabization against Kurds in Northern Syria

The ethnically diverse Rojava region suffered particularly grave human rights violations, because all governments since the independence of Syria in 1946, but in particular the Baath-governments since 1963, pursued a most brutal policy of Arabization.[6] In his report for the 12th session of the UN Human Rights Council titled Persecution and Discrimination against Kurdish Citizens in Syria, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights held:[7]

Successive Syrian governments continued to adopt a policy of ethnic discrimination and national persecution against Kurds, completely depriving them of their national, democratic and human rights — an integral part of human existence. The government imposed ethnically-based programs, regulations and exclusionary measures on various aspects of Kurds’ lives — political, economic, social and cultural.

Depriving ethnic Kurdish citizens of their citizenship

There have been various instances of the Syrian government denying citizenship to ethnic Kurds on the pretext that they have fled to Syria after the failure of Sheikh Said rebellion during the French Mandate of Syria.[8] The largest of these instances was a consequence of a census in 1962, which was conducted for exactly this purpose. 120,000 ethnic Kurdish citizens saw their citizenship arbitrarily taken away and becoming "stateless".[5][6][9] The status was passed to the children of a "stateless" Kurdish father.[6] In 2010, Human Rights Watch (HRW) estimated the number of such "stateless" ethnic Kurdish citizens of Syria at 300,000.[2]

With losing their citizenship, the citizens concerned comprehensively lost their rights under the law.[7][10] In its 1996 report Syria: The silenced Kurds, HRW described the consequences as "they are not permitted to own land, housing or businesses. They cannot be employed at government agencies and state-owned enterprises, and cannot practice as doctors or engineers. They are not eligible for food subsidies or admission to public hospitals. They may not legally marry Syrian citizens" and "they are not issued passports or other travel documents, and thus may not legally leave or return to Syria."[6]

Suppressing Kurdish language and culture

The Kurdish language was not officially recognized, it had no place in public schools and was outlawed at the workplace.[5][6][7] According to Syria's Kurds: History, Politics and Society by Dr. Jordi Tejel, "with the increase in literate children in the Kurdish regions, a tight surveillance system was established there, following the example of the Turks, by means of 'spies,' to stop the children from speaking Kurdish among themselves. Children discovered in flagrant 'defiance' could be physically punished."[5] While other ethnic minorities in Syria like Armenians, Circassians and Assyrians were permitted to open private schools for the education of their children, Kurds were not.[6]

Children as well as businesses could not be given Kurdish names.[6][7] Books, music, videos and other material could not be published in Kurdish language.[5][6] Expressions of Kurdish identity like songs and folk dances were outlawed[5][7] and frequently prosecuted under a purpose-built criminal law against "weakening national sentiment".[2] Celebrating the Nowruz holiday was often constrained.[5][6]

Discrimination against ethnic Kurdish citizens

Ethnic Kurdish citizens of Syria, no matter if deprived of citizenship or not, were subject to discrimination under the law regarding the right to own real estate.[6][7] Ethnic Kurdish students and employees were frequently expelled from government institutions without any reason other than their ethnicity apparent or given.[6][7] In particular among teacher training institutions, such expulsion because of Kurdish ethnicity was the rule.[6]

The religion of Yezidis, a Kurdish-speaking ethnoreligious group estimated at 70,000 in Syria, was not recognized by the state. Thus Yezidis were not taught their own religion in public schools, but were forced to submit to teachings of Islam.[7] In personal status matters, they could not resort to civil courts, but were also denied religious courts of their own.[7]

Confiscation of Kurdish land and settlement by Arabs

In 1973 the Syrian authorities confiscated 750 square kilometers of fertile agricultural land in Al-Hasakah Governorate, which were owned and cultivated by tens of thousands of Kurdish citizens, and gave it to Arab families brought in from other provinces.[7][9] In 2007 in another such scheme in Al-Hasakah governate, 6,000 square kilometers around Al-Malikiyah were granted to Arab families, while tens of thousands of Kurdish inhabitants of the villages concerned were evicted.[7] These and other expropriations of ethnic Kurdish citizens followed a deliberate masterplan, called "Arab Belt initiative", attempting to depopulate the ressource-rich Jazeera of its ethnic Kurdish inhabitants and settle ethnic Arabs there.[6]

Human rights issues with Syrian Civil War armed forces in the region

Syrian Government

At the dawn of the Syrian Civil War, media reported that Syria President Assad had decreed to grant Syrian citizenship to an estimated 220,000 of the estimated 300,000 ethnic Kurdish de facto citizens of Syria who were "stateless" as a consequence of the 1962 census.[11]

After the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, the government forces withdrew from most of the Rojava region in 2012, leaving control to local militias, notable exceptions until today being the airport and the area south of Al-Qamishli and the city center of as well as a military base close to Al-Hasakah. Thus while all issues associated with the Syrian Baathist government - its human rights record considered "among the worst" in the world by Human rights Watch[12][13] - persisted within these small areas, their extent was limited. However, during the Qamishli clashes of April 2016, Syrian Army artillery resorted to indiscriminate shelling of civilian neighbourhoods in the city, causing destruction and injury and death of civilians.

In an August 2016 report, Anmesty International claimed that nearly 18,000 people have died in government prisons in Syria since the beginning of the uprising in 2011,[14] a figure that includes deaths in the prisons of government enclaves in Rojava, namely in the prisons of Al-Hasakah until the YPG overtake capture (and subsequent closure) of the juvenile prison from ISIL during the Battle of Hasakah throughout the summer of 2015, and the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) overtake of the central prison (and subsequent closure) from the Government in Battle of al-Hasakah in August 2016, as well as the prison of Al-Qamishli until its overtake by the SDF during the Qamishli clashes (and subsequent closure) in April 2016.

Syrian opposition militias

Most opposition militias — outside of the Rojava-associated Syrian Democratic Forces umbrella — are not secular but follow Islamist ideologies,[15][16] causing the respective human rights issues in areas under their control. In addition, there often is an attitude of chauvinist discrimination against ethnicities other than Arab among such militias and their political arms.[17][18]

A report by the UN Human Rights Council alleged that since July 2013, Al-Nusra Front, at times in coordination with other armed groups, carried out a series of killings of Kurdish civilians in Al Youssoufiyah, Qamishli and Al-Asadia in Al-Hasakah Governorate, Rojava's Jazira Canton. During a raid by groups under the flag of the FSA, ISIL, the Islamic Front and Al-Nusra battalions, fighters allegedly killed a Kurdish Yazidi man in Al-Asadia who refused to convert to Islam.[19]

A recurring human rights issue has been the indiscriminate shelling of civilian population centers under Rojava control by Syrian opposition militias (both from within and outside of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces umbrella). Such shelling has multiple times caused destruction of property and injury and death of civilians in Afrin Canton, and particularly severe destruction of property and injury and death of civilians in the Rojava-controlled Sheikh Maqsood neighborhood of Aleppo.[20][21][22][23][24] In May 2016, Amnesty International's regional director suggested that the attacks on Sheikh Maqsood constitute "war crimes".[25] In mid-June 2016 the US-supported Syrian Democratic Forces and Russia accused the opposition militias of causing the death of over 40 civilians in the month, and an accumulated 1,000 civilian deaths, through indiscriminate shelling of Sheikh Maqsood.[26]

After their capture of the town of Jarabulus from ISIL in September 2016, opposition militias of the FSA labeled Sultan Murad Division published pictures of themselves torturing four YPG members prisoners of war, who were captured by the rebel group while, according to YPG claims, trying to evacuate civilians.[27]

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Flag of the Islamic State

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has in 2014 and 2015 held much and at times most of the territory under the concept of Rojava. The state of human rights in such ISIL-controlled territories has been criticised by many political, religious and other organisations and individuals. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has stated that ISIL "seeks to subjugate civilians under its control and dominate every aspect of their lives through terror, indoctrination, and the provision of services to those who obey".[28] The ISIL barbarism hit Rojava in a particular way, for three reasons: First there are significant non-Muslim population groups (Assyrians, Yazidis), second the decidedly secular and women empowering character of Rojava made it a textbook antagonist for ISIL, third due to the geographical proximity to the ISIL heartland as well as the vigor and success of its self-defence militias, Rojava became to be considered its special nemesis by ISIL.

In June 2014, after the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) captured the border city of Tell Abyad, ISIL fighters made an announcement from the minarets of the local mosques that all Kurds had to leave Tell Abyad on or else be killed. Thousands of civilians, including Turkmen and Arab families fled on 21 July.[29][30] Its fighters systematically looted and destroyed the property of Kurds, and in some cases, resettled displaced Arab Sunni families from the Qalamoun area (Rif Damascus), Dayr Az-Zawr and Ar-Raqqah in abandoned Kurdish homes.[29]

On 23 February 2015, in response to a major Kurdish offensive in the Al-Hasakah Governorate, ISIL abducted 150 Assyrians from villages near Tell Tamer in northeastern Syria, after launching a large offensive in the region.[31][32] According to US diplomat Alberto M. Fernandez, of the 232 of the Assyrians kidnapped in the ISIS attack on the Assyrian Christian farming villages on the banks of the Khabur River in Northeast Syria, 51 were children and 84 women. "Most of them remain in captivity with one account claiming that ISIS is demanding $22 million (or roughly $100,000 per person) for their release."[33] On 8 October, ISIL released a video showing three of the Assyrian men kidnapped in Khabur being executed. It was reported that 202 of the 253 kidnapped Assyrians were still in captivity, each one with a demanded ransom of $100,000.[34]

In June 2015 at least 220 Kurdish civilians were massacred in mass killings by ISIL fighters[35][36] in their homes or killed by the group's rockets or snipers by an attack on the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobani on the Turkish border, which is one of the worst massacres carried out by ISIS in Syria. Women and children were among the bodies found inside houses and on the streets of Kobane. Also in a nearby village, IS reportedly shot dead at least 20 civilians, including women and children. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that ISIS fired at everything that moved.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43]

During the June 2016 Manbij offensive with global media attention, reports on ISIL human rights violations from areas captured by the Syrian Democratic Forces drew a picture of ISIL tyranny in the area (much of which had briefly been under Rojava control in 2013), in particular violating elementary human rights of women: “They had imprisoned women at home. If our children went outdoors we were not able to bring them back. If we did not cover our face while going outside, we would be lashed."[44] "If someone tried to criticise their behaviour, they would sew his mouth shut for a while, or they would cut his head off and hang him up for everyone to see," another witness who had lived under ISIS rule told AFP. "They burned all of our schoolbooks and they banned studying. They started forcing us to take religious courses that taught us that Kurds, teachers, and other religious scholars are all infidels," a student reported.[45] On 13 June it was reported that before their withdrawal from the countryside of Manbij, ISIS jihadis broke into civilians’ houses in dozens of villages, killing the men and raping the women.[46]

In July 2016, ISIL militants undertook two raids against villages in southern Kobani Canton, and while the second was foiled by YPG forces from its outset,[47] the first had succeeded in temporarily capturing a village of mainly ethnic Kurdish inhabitants, slaughtering dozens of women and children with knives.[48] An ISIL terror bombing in Qamishli in late July claimed more than 50 civilian lives.[49] In October 2016, an ISIL suicide terror bombing at a Kurdish wedding in Hasakah took dozens of lives.[50]

Rojava-associated militias

The People's Protection Units (YPG) was the most important militia of Kurdish communities and cantons, assuming control of territory vacated by Syrian government forces, capturing territory from ISIL and to a lesser degree from Syrian opposition militias. The YPG initially was almost exclusively ethnic Kurdish, later opened itself and increasingly recruited citizens of other ethnicities (Arabs, Turkmen) as well as international volunteers. Like all militias in the context of the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava, the YPG since October 2015 operate under the umbrella of the Syrian Democratic Forces.

Satellite images of the village of Husseiniya in 2014 and 2015, allegedly leveled by the YPG.[51]

During the Syrian Civil War, YPG members have been accused of human rights violations against Kurdish, Arab and Turkmen communities. The allegations include kidnappings of suspected persons,[52] torture,[52][53] ethnic cleansing,[54][55] and expulsion.[52] In May 2015, local sources accused the YPG of killing 20 civilians, including two children, five women and a pharmacist in the village of Abo Shakhat and the destruction of several villages in Tal Tamer and Ras al- Ayn, saying the YPG claimed that the owners were ISIL supporters.[56] In an October 2015 report, Amnesty International alleged cases of forced displacement, demolition of homes, and the seizure and destruction of property.[51][57] According to Amnesty International, some displaced people said that the YPG has targeted their villages on the accusation of supporting ISIS; some villagers revealed the existence of a small minority that might have sympathized with the group.[51][58] The village of Husseiniya was completely razed to the ground leaving 14 out of 225 houses standing.[51] "In some cases, entire villages have been demolished, apparently in retaliation for the perceived support of their Arab or Turkmen residents for the group that calls itself the Islamic State (IS) or other non-state armed groups." Syrian writer and analyst Shams al-Din al-Kilani claimed that the YPG is attacking the Arab existence in particular with the purpose of clearing the way toward the establishment of a Kurdish ethnic state.[59]

The YPG rejected the charges[60] and released a report denying the accusations made in the Amnesty report, criticizing the methodology used and the validity of the testimonies given by interviewees.[61] YPG spokesman Redur Xelil said: "Very simply, this is a false allegation,"[62] and PYD co-chairman Salih Muslim strictly denied the Amnesty International claims.[58] A Syrian National Council (SNC) member who headed an SNC delegation to investigate allegations said there was no evidence of Arabs or Turkmen having been displaced in Tell Abyad.[63] In a June 2015 interview by Society for Threatened Peoples with the head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdulrahman said that all "ethnic cleansing" allegations against YPG were nonsense, suggesting that these were propaganda of Turkish and Syrian National Congress origin, because of their hostility towards Kurds.[64] Michael M. Gunter in October 2015 called the Amnesty report "very partial and distorted", adding that it would "not do justice to the PYD's efforts to protect not only Kurds but also Arabs against the depredations of ISIS (...) The PYD and its YPG fighting units have gone out of their way not to kill or displace the population."[65]

In response to allegations of human rights violation from within its ranks, the YPG in September 2015 asked for and received human rights training from Geneva Call and other international organizations for its forces.[66] Rovaja's de facto foreign minister Sinam Mohamed in June 2016 acknowledged that there have been reports of some abuses by YPG forces and that she believes this does happen from time to time, however pointed to the human rights training that YPG forces since receive.[67]

In June 2015 Human Rights Watch criticized the YPG militias for accepting minors for service,[52] picking up multiple earlier reports of teenage fighters serving in the YPG military. After HRW picked up that point of criticism, the YPG in July pledged publicly to demobilize all fighters under 18 within a month.[68]


Turkey is hostile towards Rojava, because it fears that the polyethnic and secular character of Rojava would encourage resistance against the longstanding policy of Turkification within Turkey and because it considers the existence of Rojava an impediment to its recent Sunni Islamist oriented foreign policies.[69][70] Next to giving material support to parties in the Syrian Civil War - to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)[71][72][73] as well as to other Islamist rebel groups[69][74] - who would fight Rojava, Turkey has across the border shelled population centers in Rojava, causing property damage but also injury and death of civilians.[24][75][76] Turkey has also been accused of actively supporting the indiscriminate shelling of civilian population centers under Rojava control by opposition militias, causing 1,000 civilian deaths in the Sheikh Maqsood neighbourhood of Aleppo alone.[26]

Frequently accusations are made from local sources as well as Rojava authorities against Tukish border guards shooting to kill at civilians at the border.[77] In one of the most prominent of such accusations, a report from ANF on 28 September 2016 alleged that "Turkish soldiers kill 17 civilians on Rojava border in two days",[78] building on a report of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights from the previous day of 12 civilians killed.[79] Concerning one of the events in these two days, SANA reported that "local sources told SANA reporter in Hasaka that the Turkish army opened fire on a number of civilians at Kahyla village which is located between the cities of Ras al-Ayn and Tal Abyad, killing nine civilians including children, and injuring others. Some of the injured persons, who were rushed to Ras al-Ayn city for treatment, confirmed that Turkish soldiers fired indiscriminately at them."[80]

In October 2016, the co-chairman of Rojava's leading Democratic Union Party (PYD), Salih Muslim, has accused Turkey of ethnic cleansing in the border area between Azaz and Jarabulus which at the time is occupied by Turkish-backed opposition rebels, saying it has driven thousands of Kurds from their land in villages near the border.[81]

Human rights under the Rojava Federation Government

The socio-political transformations of the "Rojava Revolution" with their advancing an ambitious human rights agenda have inspired much attention in international media, both in mainstream media[82][83][84][85] and in dedicated progressive leftist media.[86][87][88][89][90]

Salih Muslim, co-chairman of Rojava's leading Democratic Union Party (PYD) with Ulla Jelpke at Rosa Luxemburg Foundation in Berlin

Constitutional order

According to the 2014 Constitution of Rojava,[91][92][93][94] the administration of the de facto autonomous region is committed to international law regarding human rights, explicitly incorporating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as other internationally recognized human rights conventions. It is extraordinary for the Middle East in its explicit affirmation of minority rights and gender equality and a form of direct democracy known as Democratic Confederalism. The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, which limits the concept of human rights and to which Syria is a signatory state, does not apply in Rojava. In July 2016, a draft for an updated constitution was presented, taking up the general progressive and democratic confereralist principles of the 2014 constitution, mentioning all ethnic groups living in Rojava, addressing their cultural, political and linguistic rights.[95]

The new justice systems in Rojava reflects the revolutionary concept of Democratic Confederalism. At the local level, citizens create Peace and Consensus Committees, which make group decisions on minor criminal cases and disputes as well as in separate committees resolve issues of specific concern to women's rights like domestic violence and marriage. At the regional level, citizens (who are not required to be trained jurists) are elected by the regional People's Councils to serve on seven-member People's Courts. At the next level are four Appeals Courts, composed of trained jurists. The court of last resort is the Regional Court, which serves Rojava as a whole. Distinct and separate from this system, the Constitutional Court renders decisions on compatibility of acts of government and legal proceedings with the constitution of Rojava (called the Social Contract).[96]

The civil laws of Syria are valid in Rojava, as far as they do not conflict with the Constitution of Rojava. One notable example for amendment is personal status law, which in Syria is still based on Sharia[97] and applied by Sharia Courts,[98] where strictly secular Rojava proclaims absolute equality of women under the law and a ban on forced marriage as well as polygamy was introduced,[99] while underage marriage was outlawed as well.[100] For the first time in Syrian history, civil marriage is being allowed and promoted, a significant move towards a secular open society and intermarriage between people of different religious backgrounds.[101]

In particular: Criminal law and police

A new criminal justice approach has been implemented that emphasizes restoration over retribution.[102] The death penalty has been abolished.[96] Prisons are housing mostly those charged with terrorist activity related to ISIL and other extremist groups.[103] A September 2015 report of Amnesty International noted that 400 people were incarcerated,[104] which based on a population of 4,6 million makes an imprisonment rate of 8.7 people per 100,000, compared to 60.0 people per 100,000 in Syria as a whole, and the second lowest rate in the world after San Marino.[105] However, the report also noted some deficiencies in due process.[104]

2015 report on prisons in Rojava by Voice of America

Rojava has pursued a policy of open access to international media as well as international human rights organisations. Human Rights Watch after a visit in early 2014 reported "arbitrary arrests, due process violations, and failed to address unsolved killings and disappearances" and made recommendations for government improvement.[52] The report documented cases of "arbitrary arrests" and "unfair trials" that had occurred since the beginning of the revolution in 2012.[53] Rojava officials claimed that the few proven instances of misconduct were isolated incidents and not tolerated.[52] In its separate September 2015 report, Amnesty International criticised arbitrary long term detainment followed by unfair trials, in some cases lasting minutes with no lawyers for the defendants accused of involvement with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[104] However, Fred Abrahams, special advisor to HRW who visited Rojava and drafted the report, noted that the Rojava institutions have taken solid steps to addressing the problems and had been receptive to criticism. He notes that they were currently in the process of political transitioning from the Syrian government, training a new police force and creating a new legal system.[106]

On 22 September 2016 the security forces of Rojava prevented Rudaw’s journalist Rengin Shero, coming from Iraqi Kurdistan, from visiting her family in Jazira canton. Rengin accused the forces of tearing her clothes and using violence against her, even though they knew she was pregnant.[107]


Due to the then militarily critical situation caused by the expansion of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the Rojava cantons from July 2014 introduced militia conscription duty in its Self-Defense Forces (HXP).[108] Enforcing conscription has been called a human rights violation from the perspective of those who consider the Rojava institutions illegitimate.[109]

Social and educational aspects of human rights development

Women's rights

The women center in Al-Muabbada (Kurdish: Girkê Legê) offers services to survivors of domestic violence, sexual assault and other forms of harm.
Further information: Jineology
See also: Kongreya Star

The legal efforts to reduce cases of underage marriage, polygamy and honor killings are underpinned by comprehensive public awareness campaigns.[110] In every town and village, a women's house is established. These are community centers run by women, providing services to survivors of domestic violence, sexual assault and other forms of harm. These services include counseling, family mediation, legal support, and coordinating safe houses for women and children.[111] Classes on economic independence and social empowerment programs are also held at women's houses.[112]

All administrative organs in Rojava are required to have male and female co-chairs, and forty percent of the members of any governing body in Rojava must be female.[113] An estimated 25 percent of the Asayish police force of the Rojava cantons are women, and joining the Asayish is described in international media as a huge act of personal and societal liberation from an extremely patriarchical background, for ethnic Kurdish and ethnic Arab women alike.[114]

The political agenda of "trying to break the honor-based religious and tribal rules that confine women" is controversial in concervative quarters of society.[100]

Ethnic minority rights

Rojava "opposes zero-sum notions of ethnic and national rights".[113] It has comprehensive affirmative action to give power to minority groups and ethnicities as a guiding principle.

While under the adminisitration of the Ba'ath Party school education consisted of only Arabic language public schools, supplemented by Assyrian private confessional schools,[115] the Rojava administration in 2015 (leaving the private schools untouched) introduced for public schools primary education in native language either Kurdish or Arabic and secondary education mandatory bilingual in Kurdish and Arabic for public schools (with English as a third language).[116][117][118] The Assyrian community in Jazira Canton in August 2016 founded the Ourhi Centre in the city of Qamishli, to educate teachers in order to make the Syriac-Aramaic an additional language to be taught in public schools,[119][120] which then started with the 2016/17 academic year.[121] With that academic year, states the Rojava Education Committee, "three curriculums have replaced the old one, to include teaching in three languages: Kurdish, Arabic and Assyrian."[122]

One issue of contention is the consequence of the Baathist Syrian government's settling of Arab tribal settlers on land in Jazira Canton which was expropriated for the purpose from its previous Kurdish owners in the years 1973 and 2007,[7][9] following a masterplan called "Arab Belt initiative".[6] There are persistent calls to expel the settlers and return the land to their previous Kurdish owners among the Kurdish population of the region, which have led the political leadership of the Rojava Federation to press the Syrian government for a comprehensive solution.[123]

Another issue of contention has been Rojava's law of "ownership by use", under which a real estate owner loses title when he does not make personal use of the property. This has been perceived as a threat in particular among the Assyrian community in Jazira Canton, from where persistent opposition was voiced. Following earlier statements, 16 Assyrian organizations of the region in October 2016 published a statement accusing Rojava's leading Democratic Union Party (PYD) of seizing private property, demographic changing and ethnic cleansing and urging them to uphold human rights by giving up all these.[124][125]

Development of Freedom of Speech and Press

Incorporating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as other internationally recognized human rights conventions, the 2014 Constitution of Rojava guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of the press. As a result, a diverse media landscape has developed in Rojava.[126] However, media often face economic pressures, as demonstrated by the shutting down of news website Welati in May 2016.[127] Political extremism incited by the context of the Syrian Civil war can put media outlets under pressure, the April 2016 threatening and burning down of the premises of Arta FM ("the first, and only, independent radio station staffed and broadcast by Syrians inside Syria") in Amuda by unidentified assailants being the most prominent example.[128]

International media and journalists operate with few restrictions in Rojava, the only region in Syria where they can operate freely.[126] In August 2015, the withdrawal of a press licence for the Rudaw Media Network based in Iraqi Kurdistan has drawn attention.[129]

Development of political participation rights

The political model of Rojava governance is based on the idea of direct democracy in the self-governance of municipal communities, a philosophy and modus which finds its form in particular in municipal citizens' assemblies.[82]

In Rojava, elements of a mutual multi-party democracy have developed, and a large number of political parties and party alliances exist, with broadly free and fair municipal elections having been held in March 2015. Issues of the system from a political participation rights perspective concern the high level of control which the leading Movement for a Democratic Society (TEV-DEM) alliance, itself dominated by the Democratic Union Party, exercise on politics and policy, in particular on the federal level.[130][131]

Refugee issues

Hosting inbound refugees

During the Syrian Civil War, Rojava’s population has more than doubled to about 4.6 million, among the newcomers being Syrians of all ethnicities who have fled from violence taking place in other parts of Syria.[132] Many ethnic Arab citizens from Iraq have found a safe haven in Rojava as well.[133][134] In an October 2016 report from the region, U.S. academic Si Sheppard described about Iraqi refugees fleeing the Battle of Mosul that "the lucky ones have found an unlikely haven in neighboring Syria, a place hardly synonymous with physical well-being in the popular imagination. But there is one pocket of the country where the desperate and dispossessed are still welcome. This is Rojava, where the Kurds have established a relative oasis of security and opportunity in a desert of anarchy and oppression."[135]

In Afrin Canton with a population of 172,095 according to the 2004 Syrian census alone, according to a June 2016 estimate from the International Middle East Peace Research Center about 316,000 displaced Syrians of Kurdish, Arab and Turkmen ethnicity have found a safe haven.[136]

See also


  1. "A Small Key Can Open A Large Door". Combustion Books. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 "HRW World Report 2010". Human Rights Watch. 2010.
  3. "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report". Reuters. 2011-01-24.
  4. 1 2 "Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says". The Guardian. London. 2010-07-16.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tejel, Jordi; Welle, Jane (2009). Syria's kurds history, politics and society (PDF) (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. pp. X–X. ISBN 0-203-89211-9.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "SYRIA: The Silenced Kurds; Vol. 8, No. 4(E)". Human Rights Watch. 1996.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Persecution and Discrimination against Kurdish Citizens in Syria, Report for the 12th session of the UN Human Rights Council" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2009.
  8. Chatty, Dawn, 2010. Displacement and Dispossession in the Modern Middle East. Cambridge University Press. pp. 230-231.
  9. 1 2 3 "A murder stirs Kurds in Syria". The Christian Science Monitor.
  10. Uzay Bulut. "Turkey Prefers Islamic State to Kurdish State". Gatestone Institute.
  11. "Stateless Kurds in Syria granted citizenship". CNN. 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  12. "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report". Reuters. 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  13. "Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says". The Guardian. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  14. "Nearly 18,000 have died in Syria state jails, says Amnesty". BBC. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
  15. "Syria: nearly half rebel fighters are jihadists or hardline Islamists, says IHS Jane's report". The Telegraph. 2013-09-15. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  16. "Guide to the Syrian rebels". BBC. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  17. "Fights break out at Syria opposition meet; Kurds walk out in protest over nationality". Al-Arabiya. 2012-07-03. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  18. "Syrian Kurds demand removal of opposition representative in Geneva for chauvinist anti-Kurdish statements". Ara News. 2016-03-30. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  19. "Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic: Twenty-fifth session". UN Human Rights Council. 2014-02-12.
  20. "Syrian Islamist rebels renew chemical attack on Kurdish district in Aleppo". Ara News. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  21. "Syrian rebels massacre Kurdish civilians in Aleppo". Ara News. 2016-04-06. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  22. "Rebels strike Kurdish neighborhood in Aleppo with chemical gas". Al-Masdar News. 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  23. "Aleppo district shelled with chemical gas – local journalist". RT. 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  24. 1 2 "About 65 casualties and injuries in shelling and launching explosive cylinders on Sheikh Maqsood neighborhood". SOHR. 2016-04-16. Retrieved 2016-06-11.
  25. "Amnesty: Attacks on Aleppo's Kurdish section amount to 'war crimes'". Rudaw. 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  26. 1 2 "Russia shows support to Kurdish-led SDF north Syria". ARA News. 2016-06-14. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
  27. "YPG holds Turkey-backed rebels accountable for torturing Kurdish fighters". ARA News. 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-13.
  28. "Rule of Terror: Living under ISIS in Syria" (PDF). United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  29. 1 2 "Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic: Twenty-seventh session". UN Human Rights Council.
  30. "Selected testimonies from victims of the Syrian conflict: Twenty-seventh session" (PDF). UN Human Rights Council.
  31. Suleiman Al-Khalidi; Oliver Holmes (23 February 2015). Tom Heneghan, ed. "Islamic State in Syria abducts at least 150 Christians". Reuters. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  32. "Islamic State 'abducts dozens of Christians in Syria'". BBC. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  33. Fernandez, Alberto M. (June 16, 2015). "The "Sayfo" Continues Responding to Global Christian Persecution". Berkeley Center Cornerstone. Georgetown University Religious Freedom Project. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  34. "'Isis appears to have killed three Christian hostages in Syria'". The Guardian. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  35. "Syrian Kurds say thwart big Islamic State attack on border town". Reuters, Yahoo News.
  36. "HRW: ISIS murdered 233 civilians in Kobanê since June". Dicle News Agency.
  37. "Syria crisis: Islamic State 'kills 120 civilians' in Kobane". BBC News.
  38. "Islamic State kills at least 145 civilians in Syria's Kobani". Reuters.
  39. "ISIS 'kills at least 146 civilians' in Kobane, activists say". Yahoo News.
  40. "Mass Killings by ISIS Fighters in Syrian Kurdish Town". The New York Times.
  41. "Isis in Kobani: Why we ignore the worst of the massacres". The Independent.
  42. "Syria Islamic State: Kurds 'claim control over Kobane'". BBC News.
  43. "Kurdish fighters retake Syria's Kobani". The Daily Mail.
  44. "Manbij escapees report endless restrictions under ISIS". Rudaw. 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
  45. "'New life' for Syrians returning to IS-free villages". AFP (via GlobalPost). 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
  46. "Islamic State jihadis raped dozens of women in Syrian town: activists". ARA News. 2016-06-13. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  47. "Kurdish ambush kills 35 jihadis in Kobane". ARA News. 2016-07-20. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  48. "ISIS extremists slaughter dozens of Kurdish civilians north Syria". ARA News. 2016-07-17. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  49. "Kurds blame Syrian regime for facilitating ISIS attacks in Qamishli". ARA News. 2016-07-28. Retrieved 2016-07-28.
  50. "Kurdish wedding attacked by ISIS in Syria's Hasakah, dozens killed". ARA News. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-04.
  51. 1 2 3 4 "Syria".
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Syria: Abuses in Kurdish-run Enclaves". Human Rights Watch. 2014-06-18.
  53. 1 2 "Under Kurdish Rule: Abuses in PYD-run Enclaves of Syria". Human Rights Watch.
  54. "Thousands of Arabs driven out by Kurds' ethnic cleansing". The Times. 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  56. "YPG accused of killing Arab civilians, burning and bulldozing houses in Arab villages.". SOHR. 2015.
  57. "US-Backed Forces in Syria Accused of Human Rights Violations". Mother Jones. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  58. 1 2 "Syria Kurds 'razing villages seized from IS' - Amnesty". BBC News.
  59. "حقيقة التطهير العرقي لعرب الحسكة بأيدي مليشيات كردية". Al-Jazeera.
  60. "Kurdish Fighters Seize Large Parts of IS Border Stronghold". The New York Times.
  61. "YPG responds to Amnesty International report: It is contradictory". ANHA Hawar News Agency. 2015-10-21. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  62. "Amnesty accuses US-backed Syrian Kurdish group of demolishing homes". The Jerusalem Post -
  63. "'Kurds liberated Tel Abyad, no displacement against Arabs': Syrian opposition figure". ARANEWS. June 26, 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  64. "Von 'ethnischen Säuberungen' in Til Abyad gegen die Araber oder Turkmenen kann keine Rede sein.", Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker, 26. Juni 2015
  65. "Syria: Kurdish Forces Violating Child Soldier Ban Despite Promises, Children Still Fight". Hurriyet Daily News. 2015-10-24. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  66. Perry, Tom; Malla, Naline (10 September 2015). "Western states train Kurdish force in Syria, force's leader says". Reuters. Amnesty International this month faulted the Kurdish administration for arbitrary detentions and unfair trials.... [Ciwan] Ibrahim said ... efforts were underway to improve its human rights record.... The Geneva Call ... promotes good treatment of civilians in war zones...
  67. "This Former Schoolteacher Is Building a U.S. Alliance With Syria's Kurds". Bloomberg. 2016-06-10. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  68. "Syria: Kurdish Forces Violating Child Soldier Ban Despite Promises, Children Still Fight". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  69. 1 2 "How Can Turkey Overcome Its Foreign Policy Mess?". Lobolog (Graham E. Fuller). 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  70. "Between Ankara and Rojava". Foreign Affairs. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  71. "Research Paper: ISIS-Turkey Links". Huffington Post (Columbia University Institute for the Study of Human Rights). 2014-09-11. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  72. "Senior Western official: Links between Turkey and ISIS are now 'undeniable'". Businessinsider. 2015-07-28. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  73. "Turkey's Double Game with ISIS". Middle East Quarterly. Summer 2015. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  74. "The Rise of Jaysh al-Fateh in Northern Syria". Jamestown Foundation. 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  75. "Turkey accused of shelling Kurdish-held village in Syria". The Guardian. 2015-07-27. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  76. "Turkey strikes Kurdish city of Afrin northern Syria, civilian casualties reported". Ara News. 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  77. "Turkish border guards kill two civilians near Syria's Tel Abyad". ARA News. 2016-09-02. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  78. "Turkish soldiers kill 17 civilians on Rojava border in two days". ANF. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  79. "Syria: NGO - Turkish border guards kill 12 civilians". ANSAmed. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  80. "Erdogan's forces kill nine Syrian civilians near borders in Hasaka countryside". SANA. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  81. "Syrian Kurds say fear Turkish 'stab in back' in Islamic State battle". Reuters. 25 October 2016.
  82. 1 2 "A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS' Backyard". New York Times. 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  83. "A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS' Backyard". New York Times. 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  84. "Power to the people: a Syrian experiment in democracy". Financial Times. 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  85. "Why is the world ignoring the revolutionary Kurds in Syria?". The Guardian. 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  86. "Regaining hope in Rojava". Slate. 2016-06-06. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  87. "American Leftists Need to Pay More Attention to Rojava". Slate. 2015-11-25. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  88. "The Revolution in Rojava". Dissent. 2015-04-22. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  89. "The Rojava revolution". OpenDemocracy. 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  90. "Statement from the Academic Delegation to Rojava". New Compass. 2015-01-15. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  91. Der Gesellschaftsvertrag von Rojava
  92. "Charter of the social contract in Rojava (Syria)". Kurdish Institute of Brussels.
  93. "Das Modell Rojava - Telepolis". 12 October 2014.
  94. "The Constitution of the Rojava Cantons". Personal Website of Mutlu Civiroglu.
  95. "Syrian Kurds declare Qamishli as capital for the new federal system". ARA news. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  96. 1 2 "The New Justice System in Rojava". 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
  97. "Syria". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 13. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  98. "Islamic Family Law: Syria (Syrian Arab Republic)". Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  99. "Kurdish 'Angelina Jolie' devalued by media hype". BBC. 2016-09-12. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
  100. 1 2 "Syrian Kurds tackle conscription, underage marriages and polygamy". ARA News. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  101. "Syria Kurds challenging traditions, promote civil marriage". ARA News. 2016-02-20. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
  102. "Power to the people: a Syrian experiment in democracy". Financial Times. 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
  103. "Syrian Kurds Get Outside Help to Manage Prisons". Voice of America. 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
  104. 1 2 3 "Syria: Arbitrary detentions and blatantly unfair trials mar PYD fight against terrorism". Amnesty International. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  105. "Highest to Lowest - Prison Population Rate". World Prison Brief.
  106. "Rights Official Speaks of Situation in Rojava, PYD Challenges".
  107. "Rudaw condemns attack on its journalist in Rojava". 25 September 2016.
  108. Rudaw (6 April 2015). "Rojava defense force draws thousands of recruits". Rudaw. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  109. "YPG's Mandatory Military Service Rattles Kurds". 27 August 2014.
  110. "Syrian Kurds give women equal rights, snubbing jihadists". Yahoo News. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  111. Owen, Margaret. "Gender and justice in an emerging nation: My impressions of Rojava, Syrian Kurdistan". Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  112. "Revolution in Rojava transformed the perception of women in the society". Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  113. 1 2 "The Rojava Model". Foreign Affairs. 14 October 2016.
  114. "Syrian women liberated from Isis are joining the police to protect their city". The Independent. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
  115. David Commins; David W. Lesch (2013-12-05) (in German), Scarecrow Press, pp. 239, ISBN 9780810879669,
  116. "Education in Rojava after the revolution". ANF. 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
  117. "After 52-year ban, Syrian Kurds now taught Kurdish in schools". Al-Monitor. 2015-11-06. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
  118. "Rojava schools to re-open with PYD-approved curriculum". Rudaw. 2015-08-29. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
  119. "Syriac Christians revive ancient language despite war". ARA News. 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  120. "The Syriacs are taught their language for the first time". ANHA. 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
  121. "Hassakeh: Syriac Language to Be Taught in PYD-controlled Schools". The Syrian Observer. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  122. "Rojava administration launches new curriculum in Kurdish, Arabic and Assyrian". ARA News. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
  123. "Syria rejects Russian proposal for Kurdish federation". Al-Monitor. 24 October 2016.
  124. "Assyrian leader accuses PYD of monopolizing power in Syria's north". ARA. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  125. "Christian Assyrians: Kurdish Muslims in Syria Imposing Distorted, Pro-Kurd Bible Education". Breitbart News. 27 May 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  126. 1 2 "Syria Country report, Freedom of the Press 2015". Freedom House. 2015. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  127. "In blow to Kurdish independent media, Syrian Kurdish website shuts down". ARA news. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  128. "Syrian Kurdish administration condemns burning of radio ARTA FM office in Amude". ARA news. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  129. Paul Iddon (8 October 2015). "Rojava: Let Rudaw In". Rudaw. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  130. "Rojava at 4: Examining the Experiment in Western Kurdistan" (PDF). London School of Economics, Middle East Centre. August 2016.
  131. Ghadi Sary (September 2016). "Kurdish Self-governance in Syria: Survival and Ambition" (PDF). Chatham House.
  132. "Glavin: In Iraq and Syria, it's too little, too late". Ottawa Citizen. 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2016-07-03.
  133. "Syrian Kurds provide safe haven for thousands of Iraqis fleeing ISIS". ARA News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  134. "Rojava hosts thousands of displaced Iraqi civilians as war on ISIS intensifies". ARA News. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
  135. Si Sheppard (25 October 2016). "What the Syrian Kurds Have Wrought. The radical, unlikely, democratic experiment in northern Syria". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  136. "Will Afrin be the next Kobani?". Al-Monitor. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.